References of "Van der Linden, Martial"
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See detailDoes sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2003), 26(6), 746-747

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of ... [more ▼]

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer. [less ▲]

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See detailAn investigation of verbal short-term memory and phonological processing in four children with Williams syndrome
Majerus, Steve ULg; Barisnikov, K.; Vuillemin, I. et al

in Neurocase : Case Studies in Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry & Behavioural Neurology (2003), 9(5), 390-401

Although phonological processing is generally considered to be a proficiency in Williams syndrome (WS), there are very few studies which have extensively explored phonological processing abilities in WS ... [more ▼]

Although phonological processing is generally considered to be a proficiency in Williams syndrome (WS), there are very few studies which have extensively explored phonological processing abilities in WS. In this study, we re-assessed phonological processing in WS by exploring verbal STM and phonological awareness abilities in 4 children with WS (CA: 10-12 years) and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and the other matched for verbal mental age (VA). Our results confirm and extend previous claims of preserved phonological STM in WS by showing specifically preserved STM performance for non-words, compared to both VA and CA control groups. However, we observed that this was the case only for non-words where support of phonological and lexico-semantic knowledge was minimized, with reduced phonological and lexico-semantic effects on STM performance. Furthermore, a more direct assessment of phonological processing abilities through phonological awareness tasks showed impaired performance for the 4 WS children. Our data confirm that STM for non-words represents a real strength in. WS but they do not support previous assumptions of a more general preservation of phonological processing abilities in WS. Implications for impaired and preserved cognitive processes underlying verbal STM and phonological awareness abilities in WS are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity and expression memory for happy and angry faces in social anxiety
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2003), 114(1), 1-15

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces ... [more ▼]

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were asked both for identity and expression memory. For participants low in social anxiety, both identity and expression memory were more often associated with "remember" responses when the faces were previously seen with a happy rather than an angry expression. In contrast, the initial expression of the faces did not affect either identity or expression memory for participants high in social anxiety. We interpreted these findings by arguing that most people tend to preferentially elaborate positive rather than negative social stimuli that are important to the self and that this tendency may be reduced in high socially anxious individuals because of the negative meaning they tend to ascribe to positive social information. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDissociations between verbal short-term memory and phonological processing in Williams syndrome.
Majerus, Steve ULg; Barisnikov, K.; Poncelet, Martine ULg et al

Conference (2003, August)

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See detailThe effects of happy and angry expressions on identity and expression memory for unfamiliar faces
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Comblain, Christine et al

in Cognition & Emotion (2003), 17(4), 609-622

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were ... [more ▼]

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were made both for identity and expression memory. Results showed that faces were better recognised when presented with a happy rather than an angry expression, but only when learning was intentional. This was mainly due to an increase of the I remember" responses for happy faces when encoding was intentional rather than incidental. In contrast, memory for emotional expressions was not different for happy and angry faces whatever the encoding conditions. We interpret these findings according to the social meaning of emotional expressions for the self. [less ▲]

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See detailPhonological short-term memory networks following recovery from Landau and Kleffner syndrome
Majerus, Steve ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2003), 19(3), 133-144

Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare acquired aphasia occurring in otherwise healthy children, together with spike-wave discharges predominating over superior temporal regions and activated by sleep ... [more ▼]

Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare acquired aphasia occurring in otherwise healthy children, together with spike-wave discharges predominating over superior temporal regions and activated by sleep. Although the outcome of language abilities is variable, a residual impairment in verbal short-term memory (STM) is frequent. This STM deficit might be related to the persistent dysfunction of those temporal lobe regions where epileptic discharges were observed during the active phase of the disorder. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brain activation during immediate serial recall of lists of 4 words, compared to single word repetition, using H(2) (15)O positron emission tomography (PET), in 3 LKS patients after recovery and in 14 healthy controls. The patients (TG, JPH, and DC) had shown abnormally increased or decreased glucose metabolism in left or right superior temporal gyrus (STG) at different stages during the active phase of their disease. At the time of this study, the patients were 6-10 years from the active phase of LKS. Results showed that Patients JPH and DC had impaired performance in the STM condition, whereas TG showed near normal performance. PET data showed that JPH and DC activated significantly less than controls left and right posterior STG. TG, having near normal STM performance, showed increased activity in the posterior part of the right STG. These data suggest that impaired verbal STM at late outcome of LKS might indeed be related to a persistent decrease of activity in those posterior superior temporal gyri that were involved in the epileptic focus during the active phase. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit learning of complex information in amnesia
Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Brain & Cognition (2003), 52(2), 250-257

Implicit learning abilities of nine amnesic patients were explored by using an artificial grammar learning task in which the test strings were constructed in such a way that grammaticality judgments could ... [more ▼]

Implicit learning abilities of nine amnesic patients were explored by using an artificial grammar learning task in which the test strings were constructed in such a way that grammaticality judgments could not be based on a simple knowledge of bigrams and trigrams (chunks). Results show that amnesic patients and controls performed at the same level during the classification task, whereas amnesic patients performed worse than controls in an explicit generation task. Moreover, there was no correlation between the implicit and explicit measures. These results are compatible with the existence of two kinds of representation intervening in artificial grammar learning. The first one based on processes leading to fragment-specific knowledge (the chunks, which can be accessed explicitly), and the second based on the learning of simple associations and more complex conditional relations between elements. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther exploration memory bias in compulsive washers
Ceschi, G.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Dunker, D. et al

in Behaviour Research and Therapy (2003), 41(6), 737-748

The aim of the present study was to replicate Radomsky and Rachman's findings on memory bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), using the same procedure but an increased sample size, more specific ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to replicate Radomsky and Rachman's findings on memory bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), using the same procedure but an increased sample size, more specific control groups, and a full analysis of contamination attribution data. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term memory effects on verbal short-term memory : a replication study
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2003), 21(Part 2), 303-310

The influence of lexico-semantic language representations stored in long-term memory (LTM) on short-term memory (STM) performance has been studied extensively in adults. However, there are relatively few ... [more ▼]

The influence of lexico-semantic language representations stored in long-term memory (LTM) on short-term memory (STM) performance has been studied extensively in adults. However, there are relatively few data on lexico-semantic LTM effects on STM in children. On the other hand, the influence of phonological LTM effects on STM has been studied more extensively in children than in adults. In this study, we explored whether these different LTM effects on verbal STM could be replicated in both adults and children by administering immediate serial recall tasks (ISR) for high- and low-frequency words, for high- and low-imageability words, for words and non-words, and for high and low phonotactic frequency non-words to 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children, to adolescents and to adults. Significant word frequency, lexicality and phonotactic frequency effects were observed in all age groups, as well as a word imageability effect which was, however, weaker than the other three effects. Our data suggest that LTM effects on STM are equivalent in both children and adults. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories for positive, negative, and neutral events
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Comblain, Christine; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2003), 17(3), 281-294

We investigated memory qualifies for positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical events. Participants recalled two personal experiences of each type and then rated their memories on several ... [more ▼]

We investigated memory qualifies for positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical events. Participants recalled two personal experiences of each type and then rated their memories on several characteristics (e.g. sensorial and contextual details). They also reported whether they 'see' the events in their memories from their own perspective ('field' memories) or whether they 'see' the self engaged in the event as an observer would ('observer' memories). Positive memories contained more sensorial (visual, smell, taste) and contextual (location, time) details than both negative and neutral events, whereas negative and neutral memories did not differ on most dimensions. Positive and negative events were more often recollected with a field perspective than neutral events. Finally, participants were classified in four groups according to the repressive coping style framework. Emotional memories of repressors were not less detailed than those of the other groups. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural correlates of "hot" and "cold" emotional processing : a multilevel approach to the functional anatomy of emotion
Schaefer, Alexandre; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Neuroimage (2003), 18(4), 938-949

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional ... [more ▼]

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional mental imagery task while mentally repeating sentences linked to the meaning of the imagery script. In the schematic conditions, participants repeated metaphoric sentences, whereas in the propositional conditions, the sentences were explicit questions about specific emotional appraisals of the imagery scenario. Five types of emotional scripts were proposed to the subjects (happiness, anger, affection, sadness, and a neutral scenario). The results supported the hypothesized distinction between schematic and propositional emotional processing modes. Specifically, schematic mode was associated with increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex whereas propositional mode was associated with activation of the anterolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, interaction analyses showed that schematic versus propositional processing of happiness (compared with the neutral scenario) was associated with increased activity in the ventral striatum whereas "schematic anger" was tentatively associated with activation of the ventral pallidum. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStates of awareness associated with memory for emotional and neutral pictures in older and younger adults
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Comblain, Christine; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Brain & Cognition (2003, March), 51(2), 220-221

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See detailSensation-seeking and impulsivity in young and older adults' decision making
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Marczewski, Philippe

in Brain & Cognition (2003), 51(2), 237-239

The somatic marker hypothesis asserts that decision-making processes involve emotion. Using a gambling task that models real-life decisions, studies showed that old adults perform less efficiently than ... [more ▼]

The somatic marker hypothesis asserts that decision-making processes involve emotion. Using a gambling task that models real-life decisions, studies showed that old adults perform less efficiently than younger adults, by adopting a strategy that is disadvantageous on the long term. This study aimed at re-examining the age effect on decisionmaking with the same paradigm, and to explore whether differences are related to sensation-seeking and impulsivity traits of personality. Young and older adults were compared on the gambling task (Bechara, Damasio, & Damasio, 2000a), and on questionnaires of sensationseeking and impulsivity. Results confirmed an age effect on the gambling task performance. Moreover, performance in both young and older adults on this task was correlated to scores on the sensation-seeking scale, but not to the rating of impulsivity [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Alzheimer's disease on the recognition of novel versus familiar words : Neuropsychological and clinico-metabolic data
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Neuropsychology (2003), 17(1), 143-154

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995 ... [more ▼]

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995) procedure. Results showed that both groups exhibited more hits and more false alarms for familiar than for novel words. The groups did not differ in the recognition of familiar words, reflecting preserved familiarity processes in AD. However, AD patients made more false alarms than NCs in the recognition of novel words, reflecting impairment of recollection processes in AD. A positron emission tomography analysis of clinico-metabolic correlations in AD patients showed a correlation between recognition of novel words and right hippocampal activity, whereas recognition of familiar words was more related to metabolic activity in the left posterior orbitofrontal cortex. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of manipulation and irrelevant noise on working memory capacity of patients with Alzheimer's dementia
Belleville, Sylvie; Rouleau, Nancy; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Neuropsychology (2003), 17(1), 69-81

The effect of manipulation and distracting noise on immediate serial recall was measured in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), neurologically healthy elderly individuals and young adults ... [more ▼]

The effect of manipulation and distracting noise on immediate serial recall was measured in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), neurologically healthy elderly individuals and young adults. In experiment 1, the authors compared serial word recall with word recall in alphabetical order. Alphabetical recall requires the active manipulation of the contents of working memory. Findings indicated that DAT patients were severely impaired in the alphabetical recall task, whereas the performance of neurologically healthy elderly participants was comparable with the performance of young adult participants. In experiment 2, the authors investigated the effect of different irrelevant auditory backgrounds on immediate digit recall. In this task, both elderly participants and DAT patients performed similarly to the group of young adult participants, indicating comparable efficacy to resist auditory distraction. [less ▲]

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See detailUne approche neuropsychologique des relations entre mémoire épisodique et mémoire sémantique
Bastin, Christine ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2003), 13(1), 3-69

Cognitive models of the organization of memory propose different conceptions of the relationships between episodic and semantic memory. In the present review, we consider two influential models. According ... [more ▼]

Cognitive models of the organization of memory propose different conceptions of the relationships between episodic and semantic memory. In the present review, we consider two influential models. According to one model (Tulving, 1995), episodic and semantic memory are two functionally and anatomically distinct systems. Their relationships are referred to as “embeddedness”, that is, information must be encoded in semantic memory in order to achieve episodic memory. Another model (Squire & Zola, 1998) describes episodic and semantic memory as two subsystems of declarative memory. Both depend on the same brain region and should be impaired in amnesic patients. Furthermore, information is usually first encoded in episodic memory, before being transferred to semantic memory. In this review, we describe the neuropsychological data that support each model, as well as studies that contradict these models. Three sets of evidence are described. First, we consider recognition memory in amnesic patients. Recognition memory processes, recollection and familiarity, have been related to episodic and semantic memory, respectively (Tulving, 1995). Contradictory findings exist concerning the relative preservation of familiarity-based recognition in certain types of amnesic patients. Then we describe studies that have examined whether amnesic patients can learn new semantic information or not. Finally, episodic learning in semantic dementia is considered. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional Processing in Down Syndrome
Catale, Corinne ULg; Hogge, Michaël; Meulemans, Thierry ULg et al

in Books of Abstracts: 13th conference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology (2003)

In addition to mental retardation, Down Syndrome (DS) children present emotional deficits. Some authors have suggested that the emotional deficits observed in DS can be related to developmental changes ... [more ▼]

In addition to mental retardation, Down Syndrome (DS) children present emotional deficits. Some authors have suggested that the emotional deficits observed in DS can be related to developmental changes. However, the link between emotion and cognitive processing remains unclear.This study aims to assess the relationships between emotional and cognitive processing in DS children. More specifically, we wanted to assess whether cognitive development could predict emotional deficits. Eighteen children DS and 18 chronological age-matched (CA) children were presented with emotional tasks designed to tap their abilities (i) to label emotion through emotional faces and prosody, (ii) to attribute, from stories, cognitive and emotional states to characters and (iii) to process face identity and gaze behaviour. Cognitive functioning was assessed including attentional treatment, visuo-spatial working memory, receptive language and logical reasoning. The results confirmed that DS performed worse on both cognitive and emotional tasks than CA children. There are also strong correlations between cognitive (including language and logical reasoning measures) and emotional measures. These results suggest that emotional troubles in DS are related to their global cognitive development; they also suggest that the degree of mental retardation can predict the importance of emotional deficits in DS. [less ▲]

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