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See detailGenital re-excretion of Murid gammaherpesvirus 4 following intranasal infection
François, Sylvie ULg; Vidick, Sarah ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

Poster (2011, November 16)

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model, related animal gammaherpesviruses are an important source of information. We are studying Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) in inbred laboratory mouse strains which are commonly accepted as a good model for studying gammaherpesviruses in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral reexcretion and virus transmission in this species. In order to identify potential re-excretion sites, intranasally infected mice were followed through global luciferase imaging for up to six months after infection. Surprisingly, we detected transient viral replication in mice genital tract at various times after latency establishment. Ex vivo imaging, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that virus genomes were present in high quantity in the vaginal tissue and that viral replication occurred mainly at the vaginal external border. Moreover, we highlighted the presence of free infectious viruses in the vaginal cavity at the moment of the observation of viral replication. As this ephemeral viral reexcretion could reveal a link with reproductive cycle, we compared reexcretion in normal and ovariectomized mice. Interestingly, no viral reactivation was observed in absence of hormonal cycle. In conclusion, we experimentally indentified for the first time a reexcretion site for MuHV-4 in mice that had been intranasaly infected. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses but should also allow us to develop strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on the Role of the Viral Semaphorin encoded by the A3 Gene of Alcelaphine Herpesvirus 1 in the Induction of Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Myster, Françoise ULg; Palmeira, Leonor ULg; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg et al

Poster (2011, July)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus carried by wildebeest asymptomatically. AlHV-1 is however responsible for the development of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) when cross-species ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus carried by wildebeest asymptomatically. AlHV-1 is however responsible for the development of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) when cross-species transmitted to a variety of ruminant susceptible species. Wildebeest-derived (WD)-MCF is a fatal lymphoproliferative and degenerative disease of ruminants. Experimentally, WD-MCF can be reproduced in rabbits. A3 ORF encodes a putative semaphorin homolog protein, named AlHV-sema. Semaphorins are secreted and membrane-associated proteins characterized by a conserved ‘Sema’ domain. Initially identified as guidance factors assisting axons pathfinding during neural development, semaphorins have been shown over the last decade to have significant functions in various processes of immunoregulation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that AlHV-sema and mammals Sema7A have a common ancestor and that AlHV-Sema has evolved independently of other viral semaphorins. Further bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that AlHV-Sema and cellular Sema7A share a highly similar tridimensional structure. In order to investigate the role of AlHV-Sema in WD-MCF induction, we used the AlHV-1 BAC clone and produced a strain deleted for A3 and a revertant strain. The strain deleted for A3 replicated comparably to the wild-type parental strain in vitro. In vivo, rabbits infected with the strain deleted for A3 developed WD-MCF with a small but significant delay compared to those infected with the parental and revertant strains. Deletion of A3 did not affect the increase of viral genomic charge over time in peripheral blood and in lymph nodes at time of death and the major histopathological lesions were present in all groups. Though infection with wild-type and revertant strains resulted in the inversion of CD8 over CD4 ratio and increased IFN- production in lymphoid tissues at time of death, both parameters were significantly reduced after infection with the A3 deleted strain. Together, these results suggest that AlHV-Sema play a role in the host response to AlHV-1 infection. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel norovirus recombinants and GII.4 sub-lineages associated with outbreaks between 2006 and 2010 in Belgium
Mathijs, Elisabeth ULg; Denayer, Sarah; Palmeira, Leonor et al

in Virology Journal (2011)

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See detailCharacterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits
Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W.; Gailbreath, Katherine L. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2011), 150(3-4), 270-7

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease syndrome primarily of ruminant species, caused by gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2 ... [more ▼]

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease syndrome primarily of ruminant species, caused by gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), carried by sheep, causes sheep-associated MCF worldwide, while Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), carried by wildebeest, causes wildebeest-associated MCF, mainly in Africa. Diseases in rabbits can be induced by both viruses, which are clinically and pathologically similar; however, recent studies revealed different expression of viral genes associated with latency or lytic replication during clinical disease between the two viruses. In this study, we further characterized experimentally induced MCF in rabbits by nebulization with OvHV-2 from sheep nasal secretions to elucidate the course of viral replication, along with in vivo incorporation of 5-Bromo-2’-Deoxyuridine (BrdU), to evaluate lymphoproliferation. All six rabbits nebulized with OvHV-2 developed MCF between 24 and 29 days post infection. OvHV-2 DNA levels in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) remained undetectable during the incubation period and increased dramatically a few days before onset of clinical signs. During the clinical stage, we found that predominantly lytic gene expression was detected in PBL and tissues, and both T and B cells were proliferating. The data showed that the viral gene expression profile and lymphoproliferation in rabbits with OvHV-2 induced MCF were different from that in rabbits with AlHV-1 induced MCF, suggesting that OvHV-2 and AlHV-1 may play a different role in MCF pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibody evasion by a gammaherpesvirus o-glycan shield.
Machiels, Bénédicte ULg; Lété, Céline ULg; Guillaume, Antoine ULg et al

in PLoS Pathogens (2011), 7(11), 1002387

All gammaherpesviruses encode a major glycoprotein homologous to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350. These glycoproteins are often involved in cell binding, and some provide neutralization targets. However, the ... [more ▼]

All gammaherpesviruses encode a major glycoprotein homologous to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350. These glycoproteins are often involved in cell binding, and some provide neutralization targets. However, the capacity of gammaherpesviruses for long-term transmission from immune hosts implies that in vivo neutralization is incomplete. In this study, we used Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) to determine how its gp350 homolog - gp180 - contributes to virus replication and neutralization. A lack of gp180 had no impact on the establishment and maintenance of BoHV-4 latency, but markedly sensitized virions to neutralization by immune sera. Antibody had greater access to gB, gH and gL on gp180-deficient virions, including neutralization epitopes. Gp180 appears to be highly O-glycosylated, and removing O-linked glycans from virions also sensitized them to neutralization. It therefore appeared that gp180 provides part of a glycan shield for otherwise vulnerable viral epitopes. Interestingly, this O-glycan shield could be exploited for neutralization by lectins and carbohydrate-specific antibody. The conservation of O-glycosylation sites in all gp350 homologs suggests that this is a general evasion mechanism that may also provide a therapeutic target. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits
Li; Cunha, C.W.; Gailbreath, K.L. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2011), 2

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See detailSkin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells
RAJ, Victor; Fournier, Guillaume ULg; Rakus, Krzysztof ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2011), 42(92),

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See detailAlternative attachment factors and internalization pathways for GIII.2 bovine noroviruses.
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Gillet, Laurent ULg; Mathijs, Elisabeth ULg et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2011)

Bovine noroviruses belong to the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus. Two genotypes are described and viruses genetically related to the Jena and Newbury-2 strains are classified into genotypes 1 and 2 ... [more ▼]

Bovine noroviruses belong to the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus. Two genotypes are described and viruses genetically related to the Jena and Newbury-2 strains are classified into genotypes 1 and 2 respectively. In this study, virus-like particles (VLP) of the previously detected B309 Belgian strain, genetically related to genotype 2 bovine noroviruses, were used to investigate virus-host interactions in vitro. B309 VLP were shown to bind to several bovine cell lines. This binding was not affected by heparinase or chondroitinase treatment but was significantly inhibited by both sodium periodate, alpha-galactosidase, trypsin and phospholipase C treatment. Cell treatment by neuraminidase also moderately affected this binding. Taken together, these results show that, in addition to a galactosyl residue, sialic acid could also be involved in binding to susceptible cells. In addition, both the cholesterol-dependent pathway and macropinocytosis are used for B309 VLP internalisation by Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells. The data increase the knowledge on bovine norovirus cell interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailEx vivo bioluminescent detection of Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 infection during malignant catarrhal fever.
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Myster, Françoise ULg; Palmeira, Leonor ULg et al

in Journal of Virology (2011), 85(14), 6941-54

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), carried by wildebeest asymptomatically, causes malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF) when cross-species transmitted to a variety of susceptible species of the Artiodactyla ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), carried by wildebeest asymptomatically, causes malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF) when cross-species transmitted to a variety of susceptible species of the Artiodactyla order. Experimentally, WD-MCF can be reproduced in rabbits. WD-MCF is described as a combination of lymphoproliferation and degenerative lesions in virtually all organs and caused by unknown mechanisms. Recently, we demonstrated that WD-MCF is associated with the proliferation of CD8(+) cells supporting a latent type of infection in lymphoid tissues. Here, we investigated the macroscopic distribution of AlHV-1 infection using ex vivo bioluminescence imaging in rabbit to determine whether it correlates with the distribution of lesions in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. To reach that goal, a recombinant AlHV-1 strain was produced by insertion of a luciferase expression cassette (luc) in an intergenic region. In vitro, the reconstituted AlHV-1 luc(+) strain replicated comparably to the parental strain and luciferase activity was detected by bioluminescence imaging. In vivo, rabbits infected with the AlHV-1 luc(+) strain developed WD-MCF comparably to the parental wild-type strain with hyperthermia and increase of both CD8(+) T cells frequencies and viral genomic charge over time in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in lymph nodes at time of euthanasia. Bioluminescent imaging revealed that AlHV-1 infection could be detected ex vivo in lymphoid organs but also in lung, liver and kidney during WD-MCF, demonstrating that AlHV-1 infection is prevalent in tissue lesions. Finally, we show that the infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes in non-lymphoid organs are mainly CD8(+) T cells and that latency is predominant during WD-MCF. [less ▲]

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See detailSequencing of Bovine herpesvirus 4 V.test strain reveals important genome features
Palmeira, Leonor ULg; Machiels, Bénédicte ULg; Lété, Céline ULg et al

in Virology Journal (2011), 8(1), 406

Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a useful model for the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Although genome manipulations of this ... [more ▼]

Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a useful model for the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Although genome manipulations of this virus have been greatly facilitated by the cloning of the BoHV-4 V.test strain as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC), the lack of a complete genome sequence for this strain limits its experimental use. Methods In this study, we have determined the complete sequence of BoHV-4 V.test strain by a pyrosequencing approach. Results The long unique coding region (LUR) consists of 108,241 bp encoding at least 79 open reading frames and is flanked by several polyrepetitive DNA units (prDNA). As previously suggested, we showed that the prDNA unit located at the left prDNA-LUR junction (prDNA-G) differs from the other prDNA units (prDNA-inner). Namely, the prDNA-G unit lacks the conserved pac-2 cleavage and packaging signal in its right terminal region. Based on the mechanisms of cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes, this feature implies that only genomes bearing left and right end prDNA units are encapsulated into virions. Conclusions In this study, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the BAC-cloned BoHV-4 V.test strain and identified genome organization features that could be important in other herpesviruses. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibody production by injection of living cells expressing non self antigens as cell surface type II transmembrane fusion protein.
Nizet, Yannick; Gillet, Laurent ULg; SCHROEDER, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of immunological methods (2011)

Antigen expression and purification are laborious, time consuming and frequently difficult steps in the process of antibody production. In the present study, we developed a method avoiding these two steps ... [more ▼]

Antigen expression and purification are laborious, time consuming and frequently difficult steps in the process of antibody production. In the present study, we developed a method avoiding these two steps. This method relies on the injection of histocompatible living cells stably expressing the antigen as a cell surface type II transmembrane fusion protein. A vector, nicknamed pCD1-CD134L, was constructed to express the antigen fused at the carboxyterminal end of the human CD134 ligand (CD134L) type II transmembrane protein on the surface of eucaryotic cells. This vector was shown to induce cell surface expression of epitopes from human c-Myc (soluble protein), uterogloblin-related protein 1 (secreted protein) and CD94 (type II transmembrane protein). Using this vector, we developed a method to produce antibodies without antigen production. The flowchart of this method is as follows: (i) cloning of the antigen in the pCD1-CD134L vector; (ii) production of a histocompatible cell line stably expressing the CD134L-antigen fusion protein; (iii) testing for cell surface expression of the fusion protein by targeting the CD134L carrier; and (iv) prime-boost immunisation with living cells expressing the fusion protein. This method was successfully used for production of polyclonal antibodies raised against Ixodes ricinus calreticulin (secreted protein) in mice and for production of monoclonal antibodies raised against an epitope of Vaccinia virus A56 (type I transmembrane protein) protein in rat. The present study is the first to demonstrate the use of a type II transmembrane protein as a carrier for cell surface display of antigens. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and localization of the structural proteins of anguillid herpesvirus 1
Van Beurden, Steven ULg; Leroy, B; Wattiez, R et al

in Veterinary Research (2011), 42(1), 105

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See detailCyprinid herpesvirus 3: An interesting virus for applied and fundamental research
Fournier, G; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France (2011), 164(4), 353-358

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See detailBovine herpesvirus 4 immediate early 2 (Rta) gene is an essential gene and is duplicated in bovine herpesvirus 4 isolate U.
Franceschi, V.; Capocefalo, A.; Ravanetti, L. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2011)

The ORF50/Rta gene has been shown to be an essential gene for many gammaherpesviruses. Although the BoHV-4 ORF50/Rta homolog, immediate early gene 2 (IE2), has been shown to activate several BoHV-4 early ... [more ▼]

The ORF50/Rta gene has been shown to be an essential gene for many gammaherpesviruses. Although the BoHV-4 ORF50/Rta homolog, immediate early gene 2 (IE2), has been shown to activate several BoHV-4 early and late promoters in cotransfection assays, there is no direct proof of its indispensability for progression of the virus to the lytic replication cycle in the context of the viral genome. In the present communication, replication defective BoHV-4-V.test IE2 mutants were efficiently rescued, with respect to production of infectious virus and DNA replication, upon the expression of BoHV-4 ORF50/Rta in trans. Surprisingly, in the course of our studies, we discovered that the IE2 gene is duplicated in the genome of BoHV-4-U. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine Herpesvirus 4 Bo10 gene encodes a nonessential viral envelope protein that regulates viral tropism through both positive and negative effects.
Machiels, Bénédicte ULg; Lété, Céline ULg; Defays, Katalin et al

in Journal of Virology (2011), 85(2), 1011-1024

All gammaherpesviruses encode a glycoprotein positionally homologous to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350 and the Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) K8.1. In this study, we characterized that of ... [more ▼]

All gammaherpesviruses encode a glycoprotein positionally homologous to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350 and the Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) K8.1. In this study, we characterized that of Bovine Herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4), encoded by the Bo10 gene. We identified a 180 kDa gene product, gp180, which was incorporated into the virion envelope. A Bo10 deletion virus was viable, but showed a growth deficit associated with reduced binding to epithelial cells. This seemed to reflect an interaction of gp180 with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), since the Bo10 mutant was both less infectious for GAG(+) cells than the wild-type and more infectious for GAG(-) cells. However, we could not identify a direct interaction between gp180 and GAGs, implying that any direct interaction must be of low affinity. This function of gp180 was very similar to that previously identified for the Murid Herpesvirus 4 gp150, and also to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350 that promotes CD21(+) cell infection and inhibits CD21(-) cell infection. We propose that such proteins generally regulate virion attachment both by binding to cells and by covering another receptor-binding protein until they are displaced. Thus they regulate viral tropism both positively and negatively depending upon the presence or absence of their receptor. [less ▲]

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See detailMalignant catarrhal fever induced by Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 is characterized by an expansion of activated CD3+CD8+CD4- T cells expressing a cytotoxic phenotype in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg

in Veterinary research (2011), 42(1), 95

ABSTRACT: Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is carried by wildebeest asymptomatically. It causes a fatal lymphoproliferative disease named wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF) when cross ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is carried by wildebeest asymptomatically. It causes a fatal lymphoproliferative disease named wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever (WD-MCF) when cross-species transmitted to a variety of susceptible species of the Artiodactyla order. WD-MCF can be reproduced experimentally in rabbits. In a previous report, we demonstrated that WD-MCF induced by AlHV-1 is associated with a severe proliferation of CD8+ T cells in the lymphoid tissues. Here, we further studied the mononuclear leukocytic populations in both the lymphoid (throughout the infection and at time of euthanasia) and non-lymphoid (at time of euthanasia) organs during WD-MCF induced experimentally in rabbits. To reach that goal, we performed multi-colour flow cytometry stainings. The results obtained demonstrate that the development of WD-MCF correlates in peripheral blood with a severe increase of CD8+ cell percentages; and that CD3+CD8+CD4- T cells were the predominant cell type in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs at time of euthanasia. Further characterization of the mononuclear leukocytes isolated from both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues revealed that the CD8+ T cells express high levels of the activation markers CD25 and CD44, produce high amount of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) and perforin, and showed a reduction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression. These data demonstrate that the development of WD-MCF is associated with the expansion and infiltration of activated and cytotoxic CD3+CD8+CD4- T cells secreting high amount of IFN-gamma but low IL-2. [less ▲]

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See detailPigeon circovirus: baculovirus expression of the capsid protein gene, specific antibody and viral load measured by real time polymerase chain reaction
Duchatel, Jean-Pierre ULg; Todd, D.; Smyth, J. et al

in Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine (2011), 66(1), 26-31

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See detailGenital re-excretion of Murid gammaherpesvirus 4 following intranasal infection
François, Sylvie ULg; Vidick, Sarah ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

Poster (2010, November 18)

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. They are host-range specific and establish persistent, productive infections ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. They are host-range specific and establish persistent, productive infections of immunocompetent hosts. Thus, infected individuals simultaneously both elicit antiviral protective immune response and secrete infectious virions. The best studied gammaherpesviruses are Human herpesvirus 4 and Human herpesvirus 8. As these viruses have no well-established in vivo infection model, related animal gammaherpesviruses are an important source of information. We are studying Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), a virus that has originally been isolated from bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Although MuHV-4 has not been isolated from house mice (Mus musculus), infection of inbred laboratory mouse strains is commonly accepted as a good model for studying gammaherpesviruses in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral reexcretion and virus transmission in this species suggesting that this model could be imperfect. In order to identify potential re-excretion sites, intranasally infected mice were followed through global luciferase imaging for up to six months after infection. By this technique, we were able to detect appearance of viral replication in mice genital tract at various times post-infection. Typically, it firstly occurred between days 20 to 30 after infection, a period at which it is admitted that latency is established. Ex vivo imaging, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry helped us to determine that virus genomes were present in high quantity in the vaginal tissue and that viral replication occurred mainly at the vaginal external border. Finally, we highlighted the presence of free infectious viruses in the vaginal cavity at the moment of the observation of viral replication. In conclusion, we experimentally indentified for the first time a reexcretion site for MuHV-4 in mice that had been intranasaly infected. It therefore suggests potential genital transmission, either horizontal or vertical, of this virus in mice populations. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses but should also allow us to develop vaccinal strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe A3 gene of Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 encodes a viral semaphorin that is non-essential for the induction of malignant catarrhal fever
Myster, Françoise ULg; Palmeira, Leonor ULg; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg et al

Conference (2010, November)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a γ-Herpesvirus carried by wildebeest asymptomatically. AlHV-1 is however responsible for the development of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) when cross-species ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a γ-Herpesvirus carried by wildebeest asymptomatically. AlHV-1 is however responsible for the development of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) when cross-species transmitted to a variety of ruminant susceptible species. Wildebeest-derived (WD)-MCF is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative and degenerative disease of ruminants. Experimentally, WD-MCF can be reproduced in rabbits. The A3 open reading frame (ORF) of the AlHV-1 encodes a putative semaphorin homolog protein, thereafter named AlHV-sema. Semaphorins are secreted and membrane-associated proteins characterized by a conserved amino-terminal ‘Sema’ domain. Initially identified as guidance factors that assist axons pathfinding during neural development, semaphorins have been shown over the last decade to have significant functions in various processes of immunoregulation. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that AlHV-sema has a high homology to the cellular Sema7A. Besides its roles in neural development, Sema7A has been shown to play pivotal functions in the regulation of cytokine secretion and as a tumor suppressor. In order to investigate whether AlHV-Sema could play a role in the pathogenesis of WD-MCF, we used the AlHV-1 BAC clone and produced a strain deleted for A3 and a revertant strain. The strain deleted for A3 replicated comparably to the wild-type parental strain in vitro. In vivo, rabbits infected with the strain deleted for A3 developed WD-MCF similarly to that observed with the parental strain with both severely increased CD8+ T cell frequencies and viral genomic charge over time in peripheral blood and in lymph nodes at time of death, as well as indistinguishable histopathological lesions in lymphoid organs and in liver, lung and kidney. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that AlHV-sema is not essential for the induction of WD-MCF in rabbits. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting nanoparticles to M cells with non-peptidic ligands for oral vaccination
Freichels, Hélène ULg; Fievez, Virginie; Plapied, Laurence et al

Poster (2010, March 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (6 ULg)