References of "Vandersmissen, Jan"
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See detailSolvyns (François-Balthazar)
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

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See detaild'Hane-Steenhuyse (Charles-François)
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

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See detailDe 'Manuel du voyageur et du résident au Congo' en de voorbereiding op het dagelijkse leven in de Onafhankelijke Congostaat op het einde van de 19de eeuw.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Archives et Bibliothèques de Belgique = Archief en Bibliotheekwezen in Belgie (2012), 95

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See detailScience, économie et pouvoir: les ingénieurs et la construction de l'État Indépendant du Congo
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Scientific conference (2011, December 20)

On a peu publié sur les ingénieurs au Congo avant 1908. L’auteur abordera le thème dès le début, donc dans la période de l'exploration. A cette époque les ingénieurs étaient déjà concernés par la ... [more ▼]

On a peu publié sur les ingénieurs au Congo avant 1908. L’auteur abordera le thème dès le début, donc dans la période de l'exploration. A cette époque les ingénieurs étaient déjà concernés par la résolution des problèmes de transport (surtout la navigation - construction de bateaux pour Stanley aux chantiers d'Hoboken près d'Anvers), de construction d'une infrastructure de base (routes, maisons, ports, entrepôts, sanitariums, camps militaires) etc. Une très grande entreprise qui impliquera les équipes d'ingénieurs autour d'Albert Thys, Jean Jadot et Edouard Empain est évidemment la construction du chemin de fer dans le Bas-Congo. Après 1902, le groupe Empain a constitué la Compagnie des Chemins de Fer du Congo supérieur aux Grands Lacs africains. Ensuite viennent les contributions en agronomie (développement de plantations et implication des ingénieurs de Gembloux) et dans les mines (surtout au Katanga). C'est donc sur ces sujets que Jan Vandersmissen rassemblera des informations peu connues et développera ses idées. Il étudiera le thème en liaison avec la grande politique et les structures économiques et scientifiques en Belgique - la Cour, les milieux politiques et financiers, les banques et grandes entreprises (ex. Cockerill, Union Minière, etc.), les institutions scientifiques (les sociétés savantes, les universités, l'Ecole militaire, Gembloux, Ecole des Mines etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailLes voyages organisés par ordre du roi à Versailles.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2011, February 04)

Cette conférence étudiera les voyages financés par l’État français aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles en vue d’une acquisition de nouvelles connaissances sur le monde en dehors de l’Europe. Cette période fut ... [more ▼]

Cette conférence étudiera les voyages financés par l’État français aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles en vue d’une acquisition de nouvelles connaissances sur le monde en dehors de l’Europe. Cette période fut témoin d’un changement radical de l’exploration scientifique outre-mer. Pendant le règne du Roi Soleil, et sous l’impulsion de Colbert, les voyageurs académiques partant de la France ainsi que certains Français résidant dans les territoires d’outre-mer recevaient des instructions pour mieux orienter leurs observations et améliorer la collecte de données, et ceci afin de recueillir des connaissances qui seraient utiles à l’État. Les projets à petite échelle prévalaient. Grâce au soutien d’institutions royales comme l’Académie Royale des Sciences ou le Jardin du Roi, des individus comme Charles Plumier, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort et Louis Éconches Feuillée ramenaient des échantillons et descriptions de « plantes utiles ». D’autres comme Jean Richer faisaient des observations astronomiques dans l’hémisphère Sud, ainsi améliorant non seulement la connaissance géographique, mais aussi les techniques cartographiques et les compétences dans le domaine de la navigation. Sous Louis XV vint une amplification des entreprises. La rivalité avec l’Angleterre conduisait les Français vers le Pacifique. Science, exploration et géopolitique se confondaient. De vastes équipes de chercheurs montaient à bord de navires militaires. Les expéditions enrichirent les collections scientifiques de Versailles et des institutions royales à Paris. Sous Louis XVI ce processus culmina dans l’expédition de La Pérouse. Trois aspects de la politique scientifique française dans le domaine de l’exploration seront analysés ici en détail: les mécanismes de patronage et de protection, les mécanismes d’approbation scientifique, et la mise à profit des connaissances rassemblées par les voyageurs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe king's most eloquent campaigner... Emile de Laveleye, Leopold II and the creation of the Congo Free State.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Revue Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2011), XLI(1-2), 7-57

The “Belle Epoque” saw the revival of the colonial idea in new forms. A second European colonization wave washed over Africa. King Leopold II unfolded his activities in Congo from 1876 onwards. There, his ... [more ▼]

The “Belle Epoque” saw the revival of the colonial idea in new forms. A second European colonization wave washed over Africa. King Leopold II unfolded his activities in Congo from 1876 onwards. There, his efforts to develop a so-called “philanthropic” enterprise soon evolved in a process of state formation, overshadowed by intrigues and tensions that were a consequence of colonial competition between the Western powers. Only a decade later, at the Berlin Conference of 1885, a definite arrangement was adopted. Everywhere in Europe, a disputed transition was made from liberal to more conservative ways of government. Of course this tension field also dominated intellectual life. There was an intense debate between partisans of colonialism and supporters of worldwide free trade. For the development of his colonial doctrine Leopold II had been inspired by intellectuals that supported economic expansionism. Most of them were active in the field of economic geography. But the King also searched for support in other academic circles and mobilized Emile de Laveleye (1822-1892), one of Europe’s brightest minds, to join him in his quest for the most adequate economic, social and political model of a future state in the heart of Africa. In his books, articles and pamphlets, the liberal minded political economist de Laveleye showed himself an unshakable opponent of colonization and imperialism. However, in the period 1875-1885 – a decade so crucial for Congo – a surprising intellectual rapprochement between de Laveleye and Leopold II was established. For a certain time, this competent man of science advised the King, putting into royal service an intellectual network of European range. This paper investigates how, in the complex and constantly evolving public discussion about Congo, two apparently opposing minds attracted each other. We focus on de Laveleye’s important pleas for a “neutral and international formula” that would place Leopold II in a conflicting situation with Portugal and France. This study shows that, in the years preceding the Berlin Conference, de Laveleye got actively involved in a carefully orchestrated European media campaign in support of Leopold’s initiative. It was there that his intellectual circle became extremely useful and was fully implicated. His contacts among experts of international law contributed to the important discussions about Congo’s juridical status. De Laveleye’s colleague Sir Travers Twiss, as well as the influential Institut de droit international, of which de Laveleye had been one of the founders, entered the debate zone and took positions which were favorable for Leopold’s project. With this new approach, our paper also aims to give insight in the way Leopold II transformed his own reasoning into a more authoritative set of practical standards which were shared by an intellectual elite. [less ▲]

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See detailHow King Leopold II used Emile de Laveleye’s intellectual network for the benefit of his African project…
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2010, May 20)

The “Belle Epoque” saw the revival of the colonial idea in new forms. A second European colonization wave washed over Africa. King Leopold II unfolded his activities in Congo from 1876 onwards. There, his ... [more ▼]

The “Belle Epoque” saw the revival of the colonial idea in new forms. A second European colonization wave washed over Africa. King Leopold II unfolded his activities in Congo from 1876 onwards. There, his efforts to develop a so-called “philanthropic” enterprise soon evolved in a process of state formation, overshadowed by intrigues and tensions that were a consequence of colonial competition between the western powers. Only a decade later, at the Berlin Conference of 1885, a definite arrangement was adopted. Everywhere in Europe, a disputed transition was made from liberal to more conservative ways of government. Of course this tension field also dominated intellectual life. There was an intense debate between partisans of colonialism and supporters of worldwide free trade. For the development of his colonial doctrine Leopold II had been inspired by intellectuals that supported economic expansionism. Most of them were active in the field of economic geography. But the King also searched for support in other academic circles and mobilized one of Europe’s brightest minds to join him in his quest for the most adequate economic, social and political model of a future state in the heart of Africa. In his books, articles and pamphlets, the liberal minded political economist Emile de Laveleye (1822-1892) – an opinion maker of European renown – showed himself an unshakable opponent of colonization and imperialism. However, in the period 1875-1885 – a decade so crucial for Congo – a surprising intellectual rapprochement between de Laveleye and Leopold II was established. For a certain time, this competent man of science advised the King, for example at the International Geographical Conference in Brussels, putting into royal service an intellectual network of European range. This paper investigates how, in the complex and constantly evolving public discussion about Congo, two apparently opposing minds attracted each other. Analyzing de Laveleye’s publications and correspondence we focus on his important pleas for a “neutral and international formula” that would place Leopold II in a conflicting situation with Portugal and France, countries that claimed Congo’s estuary for their own benefit. De Laveleye believed that Leopold was sincere about his civilizing mission and crusade against slavery. This study shows how, in the years preceding the Berlin Conference, de Laveleye got actively involved in a carefully orchestrated European media campaign in support of Leopold’s initiative. It was there that his intellectual circle became extremely useful and was fully implicated. His contacts in the world of law, especially among experts of international law, contributed to the important discussions about Congo’s juridical status. De Laveleye’s colleague Sir Travers Twiss, one of the most reputed jurists of that time, as well as the influential Institut de Droit international, of which de Laveleye had been one of the founders, entered the debate zone and took positions that were favorable for Leopold’s project. With this new approach, our paper also aims to give insight in the way Leopold II transformed his own reasoning into a more authoritative set of practical standards that were shared by an intellectual elite. [less ▲]

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See detailDe rol van de aardrijkskunde in de koloniale wetenschappen.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2010), 56(2), 105-120

In this lecture various aspects of geography as an “imperial science” in the 19th century are discussed, especially with regard to the Belgian colonial history of that period. We follow geography’s ... [more ▼]

In this lecture various aspects of geography as an “imperial science” in the 19th century are discussed, especially with regard to the Belgian colonial history of that period. We follow geography’s development from von Humboldt’s time, when the exploration of the world still had to lead towards a better comprehension of all physical phenomena in “Cosmos”, up to the first decades of Belgian presence in Congo, when geography was on the forefront of a highly utilitarian and materialistic exploration. This transition can be seen in all sorts of institutions. While science academies in the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century still gave instructions to travelers in order to systematize exploration as an instrument of science, specialized geographical societies in the second half of the 19th century developed a discourse of economic expansionism that expressed itself in exploratory missions with a political and economical agenda. The Belgian geographical movement was a world where colonial ideas could grow, and where the geographical societies of Antwerp and Brussels became propaganda instruments in the service of King Leopold’s African enterprise. Although geography marched ahead in the process of knowledge transfer, the encounter with reality on the field ended in a confrontation with geography’s limitations. Other scientific disciplines such as medicine, botany and geology got more and more involved in the colonial enterprise. [less ▲]

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See detailKoningen van de wereld. De aardrijkskundige beweging en de ontwikkeling van de koloniale doctrine van Leopold II.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Revue Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2010), (4), 645-655

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See detailIntroductie tot de archieven van de Belgische koloniale geschiedenis
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Learning material (2010)

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See detailLes voyages faits ‘par Ordre du Roy’
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Saule, B.; Arminjon, C. (Eds.) La science et les curiosités à la cour de Versailles (2010)

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See detailAcademies of Science in 18th-Century Europe and the Application of Scientific Methods on Exploration. A Comparative Study.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2009, August 01)

In the 18th century, exploration witnesses a growing tendency towards a systemization of the observation and registration of scientific data overseas. Explorers come under the influence of scientists who ... [more ▼]

In the 18th century, exploration witnesses a growing tendency towards a systemization of the observation and registration of scientific data overseas. Explorers come under the influence of scientists who want to intervene in the practice of scientific travelling by formulating specific guidelines for field investigation. These scientists themselves are subject of the growing demand of central state governments for verified knowledge on the utility of new discoveries in the field of geography and natural history. Exploration enters a new phase in its development and becomes the instrument of a utilitarian state directed scientific policy. Each of the imperial powers of Europe has an Academy of science or a learned society that plays a crucial role in this development. Nonetheless, we witness some remarkable differences in approach between these nations and hence between these learned societies. In this paper I make a comparative analysis of the instruction texts addressed to explorers by the Academies of science of 18th-century Europe, from the Parisian Académie royale des Sciences to the Royal Society of London and the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle de la géographie dans les sciences coloniales
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Scientific conference (2009, May 19)

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See detailKoningen van de wereld. Leopold II en de aardrijkskundige beweging.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Book published by Acco (2009)

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See detailLéopold II et sa doctrine coloniale: du duc de Brabant à 1885
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Dujardin, Vincent; Rosoux, Valérie; de Wilde d'Estmael, Tanguy (Eds.) et al Léopold II. Entre génie et gêne. politique étrangère et colonisation. (2009)

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See detailLeopold II en zijn koloniale doctrine: van de hertog van Brabant tot 1885.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Dujardin, Vincent; Planche, Stéphanie; Plasman, Pierre-Luc (Eds.) et al Leopold II, ongegeneerd genie? Buitenlandse politiek en kolonisatie. (2009)

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