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See detailBovine herpesvirus 4 induces apoptosis of human carcinoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo
Gillet, Laurent ULg; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Cancer Research (2005), 65(20), 9463-9472

The idea of using oncolytic viruses for the treatment of cancers was proposed a century ago. During the last two decades, viruses able to replicate specifically in cancer cells and to induce their lysis ... [more ▼]

The idea of using oncolytic viruses for the treatment of cancers was proposed a century ago. During the last two decades, viruses able to replicate specifically in cancer cells and to induce their lysis were identified and were genetically modified to improve their viro-oncolytic properties. More recently, a new approach consisting of inducing selective apoptosis in cancer cells through viral infection has been proposed; this approach has been called viro-oncoapoptosis. In the present study, we report the property of bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4) to induce, in vitro and in vivo, apoptosis of some human carcinomas. This conclusion relies on the following observations: (a) In vitro, BoHV-4 infection induced apoptosis of A549 and OVCAR carcinoma cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (b) Apoptosis was induced by the expression of an immediate-early or an early BoHV-4 gene, but did not require viral replication. (c) Cell treatment with caspase inhibitors showed that apoptosis induced by BoHV-4 relied mainly on caspase-10 activation. (d) Infection of cocultures of A549 or OVCAR cells mixed with human 293 cells (in which BoHV-4 does not induce apoptosis) showed that BoHV-4 specifically eradicated A549 or OVCAR cancer cells from the cocultures. (e) Finally, in vivo experiments done with nude mice showed that BoHV-4 intratumoral injections reduced drastically the growth of preestablished A549 xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest that BoHV-4 may have potential as a viro-oncoapoptotic agent for the treatment of some human carcinomas. Moreover, further identification of BoHV-4 proapoptotic gene(s) and the cellular pathways targeted by this or these gene(s) could lead to the design of new cancer therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4 are highly prevalent in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Gillet, Laurent ULg; Gerdes, Truuske et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2005), 110(3-4), 209-220

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. Interestingly, a survey of wild African buffaloes mainly from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya revealed that 94% of ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. Interestingly, a survey of wild African buffaloes mainly from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya revealed that 94% of the animals tested had anti-BoHV-4 antibodies [Rossiter, P.B., Gumm, I.D., Stagg, D.A., Conrad, PA., Mukolwe, S., Davies, F.G., White, H., 1989. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 337-343]. These authors also proposed that the serological antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and alcelaphine herpesvirus I (A1HV-1) could confer to BoHV-4 infected buffaloes a protective immune response against lethal A1HV-1 infection. In the present study, we addressed two questions related to Rossiter et al. paper. Firstly, to investigate the role of the African buffalo as a natural host species of BoHV-4, the seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies was analysed in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa. A total of 400 sera was analysed using two complementary immunofluorescent assays. These analyses revealed that independently of their geographical origin, wild African buffaloes exhibit a seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies higher than 68%. This result is by far above the seroprevalence generally observed in cattle. Our data are discussed in the light of our recent phylogenetic study demonstrating that the BoHV-4 Bo17 gene has been acquired from a recent ancestor of the African buffalo. Secondly, we investigated the humoral antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and A1HV-1. Our results demonstrate that among the antigens expressed in A1HV-1 infected cells, epitope(s) recognised by anti-BoHV-4 antibodies are exclusively nuclear, suggesting that the putative property of BoHV-4 to confer an immune protection against A1HV-1 relies on a cellular rather than on a humoral immune response. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of bovine herpesvirus 4 as an expression vector using bacterial artificial chromosome cloning.
Gillet, Laurent ULg; Daix, V.; Donofrio, G. et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2005), 86(Pt 4), 907-17

Several features make bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) attractive as a backbone for use as a viral expression vector and/or as a model to study gammaherpesvirus biology. However, these developments have been ... [more ▼]

Several features make bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) attractive as a backbone for use as a viral expression vector and/or as a model to study gammaherpesvirus biology. However, these developments have been impeded by the difficulty in manipulating its large genome using classical homologous recombination in eukaryotic cells. In the present study, the feasibility of exploiting bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning and prokaryotic recombination technology for production of BoHV-4 recombinants was explored. Firstly, the BoHV-4 genome was BAC cloned using two potential insertion sites. Both sites of insertion gave rise to BoHV-4 BAC clones stably maintained in bacteria and able to regenerate virions when transfected into permissive cells. Reconstituted virus replicated comparably to wild-type parental virus and the loxP-flanked BAC cassette was excised by growing them on permissive cells stably expressing Cre recombinase. Secondly, BoHV-4 recombinants expressing Ixodes ricinus anti-complement protein I or II (IRAC I/II) were produced using a two-step mutagenesis procedure in Escherichia coli. Both recombinants induced expression of high levels of functional IRAC molecules in the supernatant of infected cells. This study demonstrates that BAC cloning and prokaryotic recombination technology are powerful tools for the development of BoHV-4 as an expression vector and for further fundamental studies of this gammaherpesvirus. [less ▲]

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See detailRecombination in alphaherpesviruses
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Meurens, F.; Muylkens, Benoît ULg et al

in Reviews in Medical Virology (2005), 15(2, Mar-Apr), 89-103

Within the Herpesviridae family, Alphaherpesvirinae is an extensive subfamily which contains numerous mammalian and avian viruses. Given the low rate of herpesvirus nucleotide substitution, recombination ... [more ▼]

Within the Herpesviridae family, Alphaherpesvirinae is an extensive subfamily which contains numerous mammalian and avian viruses. Given the low rate of herpesvirus nucleotide substitution, recombination can be seen as an essential evolutionary driving force although it is likely underestimated. Recombination in alphaherpesviruses is intimately linked to DNA replication. Both viral and cellular proteins participate in this recombination-dependent replication. The presence of inverted repeats in the alphaherpesvirus genomes allows segment inversion as a consequence of specific recombination between repeated sequences during DNA replication. High molecular weight intermediates of replication, called concatemers, are the site of early recombination events. The analysis of concatemers, from cells coinfected by two distinguishable alphaherpesviruses provides an efficient tool to study recombination without the bias introduced by invisible or non-viable recombinants, and by dominance of a virus over recombinants. Intraspecific recombination frequently occurs between strains of the same alphaherpesvirus species. Interspecific recombination depends on enough sequence similarity to enable recombination between distinct alphaherpesvirus species. The most important prerequisite for successful recombination is coinfection of the individual host by different virus strains or species. Consequently the following factors affecting the distribution of different viruses to shared target cells need to be considered: dose of inoculated virus, time interval between inoculation of the first and the second virus, distance between the marker mutations, genetic homology, virulence and latency. Recombination, by exchanging genomic segments, may modify the virulence of alphaherpesviruses. It must be carefully assessed for the biosafety of antiviral therapy, alphaherpesvirus-based vectors and live attenuated vaccines. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailPro-inflammatory properties for thiazolidinediones.
Desmet, Christophe ULg; Warzée, Barbara ULg; Gosset, Philippe et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2005), 69(2), 255-265

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are pharmacological ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma that are extensively used in the treatment of type II diabetes. Recently, an anti ... [more ▼]

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are pharmacological ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma that are extensively used in the treatment of type II diabetes. Recently, an anti-inflammatory potential for TZDs has been suggested, based on observations that these compounds may inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vitro and may attenuate the inflammatory response in vivo. Here, we show that the TZDs rosiglitazone (RSG) and troglitazone (TRO) do not inhibit the inflammatory response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in various epithelial cell types. On the contrary, both RSG and TRO significantly potentiated TNF-alpha-induced production of granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6 and/or IL-8 in these cells. This increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was functionally significant as supernatants from cells co-treated with TNF-alpha and TZDs displayed increased neutrophil pro-survival activity when compared with supernatants from cells treated with TNF-alpha alone. Additionally, it was shown that TZDs enhance cytokine expression at the transcriptional level, but that the pro-inflammatory effects of TZDs are independent on PPARgamma, nuclear factor kappaB or mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Our study shows that TZDs may potentiate the inflammatory response in epithelial cells, a previously unappreciated effect of these compounds [less ▲]

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See detailBoth soluble and membrane-anchored forms of Felid herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein G function as a broad-spectrum chemokine-binding protein
Costes, Bérénice ULg; Ruiz-Arguello, M. B.; Bryant, N. A. et al

in Journal of General Virology (2005), 86(Pt 12), 3209-3214

Recently, glycoprotein G (gG) of several alphaherpesviruses infecting large herbivores was shown to belong to a new family of chemokine-binding proteins (vCKBPs). In the present study, the function of ... [more ▼]

Recently, glycoprotein G (gG) of several alphaherpesviruses infecting large herbivores was shown to belong to a new family of chemokine-binding proteins (vCKBPs). In the present study, the function of Felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1) gG as a vCKBP was investigated and the following conclusions were reached: (i) FeHV-1 secreted gG is a high-affinity broad-spectrum vCKBP that binds CC, CXC and C chemokines; (ii) gG is the only vCKBP expressed by FeHV-1 that binds CCL3 and CXCL1; (iii) secreted gG blocks chemokine activity by preventing their interaction with high-affinity cellular receptors; (iv) the membrane-anchored form of gG expressed on the surface of infected cells is also able to bind chemokines; and (v) the vCKBP activity is conserved among different field isolates of FeHV-1. Altogether, these data demonstrate that FeHV-1 gG is a new member of the vCKBP-4 family. Moreover, this study is the first to demonstrate that gG expressed at the surface of FeHV-1-infected cells can also bind chemokines. [less ▲]

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See detailSTAT5 promotes granulocyte survival during inflammation
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Desmet, Christophe ULg; Seumois, G. et al

in Proceedings: The American Thoracic Society (2005)

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See detailLes glycosyltransférases virales
Markine-Goriaynoff, N.; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg

in Virologie (2005), 9(1), 35-48

Les glycanes constituent une classe biochimique difficile à investiguer, mais dont les rôles essentiels à tous les niveaux de la biologie se sont imposés comme une évidence ces dernières décennies. Il ... [more ▼]

Les glycanes constituent une classe biochimique difficile à investiguer, mais dont les rôles essentiels à tous les niveaux de la biologie se sont imposés comme une évidence ces dernières décennies. Il apparaît maintenant qu'ils représentent la quatrième catégorie de molécules bio-informatives après l'ADN, l'ARN et les protéines. À ce titre, après la génomique, la transcriptomique et la protéomique, l'ère de la glycomique est appelée à concentrer beaucoup d'intérêts. Des millions d'années durant, les virus ont co-évolué avec leurs hôtes; au cours de ce processus adaptatif, ils ont évolué de manière à favoriser leur multiplication par l'acquisition de moyens visant à imiter, détourner ou saboter les mécanismes les plus complexes de la physiologie de leurs hôtes, y compris les mécanismes destinés à interférer avec le glycome. La découverte de l'importance du glycome dans le contexte de la régulation des interactions entre les virus et leurs hôtes a récemment mené à la notion de « glycovirologie ». Un aspect fascinant de la glycovirologie est l'étude des mécanismes viraux visant à modifier le glycome. Les virus affectent le glycome de deux façons: en régulant l'expression des glycosyltransférases de la cellule hôte ou en exprimant leur propre glycosyltransférase. Cette revue est consacrée aux glycosyltransférases virales et à la description de leurs fonctions. La description de ces enzymes illustre différents concepts fondamentaux de virologie et démontre indirectement le rôle crucial joué par la glycomique dans les processus biologiques. [less ▲]

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See detailViral subversion of the immune system
Gillet, L.; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg

in Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries (2005)

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See detailGenetic immunisation of cattle against bovine herpesvirus 1: glycoprotein gD confers higher protection than glycoprotein gC or tegument protein VP8.
Toussaint, Jean-Francois; Coen, Laurent; Letellier, Carine et al

in Veterinary Research (2005), 36(4), 529-44

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) has frequently been used as a model for testing parameters affecting DNA immunisation in large animals like cattle. However, the selection of target antigens has been poorly ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) has frequently been used as a model for testing parameters affecting DNA immunisation in large animals like cattle. However, the selection of target antigens has been poorly studied, and most of the experiments have been conducted in mice. In the present study, we demonstrated in cattle that a DNA vaccine encoding BoHV-1 glycoprotein gD induces higher neutralising antibody titres than vaccines encoding BoHV-1 gC. Additionally, we show that a DNA vaccine encoding a secreted form of gD induces a higher immune response than a vaccine encoding full-length gD. However, the enhanced immunogenicity associated with the secretion of gD could not be extended to the glycoprotein gC. The current study also describes for the first time the development and the evaluation of a DNA vaccine encoding the major tegument protein VP8. This construct, which is the first BoHV-1 plasmid vaccine candidate that is not directed against a surface glycoprotein, induced a high BoHV-1 specific cellular immunity but no humoral immune response. The calves vaccinated with the constructs encoding full-length and truncated gD showed a non-significant tenfold reduction of virus excretion after challenge. Those calves also excreted virus for significantly (p < 0.05) shorter periods (1.5 days) than the non-vaccinated controls. The other constructs encoding gC and VP8 antigens induced no virological protection as compared to controls. Altogether the DNA vaccines induced weaker immunity and protection than conventional marker vaccines tested previously, confirming the difficulty to develop efficient DNA vaccines in large species. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution de l’herpèsvirus bovin 4 au cours des 1,5 derniers millions d’années
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas; Gaillard, Claude et al

Conference (2004, April)

L’herpèsvirus bovin 4 (BoHV-4) est un gammaherpèsvirus appartenant au genre Rhadinovirus. Récemment, une étude phylogénique a démontré que le gène Bo17 du BoHV-4 codant pour un homologue fonctionnel de la ... [more ▼]

L’herpèsvirus bovin 4 (BoHV-4) est un gammaherpèsvirus appartenant au genre Rhadinovirus. Récemment, une étude phylogénique a démontré que le gène Bo17 du BoHV-4 codant pour un homologue fonctionnel de la C2GnT-M cellulaire a été acquis d’un ancêtre direct ou indirect du buffle africain (Syncerus caffer) il y a quelques 1,5 millions d’années (Markine-Goriaynoff, N. et al. 2003. The core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin encoded by bovine herpesvirus 4 was acquired from an ancestor of the African buffalo. J Virol 77:1784-92). Dans la présente étude, deux objectifs ont été poursuivis. Premièrement, dans le but de préciser l’origine du gène Bo17 du BoHV-4, le gène de la C2GnT-M de diverses sous-espèces de buffles a été séquencé. Les sous-espèces sélectionnées appartiennent aux espèces Syncerus caffer (pour les sous-espèces caffer, aequinoctialis et nanus) et Bubalus bubalis (pour les sous-espèces River, Swamp et Murrah). L’analyse phylogénique des séquences obtenues démontre que le BoHV-4 a acquis son gène Bo17 à partir d’un ancêtre direct de la sous-espèce Syncerus caffer caffer, soit bien après la séparation des Syncerus et des Bubalus. Le second but de cette étude était de déterminer si les souches de BoHV-4 isolées en Afrique à partir de buffle africain forment un groupe phylogénétiquement distinct au sein de l’espèce BoHV-4. Dans ce but, neuf souches représentatives de l’espèce BoHV-4 (dont trois isolées de buffle africain) ont été sequencées au niveau de 5 régions réparties sur l'entièreté du génome viral. L’analyse phylogénique de ces sequences démontre l’existence d’événements de recombinaisons inter-souches survenus récemment au cours de l’évolution. En conclusion, cette étude phylogénique a permis d’étabir que (i) le gène Bo17 du BoHV-4 a été acquis d’un ancêtre direct de la sous-espèce Syncerus caffer caffer de buffle africain, et (ii) que le génome du BoHV-4 a subi par la suite des phénomènes de recombinaisons inter-souches. [less ▲]

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See detailSuperinfection prevents recombination of the alphaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 1
Meurens, F.; Schynts, F.; Keil, G. M. et al

in Journal of Virology (2004), 78(8), 3872-3879

Homologous recombination between strains of the same alphaherpesvirus species occurs frequently both in vitro and in vivo. This process has been described between strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 ... [more ▼]

Homologous recombination between strains of the same alphaherpesvirus species occurs frequently both in vitro and in vivo. This process has been described between strains of herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, pseudorabies virus, feline herpesvirus 1, varicella-zoster virus, and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). In vivo, the rise of recombinant viruses can be modulated by different factors, such as the dose of the inoculated viruses, the distance between inoculation sites, the time interval between inoculation of the first and the second virus, and the genes in which the mutations are located. The effect of the time interval between infections with two distinguishable BoHV-1 on recombination was studied in three ways: (i) recombination at the level of progeny viruses, (ii) interference induced by the first virus infection on beta-gallactosidase gene expression of a superinfecting virus, and (iii) recombination at the level of concatemeric DNA. A time interval of 2 to 8 h between two successive infections allows the establishment of a barrier, which reduces or prevents any successful superinfection needed to generate recombinant viruses. The dramatic effect of the time interval on the rise of recombinant viruses is particularly important for the risk assessment of recombination between glycoprotein E-negative marker vaccine and field strains that could threaten BoHV-1 control and eradication programs. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved antigenic methods for differential diagnosis of bovine, caprine, and cervine alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1
Keuser, V.; Schynts, F.; Detry, Bruno et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2004), 42(3), 1228-1235

The control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. As BoHV-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four ... [more ▼]

The control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. As BoHV-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four other alphaherpesviruses of ruminants-namely, BoHV-5, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1), cervine herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1) and CvHV-2-diagnostic tests able to discriminate BoHV-1 from these related viruses are needed to avoid misdiagnosis, especially because some of these viruses are able to cross the species barrier. In this study, murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for BoHV-1, BoHV-5, CpHV-1, CvHV-1, and CvHV-2 were produced with the aim of setting up an immunofluorescence assay able to discriminate between these related herpesviruses. Produced MAbs were selected for their viral specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence staining of virus-infected cells. Radioimmunoprecipitation characterization of the selected MAbs revealed that four of them are directed against glycoprotein C (gC) and one of them is directed against gD of these related viruses. The obtained results demonstrate that the antibodies produced allow an unambiguous discrimination of each of the four alphaherpesviruses related to BoHV-1. [less ▲]

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See detailCeramides play a critical role in spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis
Seumois, G.; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Gillet, Laurent ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailSTAT5 promotes granulocyte survival during inflammation
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Desmet, Christophe ULg; Pajak, B. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailEffects of thiazolidinediones on tumor necrosis factor R alpha induced inflammatory cytokine expression
Desmet, Christophe ULg; Warsée, Barbara; Mélotte, D. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailGlycosyltransferases encoded by viruses.
Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas; Gillet, Laurent ULg; Van Etten, James L et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2004), 85(Pt 10), 2741-54

Studies of cellular biology in recent decades have highlighted the crucial roles of glycans in numerous important biological processes, raising the concept of glycomics that is now considered as important ... [more ▼]

Studies of cellular biology in recent decades have highlighted the crucial roles of glycans in numerous important biological processes, raising the concept of glycomics that is now considered as important as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. For millions of years, viruses have been co-evolving with their hosts. Consequently, during this co-evolution process, viruses have acquired mechanisms to mimic, hijack or sabotage host processes that favour their replication, including mechanisms to modify the glycome. The importance of the glycome in the regulation of host-virus interactions has recently led to a new concept called 'glycovirology'. One fascinating aspect of glycovirology is the study of how viruses affect the glycome. Viruses reach that goal either by regulating expression of host glycosyltransferases or by expressing their own glycosyltransferases. This review describes all virally encoded glycosyltransferases and discusses their established or putative functions. The description of these enzymes illustrates several intriguing aspects of virology and provides further support for the importance of glycomics in biological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-M encoded by bovine herpesvirus 4 is not essential for virus replication despite contributing to post-translational modifications of structural proteins.
Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas; Gillet, Laurent ULg; Karlsen, Odd A et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2004), 85(Pt 2), 355-67

The Bo17 gene of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is the only virus gene known to date that encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucine type (C2GnT-M). Recently ... [more ▼]

The Bo17 gene of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is the only virus gene known to date that encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucine type (C2GnT-M). Recently, our phylogenetic study revealed that the Bo17 gene has been acquired from an ancestor of the African buffalo around 1.5 million years ago. Despite this recent origin, the Bo17 sequence has spread to fixation in the virus population possibly by natural selection. Supporting the latter hypothesis, it has been shown by our group for the V. test strain that Bo17 is expressed during BoHV-4 replication in vitro, and that Bo17 expression product (pBo17) has all three enzymic activities exhibited by cellular C2GnT-M, i.e. core 2, core 4 and I branching activities. In the present study, firstly it was investigated whether encoding a functional C2GnT-M is a general property of BoHV-4 strains. Analysis of nine representative strains of the BoHV-4 species revealed that all of them express the Bo17 gene and the associated core 2 branching activity during virus replication in vitro. Secondly, in order to investigate the roles of Bo17, its kinetic class of expression was analysed and a deleted recombinant strain was produced. These experiments revealed that Bo17 is expressed as an early gene which is not essential for virus replication in vitro. However, comparison of the structural proteins, produced by the wild-type, the revertant and the deleted viruses, by 2D gels demonstrated that pBo17 contributes to the post-translational modifications of structural proteins. Possible roles of Bo17 in vivo are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D expression in bovine upper respiratory tract mediated by a human adenovirus type 5
Gogev, S.; Georgin, J. P.; Schynts, F. et al

in Veterinary Research (2004), 35(6, Nov-Dec), 715-721

Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D (gD) gene expression by recombinant replication defective human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) was investigated in calves using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (IIFM ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D (gD) gene expression by recombinant replication defective human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) was investigated in calves using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (IIFM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and RT-PCR. One fold intranasal instillation of HAdV-5-expressing gD in the cattle upper respiratory tract showed a short term expression of at least 5 days, but not 10 days, limited only to epithelial cells localised in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa in one out of six calves. Observed limited gene transfer into well differentiated cattle airway epithelial cells must be taken into consideration in order to enhance transfection efficiency, and consequently the vaccine potential of this vector. [less ▲]

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