References of "Vandenheede, Marc"
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See detailFacteurs influençant le comportement alimentaire et les performances du porc sevré: l'équipement d'alimentation.
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(2), 61-74

Among the most important elements of the nursery pen design, the feeder allows or not the optimisation of pigs' performance. Two principal design features can characterize a feeder : the way pigs will be ... [more ▼]

Among the most important elements of the nursery pen design, the feeder allows or not the optimisation of pigs' performance. Two principal design features can characterize a feeder : the way pigs will be fed ( wet, dry or wet/dry) and its capacity, which depends in turn on the trough length or the number of feeding spaces ( mono - or multi- space feeder and communal trough). To determine the number of pigs that can be accommodated per feeder, the daily time spent per pig at the feeder - depending on pig size and feed delivered - must be taken into account. Recommendations of 4 to 10 weaned pigs per feeding space are generally given. Pigs are able to adapt their eating behaviour when crowding occurs but suboptimal situations may reduce feed intake and productivity and even impair welfare. Some particularities of the feeder such as limited depth, feeder gap opening, lip height, side panels or protective crate can limit feed spillage and/ or agonistic interactions at the feeder. Feeder position in the pen should prevent pigs to be disturbed while eating and allow free movement of penmates. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions in the raising of fattening pigs on fully slatted floor or on straw-based deep litter
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the XIIth international congress of the International Society for animal Hygiene, Animals and the environment (2005)

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See detailGaseous emissions from deep-litter pens with straw or sawdust for fattening pigs
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Animal Science (2004), 78(Part 1), 99-107

Three successive batches of fattening pigs were raised on a deep litter of straw in one room and of sawdust in another. The quantities of litter used per pig were 40 kg of straw and 81 kg of sawdust. Once ... [more ▼]

Three successive batches of fattening pigs were raised on a deep litter of straw in one room and of sawdust in another. The quantities of litter used per pig were 40 kg of straw and 81 kg of sawdust. Once a month, the emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour were measured continuously for 6 days consecutively. Gaseous emissions from pig raising on sawdust-based litter and straw-based litter were respectively 12.16 and 13.61 g per pig per day for ammonia (NH3), 4.96 and 7.39 g per pig per day for methane (CH4), 2.09 and 0.03 g per pig per day for nitrous oxide (N2O), 3.15 and 2.74 kg per pig per day for water (H2O) and 1.32 and 1.30 kg per pig per day for carbon dioxide (CO2). Differences between the emissions of the two litters were significant for N2O and H2O (P < 0.01). The nitrogen content of the manures collected at the end of the experiment was 1.47 kg per pig for the straw-based litter and 1.07 kg per pig for that based on sawdust. Nitrogen emissions were calculated under the assumption that no gases volatilized from the litter or from the animals other than NH3 and N2O. With the two litters, about 50% of nitrogen excreted by the pigs was emitted into the atmosphere in the form of N-2. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions in the raising of weaned pigs on fully slatted floor or on straw-bases deep litter
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Clement, G.; Madec, F. (Eds.) Proceedings of the in- between congress of the International Society for Animal Hygiene (2004)

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See detailFacteurs influençant la consommation alimentaire et les performances zootechniques du porc sevré: perception et caractéristiques de l'aliment
Laitat, Martine ULg; De Jaeger, F.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 15-29

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers ... [more ▼]

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers report studies about pigs' perception of the feed's organoleptic properties. Pigs are attracted by specific flavors and show taste acuity for the five basic stimuli. The choice of pigs for a diet formulation is mainly based on the protein content of the food and the absence of toxin or anti-nutritional contaminants. They also tend to prefer eating pellets and crumbles rather than meal. Weaned pigs readily accept liquid feed. Wet/dry feeders give the possibility to the pigs to mix water and food at the same place and notably allow them to eat faster when they are fed meal. However, wet feeding may induce greater food wastage. The influence of food visual aspect on feed intake in pigs has been little assessed. Visual and auditory stimuli produced by the feeding behaviour of penmates have although a better-known impact on feed intake in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of diet form (pellets or meal) on the optimal number of weaned pigs per feeding space
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Journal of Swine Health and Production (2004), 12(6, NOV-DEC), 288-295

Objectives: To assess the influence of group size and diet form on performance and feeding behavior of weaned pigs and to determine an optimal number of pigs per feeding space for pellets or meal provided ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To assess the influence of group size and diet form on performance and feeding behavior of weaned pigs and to determine an optimal number of pigs per feeding space for pellets or meal provided in a tube feeder. Methods: During six consecutive trials, feeding behavior and performance of groups comprising 30 (G30), 40 (G40), or 50 (G50) weaned pigs were compared for 6 weeks after weaning. A tube feeder was used for all groups, delivering either pellets or meal (trough length 64 cm; two integrated drinkers). Results: Mean ADG was 5% higher when pigs were fed pellets rather than meal (P = .06). Whatever the diet, ADG was lower in G50 than in G40 (P < .05). In groups fed meal, ADG was lower in G40 than in G30 (P < .001). Average time using the feeder was 4.7 minutes per hour for pigs fed pellets, and 7.3 minutes per hour for pigs fed meal (P = .003). Overall feeder occupation rates during the day were 139 +/- 30% for meal and 93 +/- 21% for pellets (P = .01), and during the night, 91 +/- 33% for meal and 54 +/- 15% for pellets (P = .03), assuming 100% is four pigs eating simultaneously during the observation period. Implications: Diet form influences the optimal number of pigs per feeder space. For the tube feeders in this study, the recommended maximum number of pigs per feeding space is 6.5 for pigs fed meal and 10.2 for pigs fed pellets. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural impact of food presentation: How to find an ideal number od weaned pigs per feeding place?
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Kirkwood, J. K.; Roberts, E. A.; Vickery, S. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (2004)

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See detailEmissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the raising of weaned pigs on straw-based and sawdust-based deep litters
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Animal Research (2003), 52(3, MAY-JUN), 299-308

Five successive batches of 40 weaned pigs were raised on deep litter of sawdust or straw without changing the litter in between batches. The quantity of litter dry matter utilized in the two cases was 5 ... [more ▼]

Five successive batches of 40 weaned pigs were raised on deep litter of sawdust or straw without changing the litter in between batches. The quantity of litter dry matter utilized in the two cases was 5 kg per pig. The concentrations of gases were measured 8 times, at about one-month intervals, for 6 consecutive days and the ventilation flow was recorded continuously. Pig raising on saw-dust-based litter differed from that with straw by an emission of 2.6 times less ammonia (0.46 vs. 1.21 g per pig per day), 2.1 times less methane (0.77 vs. 1.58 g per pig per day), 3.9 times more N2O (1.39 vs. 0.36 g per pig per day), 4% more CO2 (481 vs. 463 g per pig per day) and 21% more H2O (1126 vs. 933 g per pig per day). All differences were significant. About 58% of the nitrogen excreted by the pigs was recovered in the gas form and for the two litters, about 79% in the form of N-2. [less ▲]

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See detailFeeding behaviour of weaned pigs fed either pellets or meal: effects of the number of aniamls per feeding place
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Ferrante, V. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 37th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (2003)

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See detailInfluence of social and non-social environmental enrichment on the behaviour of caged rabbits.
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Halloy, D.

in Ferrante, V. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 37th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (2003)

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See detailAnimal welfare: The contribution of ethology
Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(1, FEB-MAR), 17-22

During the last fifty years, intensive husbandry has profoundly modified the animal living conditions, especially in pigs and poultry. At the same time, concerns about animal welfare were growing on ... [more ▼]

During the last fifty years, intensive husbandry has profoundly modified the animal living conditions, especially in pigs and poultry. At the same time, concerns about animal welfare were growing on. "Welfare " (" le bien-etre " in french) can be defined as a state of dynamic balance (homeostasy) between the animal and its environment (internal and external). The attempts of the animal to maintain or to adjust this balance may induce physical and mental sufferings, eventually harmful even on a health than on a performance point of view. Welfare of farm animals is assessed using 4 complementary and closely linked types of measures, i.e. performance, health, physiology and ethology. Ethological measurements involve a lot of advantages and are more and more utilised: study of adaptation abilities, behavioural disorders or animal motivation and preference. Ethology is thus considered as a very useful tool that can not be neglected, as shown by the important scientific work, notably in pigs and poultry. Research results have to constitute an essential prerequisite to the ethical reflection process regarding animal welfare, allowing to induce concrete and relevant political acts. [less ▲]

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See detailLe "bien-être animal": un choix de société.
Vandenheede, Marc ULg

Article for general public (2002)

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See detailLes conditions d'un bien-être pour les animaux de rente.
Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Les Elevages Belges (2002), 4

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See detailBien-être animal: les apports de l'Ethologie.
Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Journée d'étude Bien-être des porcs et des volailles (2002)

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See detailPrise en compte du bien-être des animaux dans l’aménagement des porcheries : les aspects réglementaires
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(1), 39-42

A new directive laying down standards for the protection of pigs was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities (directive 2001/88/CE ; OJC 1 Decembre 2001). This directive is amending ... [more ▼]

A new directive laying down standards for the protection of pigs was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities (directive 2001/88/CE ; OJC 1 Decembre 2001). This directive is amending directive 91/630/CEE entered into force in Belgium in 1994. The three main topics refer to : the characteristics of the flooring surfaces, pregnant sows housing and the feeding systems. This paper details and discusses these topics and other points involving modifications of pig housing and management. [less ▲]

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See detailResting and feeding behaviors of Holstein cows around calving: effects of parity
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain; Canart, Bernard et al

in Proceedings 35th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (2001)

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See detailMother-Young Relationships in Belgian Blue Cattle after a Caesarean Section: Characterisation and Effects of Parity
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, A. et al

in Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2001), 72(3), 281-292

The systematic use of Caesarean section in "double muscled" Belgian Blue cattle can induce ethical concerns. The aims of the following study was to characterise mother-young relationships in such a ... [more ▼]

The systematic use of Caesarean section in "double muscled" Belgian Blue cattle can induce ethical concerns. The aims of the following study was to characterise mother-young relationships in such a situation and to assess the effect of parity. Fifteen heifers and 15 cows of the Belgian Blue breed were observed using video recording when isolated with their calf during the 3 days following Caesarean, a rapid surgery with rare occurrence of aggressive behaviour and no sign of cows' discomfort or weakness. All calves were bottle-fed mother's colostrum once before first suckling occurred. Heifers' calves received a supplementary number of three such artificial meals, while cows' calves needed only one. The overall median time to first licking of the calf by the mother was 3.3min without any effect of parity. The mean licking frequency was 29.2+/-15.8 per 24h: heifers licked their calf less frequently than cows, respectively 23.4+/-15.3 per 24h versus 35.1+/-14.5 per 24h (P<0.05). The mean total licking duration was 42.2+/-25.9min per 24h: there was no significant difference between heifers and cows. The overall median time to first suckling was 6.1h, without any effect of parity. The mean suckling frequency was 8.4+/-4.8 per 24h: for half of these suckling bouts, the calf was situated on the left side of the mother, i.e. the side of the scar. The suckling frequency was negatively correlated with the number of artificial meals (r(s)=-0.45,P<0.05). Heifers suckled their calf less often than cows, respectively 6.1+/-3.1 per 24h versus 10.7+/-5.2 per 24h (P<0.01), but the left side proportion was not significantly different. The mean suckling total duration was 35.3+/-21.0min per 24h. The calf was on the left side of the mother during half of this time. Heifers suckled their calf during a shorter time than cows, respectively 26.9+/-20.0min per 24h versus 43.8+/-19.1min per 24h (P<0.05), and the left side proportion was not significantly different. Licking frequency and suckling duration were positively correlated (r=0.43,P<0.05). Only 10% of the mothers (one heifer and two cows) butted their calf and kicking was never observed. Despite the difficult comparison with results of the literature according to various methodologies, mother-young relationships were considered as similar to those reported after natural calving. In our study, cows can be considered as better mothers than heifers. [less ▲]

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See detailEmissions d'ammoniac, de protoxyde d'azote, de méthane, de gaz carbonique et de vapeur d'eau lors de l'élevage de porcs charcutiers sur litière accumulée de sciure: quantification et corrélations avec le niveau d'activités des animaux
Delcourt, M.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, A. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145(6), 357-364

During a 4-month fattening period, emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O from a pig house with fattening pigs on deep litter was measured once a month during four days (one measurement every 30 min ... [more ▼]

During a 4-month fattening period, emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O from a pig house with fattening pigs on deep litter was measured once a month during four days (one measurement every 30 min). The activity rate of the animals was also measured hourly as the mean proportion of standing animals observed each two minutes. The mean daily emissions of gas, calculated per pig, were 9,5 g NH3, 3,2 g N2O, 4,8 g CH4, 1,3 kg CO2 and 3,3 kg water vapour. Emissions increased during the fattening period, the values observed at the end being 50%, 50%, 680% and 1000% higher than those at the beginning, for CO2, H2O, CH4 and NH3 respectively. Emissions of N2O were however higher at the beginning than at the end of the fattening period. The activity rate of the pigs followed a circadian rhythm, pigs being observed in a standing position much more frequently during the day than during the night, especially in the morning, at the end of the afternoon and at the beginning of the evening. The activity rate decreased continuously during the fattening period, from 22,6 +/- 4,1% to 8,8 +/- 0,5%. Within each monthly observation period, the hourly emissions of NH3, CO2 and H2O were positively correlated with the pigs' activity rate, the mean correlation coefficients being 0,61 for NH3, 0,71 for CO2 and 0,75 for water vapour. The correlation coefficients were not significant for N2O and CH4 in periods 2 et 3 but significant in periods 1 and 4 with mean values of -0,55 for N2O and +0,26 for CH4. [less ▲]

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