References of "Van der Linden, Martial"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe use of perceptual fluency in patients with Alzheimer disease: the role of expectation
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2008, April)

We investigated whether the use of perceptual fluency as recognition cue by patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) depends on whether fluency is perceived as relevant to the recognition decision. In normal ... [more ▼]

We investigated whether the use of perceptual fluency as recognition cue by patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) depends on whether fluency is perceived as relevant to the recognition decision. In normal subjects, enhanced perceptual fluency increased positive recognition responses when study and test stimuli were presented in the same sensory modality but not when stimuli were presented in different modalities (Westerman et al., J. of Mem. & Lang., 47, 2002). These results suggest that the use of perceptual fluency as a heuristic in recognition memory depends on the correspondence between study and test modalities and thus on the perceived usefulness of fluency. We investigated this change of sensory modality between study and test phases in 16 AD patients and 16 matched normal controls by using a verbal recognition task. The perceptual fluency of recognition test items was enhanced by briefly presenting a prime that matched the subsequent test item. We observed that changes in modality attenuated the contribution of fluency to the recognition decision in both subjects groups. In addition, we noted a positive correlation between fluency use and metamemory self-evaluation. These results suggest that the fluency heuristic is subject to metacognitive control in AD patients, exactly in the same way as normal subject, since patients’ attributions of perceptual fluency depend on expectations about relevance of fluency as memory cue. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNeural Correlates of Envisioning Emotional Events in the near and Far Future
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin et al

in NeuroImage (2008), 40(1), 398-407

Being able to envision emotional events that might happen in the future has a clear adaptive value. This study addressed the functional neuroanatomy of this process and investigated whether it is ... [more ▼]

Being able to envision emotional events that might happen in the future has a clear adaptive value. This study addressed the functional neuroanatomy of this process and investigated whether it is modulated by temporal distance. Participants imagined positive and negative events pertaining to the near future or far future while their brain activity was measured with fMRI. The results demonstrate that the anterior part of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was more active in envisioning emotional events in the far future than in the near future, whereas the caudate nucleus was engaged in envisioning emotional (especially positive) situations in the near future. We argue that the anterior part of the vmPFC might assign emotional values to mental representations of future events that pertain to long-term goals. On the other hand, the caudate might support more concrete simulations of action plans to achieve rewarding situations in the near future. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRemembering the Past and Imagining the Future in Schizophrenia
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Raffard, Stéphane; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Journal of Abnormal Psychology (2008), 117(1), 247-51

It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia experience a distorted sense of continuity of self across time. However, temporal aspects of self-processing have received little empirical attention ... [more ▼]

It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia experience a distorted sense of continuity of self across time. However, temporal aspects of self-processing have received little empirical attention in schizophrenia. In this study, the authors investigated schizophrenic patients' ability to generate specific mental images of their personal past and future. Results showed that patients recalled fewer specific past events than did healthy controls and were even more impaired in generating specific future events. These deficits were associated with positive symptoms but were not associated with negative symptoms or with performances on verbal fluency tasks. It is suggested that schizophrenic patients' failures to project themselves into specific past and future episodes might be related to difficulties in retrieving contextual details from memory, as well as disturbance of the sense of subjective time. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 239 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImplicit/explicit memory dissociation in Alzheimer's disease: the consequence of inappropriate processing?
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Neuropsychology (2008), 22(6), 710-7

Dual-process theories of recognition posit that perceptual fluency contributes to both familiarity-based explicit recognition and perceptual priming. However, the priming-without-recognition dissociation ... [more ▼]

Dual-process theories of recognition posit that perceptual fluency contributes to both familiarity-based explicit recognition and perceptual priming. However, the priming-without-recognition dissociation, as observed through the intact mere exposure effect and impaired recognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), might indicate that familiarity and perceptual priming are functionally distinct. This study investigated whether the AD patients' processing strategies at testing may explain this priming-without-recognition dissociation. First, we replicated the priming-without-recognition effect in 16 patients who exhibited intact exposure effects despite null recognition. Second, we showed that, under identical conditions, inducing a holistic processing strategy during recognition testing increased AD patients' recognition--performance was similar for AD patients and healthy control participants. Furthermore, prompting analytic processing during both priming and recognition tasks decreased AD patients' performance in both tasks. These findings suggest that the extent to which AD patients use perceptual fluency in priming and recognition tasks is contingent on their processing approach. The choice of processing strategy may depend on how difficult patients perceive the task to be. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (33 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLe fonctionnement cognitif dans la phobie sociale
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Van der Linden, Martial; Ceschi, Gracia (Eds.) Traité de psychopathologie cognitive (Tome II) (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 173 (38 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEmbodiment effects in memory for facial identity and facial expression
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Lepper, Miriam; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Cognition & Emotion (2008), 22

Research suggests that states of the body, such as postures, facial expressions, and arm movements, play central roles in social information processing. This study investigated the effects of approach ... [more ▼]

Research suggests that states of the body, such as postures, facial expressions, and arm movements, play central roles in social information processing. This study investigated the effects of approach/avoidance movements on memory for facial information. Faces displaying a happy or a sad expression were presented and participants were induced to perform either an approach (arm flexion) or an avoidance (arm extension) movement. States of awareness associated with memory for facial identity and memory for facial expression were then assessed with the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. The results showed that performing avoidance movements increased Know responses for the identity, and Know/Guess responses for the expression, of valence-compatible stimuli (i.e., sad faces as compared to happy faces), whereas this was not the case for approach movements. Based on these findings, it is suggested that approach/avoidance motor actions influence memory encoding by increasing the ease of processing for valence-compatible information. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPhenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories and imagined events in sub-clinical obsessive-compulsive checkers
Zermatten, Ariane; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2008), 22(1), 113-125

Phenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories and imagined experiences were examined in checking- and non-checking-prone individuals. Participants were asked to retrieve a positive, a negative ... [more ▼]

Phenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories and imagined experiences were examined in checking- and non-checking-prone individuals. Participants were asked to retrieve a positive, a negative and a neutral memory, and to imagine a positive, a negative and a neutral experience. They were then requested to evaluate each event according to characteristics such as sensory and contextual details. The main results revealed that non-checking-prone participants reported more general vividness than checking-prone individuals for real events. In addition, non-checking-prone individuals reported more visual details and vividness for real than imagined experiences, while no difference between real and imagined events was found for checking-prone participants. These results suggest that checking-prone participants report poor memories of real events, which could in turn explain their difficulties distinguishing between real and imagined events. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentity recognition and happy and sad facial expression recall: Influence of depressive symptoms
Jermann, Françoise; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Memory (2008), 16(4), 364-373

Relatively few studies have examined memory bias for social stimuli in depression or dysphoria. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on memory for facial ... [more ▼]

Relatively few studies have examined memory bias for social stimuli in depression or dysphoria. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on memory for facial information. A total of 234 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II and a task examining memory for facial identity and expression of happy and sad faces. For both facial identity and expression, the recollective experience was measured with the Remember/Know/Guess procedure (Gardiner Richardson-Klavehn, 2000). The results show no major association between depressive symptoms and memory for identities. However, dysphoric individuals consciously recalled (Remember responses) more sad facial expressions than non-dysphoric individuals. These findings suggest that sad facial expressions led to more elaborate encoding, and thereby better recollection, in dysphoric individuals. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRemembering pride and shame: Self-enhancement and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Memory (2008), 16(5), 538-547

People's self-images are grounded in autobiographical memories and, in particular, in the phenomenological experience associated with remembering. The desire to increase or maintain the positivity of the ... [more ▼]

People's self-images are grounded in autobiographical memories and, in particular, in the phenomenological experience associated with remembering. The desire to increase or maintain the positivity of the self-image (i.e., the self-enhancement motive) might thus play an important role in shaping memory phenomenology. This study examined this hypothesis by asking participants to recall positive and negative events that involve self-evaluations (i.e., pride and shame) and positive and negative events that involve evaluations about others (i.e., admiration and contempt); various phenomenological characteristics (e.g., sensory details, feeling of re-experiencing) were assessed using rating scales. The results show a positivity bias (i.e., subjectively remembering positive events with more details than negative events) for events that involve self-evaluations but not for events that involve evaluations of others. In addition, this bias was stronger for people high in self-esteem. It is concluded that biases affecting the phenomenology of autobiographical memory are part of the arsenal of psychological mechanisms people use to maintain a positive self-image. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 115 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSelf-reflection across time: cortical midline structures differentiate between present and past selves
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2008), 3(3), 244-252

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we explored the neural correlates of self-reflection across time using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). College undergraduates were asked to reflect on their own psychological characteristics and those of an intimate other, for both the present time period (i.e. at college) and a past time period (i.e. high school years) that involved significant personal changes. Cortical midline structures (CMS) were commonly recruited by the four reflective tasks (reflecting on the present self, past self, present other and past other), relative to a control condition (making valence judgments). More importantly, however, the degree of activity in CMS also varied significantly according to the target of reflection, with the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex being more recruited when reflecting on the present self than when reflecting on the past self or when reflecting on the other person. These findings suggest that CMS may contribute to differentiate between representations of present and past selves. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAssociations Between Dimensions of Alexithymia and Psychometric Schizotypy in Nonclinical Participants
Laroi, Frank ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Aleman, A.

in Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease (2008), 196(12), 927-930

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNew learning in dementia: transfer and spontaneous use of learning in everyday life functioning. Two case studies.
Bier, Nathalie; Provencher, Veronique; Gagnon, Lise et al

in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (2008), 18(2), 204-35

The purpose of these two case studies was to explore the effectiveness of learning methods in dementia when applied in real-life settings and the integration of new skills in daily life functioning. The ... [more ▼]

The purpose of these two case studies was to explore the effectiveness of learning methods in dementia when applied in real-life settings and the integration of new skills in daily life functioning. The first participant, DD, learned to look at a calendar with the spaced retrieval method to answer his repeated questions about the current date and calls made to family. Progressive cuing was used by his wife to increase spontaneous use of the calendar, but DD had difficulty integrating the calendar into his routine. The second patient, MD, relearned a leisure activity (listening to music on a cassette radio) and how to participate in a social activity (saying the rosary in a group) with a combination of learning methods. Transfer of these skills in similar contexts was difficult for MD. She never integrated the cassette radio into her daily life routine but she went regularly to the rosary activity, which was cued by an alarm clock. In sum, the learning methods used were very effective with these patients but transfer and spontaneous use were difficult. Since these aspects are essential to rehabilitation, they should be further explored in order to increase the effectiveness of cognitive interventions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFace-name association learning in early Alzheimer's disease: a comparison of learning methods and their underlying mechanisms.
Bier, Nathalie; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Gagnon, Lise et al

in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (2008), 18(3), 343-71

This study compared the efficacy of five learning methods in the acquisition of face-name associations in early dementia of Alzheimer type (AD). The contribution of error production and implicit memory to ... [more ▼]

This study compared the efficacy of five learning methods in the acquisition of face-name associations in early dementia of Alzheimer type (AD). The contribution of error production and implicit memory to the efficacy of each method was also examined. Fifteen participants with early AD and 15 matched controls were exposed to five learning methods: spaced retrieval, vanishing cues, errorless, and two trial-and-error methods, one with explicit and one with implicit memory task instructions. Under each method, participants had to learn a list of five face-name associations, followed by free recall, cued recall and recognition. Delayed recall was also assessed. For AD, results showed that all methods were efficient but there were no significant differences between them. The number of errors produced during the learning phases varied between the five methods but did not influence learning. There were no significant differences between implicit and explicit memory task instructions on test performances. For the control group, there were no differences between the five methods. Finally, no significant correlations were found between the performance of the AD participants in free recall and their cognitive profile, but generally, the best performers had better remaining episodic memory. Also, case study analyses showed that spaced retrieval was the method for which the greatest number of participants (four) obtained results as good as the controls. This study suggests that the five methods are effective for new learning of face-name associations in AD. It appears that early AD patients can learn, even in the context of error production and explicit memory conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparison of inhibitory functioning in mild Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Amieva, Hélène; Adam, Stéphane ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2007), 43(7), 866-874

Executive dysfunction is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More specifically, inhibitory dysfunction is observed early in AD and ... [more ▼]

Executive dysfunction is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More specifically, inhibitory dysfunction is observed early in AD and inhibitory deficits are also prominent in patients with FTD. However, few studies have simultaneously explored and compared inhibitory abilities in both degenerative diseases. Consequently, the aim of this study was to compare verbal and motor inhibitory processes in the initial stages of AD and the frontal variant of FTD. Stroop and Go/No-go tasks were administered. The results demonstrate that, on the Go/No-go task, AD and FTD patients do not produce more errors than control subjects. However, both groups are impaired on the Stroop task (mainly with regard to the error score) but do not differ from each other. These results indicate that AD and FTD patients do not present a general impairment of their inhibitory abilities. Moreover, these two kinds of dementia present similar quantitative and qualitative inhibitory impairments on the two tasks, although their patterns of structural and functional cerebral impairments are known to be different. The presence of similar inhibitory deficits despite very different patterns of brain damage is in agreement with the hypothesis that inhibitory dysfunction in the two groups of patients depends on a disconnection process between anterior and posterior cerebral areas, rather than on the presence of focal metabolism decreases in different regions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 117 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFacial expressions of emotion influence memory for facial identity in an automatic way
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Emotion (Washington, D.C.) (2007), 7(3), 507-515

Previous studies indicate that the encoding of new facial identities in memory is influenced by the type of expression displayed by the faces. fit the current study, the authors investigated whether or ... [more ▼]

Previous studies indicate that the encoding of new facial identities in memory is influenced by the type of expression displayed by the faces. fit the current study, the authors investigated whether or not this influence requires attention to be explicitly directed toward the affective meaning of facial expressions. In a first experiment, the authors found that facial identity was better recognized when the faces were initially encountered with a happy rather than an angry expression, even when attention wits oriented toward facial features other than expression. Using the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm in a second experiment, the authors found that the influence of facial expressions on the conscious recollection of facial identity was even more pronounced when participants' attention wits not directed toward expressions. It is suggested that the affective meaning of facial expressions automatically modulates the encoding of facial identity in memory. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 213 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOptimization of encoding specificity for the diagnosis of early AD: The RI-48 task
Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Ivanoiu, A. et al

in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology (2007), 29(5), 477-487

The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of the RI-48 test, a shorter French version of the Category Cued Recall portion of the Double Memory Test developed initially by Buschke and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of the RI-48 test, a shorter French version of the Category Cued Recall portion of the Double Memory Test developed initially by Buschke and colleagues (1997), in the diagnosis of mild and very mild Alzheimer disease (AD). The distinctive feature of the RI-48 task is that encoding specificity was increased by adding an immediate cued recall stage at the encoding phase. The results show that the RI-48 task seems to be well adapted to the clinical context and to have good psychometric properties, in particular a lack of a ceiling effect. Moreover, this task appears to be especially well suited for the diagnosis of both mild and very mild AD (sensitivity of 93% and 83.8%). From a more theoretical point of view, this study confirms the importance of optimizing the encoding specificity for the diagnosis of very mild AD, since the more encoding specificity is accentuated, the more discriminating power is increased for the diagnosis of very mild AD. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 132 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailControlled processes account for age-related decrease in episodic memory
Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2007), 125(1), 20-36

A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the ... [more ▼]

A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the contribution of controlled and automatic processes to cognitive performance, and entered both estimates in regression analyses. Results indicate that only controlled processes explained a great part of the age-related variance in a word recall task, especially when little environmental support was offered. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailShort-term memory and the left intraparietal sulcus: Focus of attention? Further evidence from a face short-term memory paradigm
Majerus, Steve ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2007), 35(1), 353-367

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an ... [more ▼]

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an attentional modulator, maintaining activation in long-term memory networks that underlie the initial perception and processing of the specific information to be retained. In a recognition STM paradigm, we presented sequences of unfamiliar faces and instructed the participants to remember different types of information: either the identity of the faces or their order of presentation. We hypothesized that, if the left IPS acts as an attentional modulator, it should be active in both conditions, but connected to different neural networks specialized in serial order or face identity processing. Our results showed that the left IPS was activated during both order and identity encoding conditions, but for different reasons. During order encoding, the left IPS showed functional connectivity with order processing areas in the right IPS, bilateral premotor and cerebellar cortices, reproducing earlier results obtained in a verbal STM experiment. During identity encoding, the left IPS showed preferential functional connectivity with right temporal, inferior parietal and medial frontal areas involved in detailed face processing. These results not only support an attentional account of left IPS involvement in visual STM, but given their similarity with previous results obtained for a verbal STM task, they further highlight the importance of the left IPS as an attentional modulator in a variety of STM tasks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (29 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVerbal short-term memory in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: Specific deficit in serial order retention capacities?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Braissand, V. et al

in American Journal on Mental Retardation (2007), 112(2), 79-93

Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet ... [more ▼]

Many researchers have recently explored the cognitive profile of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a neurodevelopmental disorder linked to a 22q11.2 deletion. However, verbal short-term memory has not yet been systematically investigated. We explored verbal short-term memory abilities in a group of 11 children and adults presenting with VCFS and two control groups, matched on either CA or vocabulary knowledge, by distinguishing short-term memory for serial order and item information. The VCFS group showed impaired performance on the serial order short-term memory tasks compared to both control groups. Relative to the vocabulary-matched control group, item short-term memory was preserved. The implication of serial order short-term memory deficits on other aspects of cognitive development in VCFS (e.g., language development, numerical cognition) is discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 ULg)