References of "Vandewalle, Pierre"
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See detailProceedings of the third international Conference on African Fish and Fisheries, Cotonoun Bénin, novmeber 2003
Snoeks, Jos; Lalèyè, Philippe; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

Book published by Royal Museum for Central Africa (2007)

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See detailTemporal variability of settlement in Carapidae larvae at Rangiroa atoll
Colleye, Orphal; Brié, Christophe; Malpot, Emmanuel et al

in Environmental Biology of Fishes (2007), 81(3), 277-285

Carapidae (or pearlfish) are eel-like fishes living inside different invertebrates, such as holothurians, sea stars or bivalves. In some Polynesian areas where they live in sympatry, <br />several species ... [more ▼]

Carapidae (or pearlfish) are eel-like fishes living inside different invertebrates, such as holothurians, sea stars or bivalves. In some Polynesian areas where they live in sympatry, <br />several species (Carapus homei, Carapus mourlani, Carapus boraborensis and Encheliophis <br />gracilis) are able to inhabit the same host species. The heterospecific infestation rate is very rare, suggesting that the four species can compete for their hosts. Some differences in <br />settlement period, breeding period and in pelagic larval duration (PLD) could allow better characterisation of the life history of each species. More than 700 larvae were collected during an entire year on the Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia). Each species was identified; their settlement pattern was examined and their PLD was deduced from otolith (sagittae) increments. In the four collected species, the settlement pattern differed: C. homei and C. mourlani settle on the reef during the entire year, and show an asynchronous and diffuse breeding cycle. C. boraborensis and E. gracilis have a shorter settlement period which could be compatible with breeding synchronisation. As most reef fishes, Carapidae larvae mainly settle during moonless nights. Moreover, each species presents some plasticity, allowing it to settle on the reef under suitable conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production mechanism in the clownfish Amphiprion clarkii (Amphiprioninae, Pomacentridae)
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Herrel, Anthony; Mauguit, Quentin et al

in Journal of Morphology (2007), 268(12), 1061

Clownfishes live in social group within sea anemones. They are prolific “singers” that produce a wide variety of sounds, described as “pops” and “chirps”, involved in both reproductive and agonistic ... [more ▼]

Clownfishes live in social group within sea anemones. They are prolific “singers” that produce a wide variety of sounds, described as “pops” and “chirps”, involved in both reproductive and agonistic interactions. Although clownfish sounds were recorded since 1930, the mechanism of sound production has remained unresolved. <br />The sounds used to describe the sonic mechanism were directed towards hetero- and conspecifics that approach their sea anemone host. Sound recordings were synchronized using a high speed video (500 fps) coupled or not with an X-ray system. These systems allowed to quantify the movements of external and internal bones during sound production. Sounds were typically accompanied by rapid (< 30 ms) head movements such as elevation of the skull, lowering of the hyoid bar and the anterior part of the branchial basket, retraction of the pectoral girdle, and finally closing of the mouth. Synchronization of sound pulses with X-ray images indicates that sound is produced when the hyoid apparatus is completely lowered and the mouth closed by a previously unknown mechanism. <br />Dissections of freshly dead specimens reveal an unusual ligament responsible for the rapid mouth closing. This ligament joins the hyoid bar to the internal part of the mandible. Acting as a cord, it forces the mandible to turn around its articulation during the lowering of the anterior part of the branchial basket, forcing the mouth to close. Sounds result from the collision of the jaw teeth, transferring energy to the jaws that are presumably the sound radiator. [less ▲]

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See detailPectoral sound production in Synodontis (Mochokidae): a morphological study
Fabri, Gégory; Mauguit, Quentin; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailSound production mechanism in the clownfish Amphiprion clarkii (Amphiprioninae, Pomacentridae)
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Herrel, Anthony; Mauguit, Quentin et al

Poster (2007)

Clownfishes live in social group within sea anemones. They are prolific “singers” that produce a wide variety of sounds, described as “pops” and “chirps”, involved in both reproductive and agonistic ... [more ▼]

Clownfishes live in social group within sea anemones. They are prolific “singers” that produce a wide variety of sounds, described as “pops” and “chirps”, involved in both reproductive and agonistic interactions. Although clownfish sounds were recorded since 1930, the mechanism of sound production has remained unresolved. The sounds used to describe the sonic mechanism were directed towards hetero- and conspecifics that approach their sea anemone host. Sound recordings were synchronized using a high speed video (500 fps) coupled or not with an X-ray system. These systems allowed to quantify the movements of external and internal bones during sound production. Sounds were typically accompanied by rapid (< 30 ms) head movements such as elevation of the skull, lowering of the hyoid bar and the anterior part of the branchial basket, retraction of the pectoral girdle, and finally closing of the mouth. Synchronization of sound pulses with X-ray images indicates that sound is produced when the hyoid apparatus is completely lowered and the mouth closed by a previously unknown mechanism. Dissections of freshly dead specimens reveal an unusual ligament responsible for the rapid mouth closing. This ligament joins the hyoid bar to the internal part of the mandible. Acting as a cord, it forces the mandible to turn around its articulation during the lowering of the anterior part of the branchial basket, forcing the mouth to close. Sounds result from the collision of the jaw teeth, transferring energy to the jaws that are presumably the sound radiator. [less ▲]

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See detailAllometric growth in the damselfishes of the genus Dascyllus (Pomacentridae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Morphology (2007), 268(12), 1074

The Pomacentridae, commonly known as damselfishes, is one of the most specious families of coral reef fishes (>350 species). The genus Dascyllus contains ten species which are fall into three complexes ... [more ▼]

The Pomacentridae, commonly known as damselfishes, is one of the most specious families of coral reef fishes (>350 species). The genus Dascyllus contains ten species which are fall into three complexes: the aruanus, reticulatus and trimaculatus. The members of the two first complexes are small-bodied with a maximum standard length (SL) of 50-65 mm and the third complex groups large-bodied fishes of 90-110 mm SL. Phylogenetic data place the aruanus complex in a basal position with the two other species groups as derived sister taxa. Herein, we test the hypothesis that evolutionary change throughout the large-bodied species occurs by isometry. Geometric morphometrics is used to examine the ontogeny of size and shape. This method, which allows description and statistical analysis of form, is applied for the neurocranium and mandible in the three species referencing each complex: Dascyllus aruanus, D. reticulatus and D. trimaculatus. Another closely related pomacentrid, Chromis viridis, was used as outgroup for comparing ontogeny. At the larval stage, the structures are rather similar. Multivariate regression of shapes on size reveals that the three Dascyllus species have a common ontogenetic trajectory which clearly differs from that of C. viridis. During growth, allometry concerns each unit (e.g. shortening of the neurocranium and the mandible) and is identical in each Dascyllus species. However, it appears that the largest studied specimens of D. trimaculatus (90 mm SL) have similar shapes and, differ only in size from the largest ones of both other species (50-60 mm SL). [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques de la pêche dans le fleuve Ouémé au Bénin (Afrique de l'Ouest)
Lalèyè, Philippe; Ezin, Alphonse; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

in Snoeks, Jos; Lalèyè, Philippe; Vandewalle, Pierre (Eds.) Proceedings of the third international Conference on Africa Fish and Fisheries, Cotonou, Bénin, november 2003 (2007)

A study of the Ouémé River fisheries carried out between 1999 and 2001 recorded some 13 fishing gears and capture methods. Gillnets and traps are the most used gear in the north, whereas the fishing ... [more ▼]

A study of the Ouémé River fisheries carried out between 1999 and 2001 recorded some 13 fishing gears and capture methods. Gillnets and traps are the most used gear in the north, whereas the fishing equipment in the southern stations is more diverse, with many variants, each tailored to specific needs (exploited biotope, target species, hydrologic seasons). High fishing pressure is exerted on resources in the south and yield of some fishing gears is in decline: 2.2 kg of catch per day for the gillnets, 3.5 kg for “dobah” and 1.4 kg of catch for castnet versus respectively, 5.2 kg, 4.3 kg, and 1.6 kg recorded in the Ouémé delta during 1968 and 1969. The specific composition of catches has considerably changed and now characterized by dominance of small fishes. Large spacies such as Heterobranchus longifilis, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Gymnarchus niloticus and Lates niloticus, formerly abundant in the catches, have now become very rare. In order to better understand the general ecology of the river and is hydrologic regime and to estimate total fish production, a complementary study is nesccessay. This prerequisite for a good and sustainable management plan. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations of the reduction of external gill filaments during larval development in Heterotis niloticus
Hermens, Michaël; Daffé, Mamina; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2007), 137(2), 247-249

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See detailFunctional morphology of the sonic apparatus in Ophidion barbatum (Teleostei, Ophidiidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Fontenelle, N.; Fine, M. L. et al

in Journal of Morphology (2006), 267(12), 1461-1468

Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder ... [more ▼]

Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder resulting in sound production. Here we describe the sonic mechanism for Ophidion barbatum, which includes three pairs of sonic muscles, highly transformed vertebral centra and ribs, a neural arch that pivots and a swimbladder whose anterior end is modified into a bony structure, the rocker bone. The ventral and intermediate muscles cause the rocker bone to swivel inward, compressing the swimbladder, and this action is antagonized by the dorsal muscle. Unlike other sonic systems in which the muscle contraction rate determines sound fundamental frequency, we hypothesize that slow contraction of these antagonistic muscles produces a series of cycles of swimbladder vibration. [less ▲]

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See detailDiet of Damselfishes (Pomacentridae): a multidisciplinary approach
Fabri, Grégory ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2006, October)

Coral reefs are the marine ecosystem showing the greatest fish diversity. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) represent, with more than 340 species, one of the most important families in the coral reef ... [more ▼]

Coral reefs are the marine ecosystem showing the greatest fish diversity. Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) represent, with more than 340 species, one of the most important families in the coral reef environment. Currently their diet is understudied. This work has 2 aims: (i) to characterize the diet of 13 pomacentrid species of the reef of Toliara (Madagascar) and (ii) to investigate if the specific diversity of this family would result from a strong trophic segregation. A multidisciplinary approach including morphological data (teeth, lower jaw-lever mechanics and intestine length), stomach contents and stable isotope analysis were used. The morphological approach and the stomach contents show that each studied species is able to capture small planktonic preys (e.g. copepods). However, the 13 species can be divided into two trophic guilds: alguivores and planktivores (respectively species where the filamentous algae and the planktonic preys count for more than 60% of their diet). Within these two principal classes, the analysis of the stomach contents and stable isotopes permit to define sub-groups : (1) the species having a food behaviour exclusively alguivore or planktivore (> 90% of their diet) (2) species showing a more varied diet by also eating other types of preys such as vagiles and/or sessiles invertebrates. The diet would contribute but could not explain all diversity in Pomacentridae. Some species show a very similar diet. Consequently other ecological factors should be responsible for the reduction of interspecific competitions and for the existence of such diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailA preliminary study of development of the buccal apparatus in Pomacentridae (Teleostei, Perciformes)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Animal Biology (2006), 56(3), 351-372

This study compares, in five species of Pomacentridae (Chromis viridis, Dascyllus flavicaudus, Chrysiptera glauca, Pomacentrus pavo, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus), the changes in cephalic skeletal ... [more ▼]

This study compares, in five species of Pomacentridae (Chromis viridis, Dascyllus flavicaudus, Chrysiptera glauca, Pomacentrus pavo, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus), the changes in cephalic skeletal structures between settling larvae and adults living on the reef. Variations were studied in the suspensorium, the opercle, the mandible, the premaxillary bone and the teeth. Comparisons of the feeding apparatus enabled two different types of feeding to be distinguished in adults: suction feeding and grazer sucking. Adult C. viridis and D. flavicaudus have a high suspensorium, a well-rounded mouth during jaw opening and caniniform teeth. These two species can be considered to be suction feeders. On the other hand, adult C glauca, P pavo and P lacrymatus have less developed suspensoria, opercles and ascending process of the premaxillar, and present incisiform teeth. These three species appear to be grazer suckers. However, the larvae of all five species present an unimodal way of feeding, defined as ram-suction. Differences between larvae and adults appear clearly to be related to their ecology. The increasing variation presented in feeding apparatus during the settlement phase could be linked to diversification leading to occupancy of different ecological niches. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production mechanism in carapid fish: first example with a slow sonic muscle
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Lagardere, J. P.; Braquegnier, J. B. et al

in Journal of Experimental Biology (2006), 209(15), 2952-2960

Fish sonic swimbladder muscles are the fastest muscles in vertebrates and have fibers with numerous biochemical and structural adaptations for speed. Carapid fishes produce sounds with a complex ... [more ▼]

Fish sonic swimbladder muscles are the fastest muscles in vertebrates and have fibers with numerous biochemical and structural adaptations for speed. Carapid fishes produce sounds with a complex swimbladder mechanism, including skeletal components and extrinsic sonic muscle fibers with an exceptional helical myofibrillar structure. To study this system we stimulated the sonic muscles, described their insertion and action and generated sounds by slowly pulling the sonic muscles. We find the sonic muscles contract slowly, pulling the anterior bladder and thereby stretching a thin fenestra. Sound is generated when the tension trips a release system that causes the fenestra to snap back to its resting position. The sound frequency does not correspond to the calculated resonant frequency of the bladder, and we hypothesize that it is determined by the snapping fenestra interacting with an overlying bony swimbladder plate. To our knowledge this tension release mechanism is unique in animal sound generation. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversification among damselfishes (Pomacentridae): a comparison of ontogenetic trajectories
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

Poster (2006, August)

The Pomacentridae family, or damselfishes, includes more than 330 species living mainly in a coral reef environment. They have a complex life cycle involving a pelagic dispersion period of larvae and a ... [more ▼]

The Pomacentridae family, or damselfishes, includes more than 330 species living mainly in a coral reef environment. They have a complex life cycle involving a pelagic dispersion period of larvae and a juvenile and adult benthic life period associated to reef. The colonisation is associated with a metamorphosis allowing the fish to adapt to their new environment. Our study focused on morphological modifications, as skeletal shape changes, occurring during the development from settling larvae to juvenile and leading to diversification of adult species. To test allometry and to examine diversification in shapes, geometric morphometrics were used. This method, which allows description and statistical analysis of form, is applied to define ontogenetic shape changes and to compare allometries responsible for species diversification. It is applied here for skull structures involved in food capture as neurocranium, suspensorium, opercle, premaxillary bone and mandible. Six species were studied: Chromis viridis, Dascyllus aruanus, Dascyllus carneus, Pomacentrus pavo, Chrysiptera glauca and Stegastes nigricans. At the end of larval stage, structures in fishes are rather similar. None of the species has an isometric growth. Ontogenetic allometries concern each skeletal unit. The two species of Dascyllus are the lone to have a common ontogenetic transformation, and it appears that allometries giving the shapes’diversification correspond to ecological adaptations of each species. From a functional point of view, the general trend in skeletal shape changes corresponds to an optimisation of the suction feeding apparatus (for example: development in height and length of the suspensorium and opercle, shortening of the mandible). [less ▲]

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See detailSound production in two species of damselfishes (Pomacentridae): Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus and Dascyllus aruanus
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2006), 69(2), 491-503

Agonistic sounds of two pomacentrid species, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus and Dascyllus aruanus, were recorded in captivity. Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus produced trains of 2-5 pops, each composed of 18 ... [more ▼]

Agonistic sounds of two pomacentrid species, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus and Dascyllus aruanus, were recorded in captivity. Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus produced trains of 2-5 pops, each composed of 18-25 cycles, with an average duration of 56 ms; most energy ranged from c. 100 to 1000 Hz. Dascyllus aruanus produced pops and chirps. Pops were generally composed of a single pulse, with 2-14 peaks and an average duration of 6.7 ms. Pops contained energy > 4 kHz, and peak frequency ranged from 680 to 1300 Hz. Chirps consisted of trains of 12-42 short pulses of three to six cycles, with durations varying from 0.6 to 1.27 ms; peak frequency varied from 3400 to 4100 Hz. Sound production in P. lacrymatus suggested that pomacentrids are derived from an ancestral taxon capable of sound production and that this capacity is a synapomorphy for the family. Although in the Pomacentridae, pops are typically composed of a single pulse, which is longer and higher pitched than chirps composed of a series of shorter pulses, D. aruanus chirps were higher pitched than its pops. Thus, acoustic variation in the genus Dascyllus is probably not more restricted than in the Pomacentridae. (c) 2006 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles [less ▲]

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See detailSound production in two carapids (Carapus acus and C-mourlani) and through the sea cucumber tegument
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Fine, Michael; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

in Acta Zoologica (2006), 87(2), 113-119

Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani are able to live inside sea cucumbers and sea stars respectively. Unlike other carapids whose sounds have been recorded (C. boraborensis, C. homei and Encheliophis ... [more ▼]

Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani are able to live inside sea cucumbers and sea stars respectively. Unlike other carapids whose sounds have been recorded (C. boraborensis, C. homei and Encheliophis gracilis), these two species have a central constriction in their swimbladder and are unlikely to encounter heterospecific carapids within their hosts. We evoked sound production in Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani by adding several individuals to a tank with a single host and found that their sounds differ substantially from the sounds emitted by other carapids in pulse length, peak frequency and sharpness of tuning (Q(3 dB)). Unlike the other carapids, C. mourlani and C. acus produce shorter and less repetitive sounds and do not produce sounds when they enter their host. Since sounds produced within a sea cucumber have the potential to be heard by distant carapids and are typically recorded outside the sea cucumber, we examined the effect of the sea cucumber tegument on acoustic transmission. Attenuation by the tegument was negligible at the frequencies within carapid sounds. Therefore, carapids have the potential to call from the relative safety of a sea cucumber without sacrificing the distance over which their transmissions are heard. [less ▲]

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See detailChangement de forme ontogénétique des structures céphaliques chez les Pomacentridae : une approche par la morphométrie géométrique
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

Poster (2006, March)

Les Pomacentridae (Damselfishes), comme la plupart des poissons des récifs coralliens, possèdent un cycle de vie complexe comprenant une phase larvaire pélagique dispersive, et une phase juvénile et ... [more ▼]

Les Pomacentridae (Damselfishes), comme la plupart des poissons des récifs coralliens, possèdent un cycle de vie complexe comprenant une phase larvaire pélagique dispersive, et une phase juvénile et adulte benthique associée au milieu corallien. Le passage du stade larvaire au stade juvénile se fait au cours d’un véritable processus de métamorphose qui généralement coïncide avec la colonisation du récif. Cette transition est une phase cruciale impliquant un changement du mode de vie qui peut s’accompagner de modifications morphologiques. A l’heure actuelle, peu d’information existe sur ce qui caractérise la métamorphose des poissons récifaux d’un point de vue squelettique et leurs implications fonctionnelles. Celle-ci n’est principalement décrite que par des changements de pigmentation et des changements morphologiques telles que des modifications de proportions du corps. L’objectif de cette étude est de caractériser les changements de forme des structures céphaliques directement impliquées dans la prise de nourriture chez deux espèces de Pomacentridae : Pomacentrus pavo (Bloch, 1787) et Dascyllus aruanus (Linnaeus, 1758). Dans cette étude, la morphométrie géométrique basée sur la méthode des points repères est utilisée pour décrire les trajectoires de croissance et les changements de forme caractérisant les pièces squelettiques durant la période de colonisation du récif. Cette analyse est appliquée aux quatre unités fonctionnelles suivantes : le neurocrâne, l’ensemble « suspensorium et opercule », la mandibule et le prémaxillaire. Celles-ci sont étudiées en vue latérale. Les patrons de transformations de chaque structure durant le développement sont décrits morphologiquement au moyen de grilles de déformation. Les modifications morphologiques observées chez P. pavo et D. aruanus durant le développement vont dans le sens d’une amélioration du système de prise de nourriture par aspiration. Les principaux changements sont : un agrandissement en hauteur et en largeur du suspensorium et de l’opercule, une élévation de la crête supraoccipitale, un déplacement vers l’avant de l’articulation mandibulaire, un raccourcissement de la mandibule et un allongement du processus ascendant du prémaxillaire. Ces transformations au niveau de la tête pourraient refléter un changement de mode de prise de nourriture au cours de l’ontogénie. La comparaison des unités fonctionnelles entre les deux espèces à l’état larvaire révèle que certaines unités (mandibule par exemple) sont très similaires dans leur forme tandis que d’autres (neurocrâne, unité « suspensorium et opercule » et le prémaxillaire) présentent une forme déjà dissemblable. Cependant, la similarité observée laisse clairement supposer que ces pièces sont sujettes aux mêmes contraintes de prise de nourriture : leurs formes permettraient de les considérer comme des « ram-feeders » se nourrissant du même type de proie. Au cours de leur croissance et de la colonisation du récif, la différenciation des entités squelettiques entre chaque espèce se renforce, permettant ainsi à chacune de s’installer progressivement dans sa niche écologique. Les différences entre les larves et les adultes paraissent liées au moins aux contraintes écologiques. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production mechanism in Amphiprion clarkii (Teleostei: Pomacentridae)
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Herrel, Anthony; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2006)

In the family Pomacentridae, six genera were reported as sound producers: Amphiprion, Dascyllus, Stegastes, Chromis, Abudefduf and Plectroglyphidodon. The anemonefishes (Amphiprioninae) live in social ... [more ▼]

In the family Pomacentridae, six genera were reported as sound producers: Amphiprion, Dascyllus, Stegastes, Chromis, Abudefduf and Plectroglyphidodon. The anemonefishes (Amphiprioninae) live in social group in association with sea anemones, which protect them from predators. Their sound emissions seem involved in courtship and territorial defense, contributing to both survival and reproductive success. However, the mechanism of sound production is unresolved. It has been hypothesized that it involves swimbladder or the action of the pharyngeal jaws amplified by swimbladder. The aim of this study was to understand the sonic mechanism involved in the agonistic sounds in Amphiprion clarkii. The approach consists in high-speed cineradiography and functional morphology. During agonistic sounds (pops), fishes perform different movements such as skull elevation, pectoral girdle retraction, hyoid lowering and mouth closing. Pops are produced when the hyoid is completely lowered and the mouth closed. The simultaneous realization of these movements was never observed in teleost. In Amphiprion sp., it is possible due to an additional ligament inserted on the hyoid bar and on the inner lower jaw. The hyoid lowering combined to the closing (and thus the elevation) of the mandible could generate a tension of the ligament, provoking its vibration [less ▲]

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See detailSound production mechanism in carapid fish: first example with a slow muscle
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Lagardère, Jean-Paul; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2006)

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