References of "Van der Linden, Martial"
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See detailExecutive functions
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Morris, R. G.; Becker, J. T. (Eds.) The cognitive Neuropsychology of Alzheimer's disease (2004)

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See detailAvant-propos
Brédart, Serge ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Brédart, Serge (Ed.) Souvenirs récupérés, souvenirs oubliés et faux souvenirs (2004)

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See detailDifférences interindividuelles dans la propension aux faux souvenirs
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Brédart, Serge (Ed.) Souvenirs récupérés, souvenirs oubliés et faux souvenirs (2004)

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See detailNeuropsychologie des fonctions exécutives
Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

Book published by Solal (2004)

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See detailFurther evidence of the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory predisposition: factor structure of a modified version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale in a normal sample
Laroi, Frank ULg; Marczewski, P.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in European Psychiatry (2004), 19

Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the hallucinatory experience, including investigations of its phenomenological prevalence and character both in pathological and normal (predisposed ... [more ▼]

Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the hallucinatory experience, including investigations of its phenomenological prevalence and character both in pathological and normal (predisposed) populations. We investigated the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory experiences in 265 subjects from the normal population, who completed a modified version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale. Principal components analysis was performed on the data. Four factors were obtained loading on items reflecting (1) sleep-related hallucinatory experiences (2) vivid daydreams (3) intrusive thoughts or realness of thought and (4) auditory hallucinations. The results offer further evidence of the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory disposition in the normal population. Directions for future research in hallucinatory predisposition are discussed. <LF>(C) 2003 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of emotional salience, cognitive effort and meta-cognitive beliefs on a reality monitoring task in hallucination-prone subjects
Laroi, Frank ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Marczewski, P.

in British Journal of Clinical Psychology [=BJCP] (2004), 43

Objectives. A tendency to externalize internal information on reality monitoring tasks has been documented in psychiatric patients with hallucinations. Furthermore, previous studies suggest that factors ... [more ▼]

Objectives. A tendency to externalize internal information on reality monitoring tasks has been documented in psychiatric patients with hallucinations. Furthermore, previous studies suggest that factors such as the emotional salience of the material, cognitive effort and meta-cognitive beliefs are important contributory factors in this tendency to externalize internal information on reality monitoring tasks. However, few studies have investigated these aspects in hallucination-prone subjects. Also, these factors have never been examined simultaneously. In the following study we wished to examine the effects of emotional salience, cognitive effort and meta-cognitive beliefs on reality monitoring functioning in hallucination-prone subjects. Design. Between-participants group design. Method. One hundred normal subjects were administered a reality monitoring task. Words were presented by the experimenter. After each word, subjects were asked to say the first word that came to their mind. Words varied in terms of emotional valence and cognitive effort (high cognitive effort for words requiring longer latency times to associate a word and vice versa). Following a delay, words were presented consisting of those already presented by the experimenter or the subject (old) and those never presented before (new). For each word, subjects were required to identify whether the word was old or new. If the word was identified as old, subjects were required to identify the source of the word (subject or experimenter). Subjects also completed a questionnaire assessing meta-cognitive beliefs. Results. Subjects were grouped according to their scores on a revised and elaborated version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale (LSHS). Those with scores within the top 25% were included in the hallucination-prone group (HP) (N = 25), whereas scores within the lower 25% were included in the non-hallucination-prone group (NHP) (N = 25). Results showed that the HP subjects had significantly more source discrimination errors than NHP subjects for self-generated items. In other words, HP subjects tended to misattribute to the experimenter items that they had produced themselves. This pattern was especially marked with emotionally charged material and with words that required more cognitive effort. In addition, HP subjects scored significantly higher on a scale assessing meta-cognitive beliefs compared with NHP subjects. Finally, scores on a scale assessing meta-cognitive beliefs were positively associated with source discrimination errors. Conclusions. These results suggest that cognitive effort, emotional salience and meta-cognitive beliefs all play a prominent role in the externalizing bias in hallucination-prone subjects. The results also provide evidence for the validity of the idea of a continuity between hallucination-prone subjects and psychotic patients with hallucinations on reality monitoring tasks, including a number of contributing factors in the occurrence of hallucinations. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessus inhibiteurs dans la maladie d’Alzheimer et la démence fronto-temporale
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Amieva, Hélène; Hogge, Michaël et al

Poster (2003, December 03)

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See detailDoes sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2003), 26(6), 746-747

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of ... [more ▼]

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer. [less ▲]

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See detailAn investigation of verbal short-term memory and phonological processing in four children with Williams syndrome
Majerus, Steve ULg; Barisnikov, K.; Vuillemin, I. et al

in Neurocase : Case Studies in Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry & Behavioural Neurology (2003), 9(5), 390-401

Although phonological processing is generally considered to be a proficiency in Williams syndrome (WS), there are very few studies which have extensively explored phonological processing abilities in WS ... [more ▼]

Although phonological processing is generally considered to be a proficiency in Williams syndrome (WS), there are very few studies which have extensively explored phonological processing abilities in WS. In this study, we re-assessed phonological processing in WS by exploring verbal STM and phonological awareness abilities in 4 children with WS (CA: 10-12 years) and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and the other matched for verbal mental age (VA). Our results confirm and extend previous claims of preserved phonological STM in WS by showing specifically preserved STM performance for non-words, compared to both VA and CA control groups. However, we observed that this was the case only for non-words where support of phonological and lexico-semantic knowledge was minimized, with reduced phonological and lexico-semantic effects on STM performance. Furthermore, a more direct assessment of phonological processing abilities through phonological awareness tasks showed impaired performance for the 4 WS children. Our data confirm that STM for non-words represents a real strength in. WS but they do not support previous assumptions of a more general preservation of phonological processing abilities in WS. Implications for impaired and preserved cognitive processes underlying verbal STM and phonological awareness abilities in WS are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity and expression memory for happy and angry faces in social anxiety
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2003), 114(1), 1-15

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces ... [more ▼]

We examined the influence of social anxiety on memory for both identity and emotional expressions of unfamiliar faces. Participants high and low in social anxiety were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were asked both for identity and expression memory. For participants low in social anxiety, both identity and expression memory were more often associated with "remember" responses when the faces were previously seen with a happy rather than an angry expression. In contrast, the initial expression of the faces did not affect either identity or expression memory for participants high in social anxiety. We interpreted these findings by arguing that most people tend to preferentially elaborate positive rather than negative social stimuli that are important to the self and that this tendency may be reduced in high socially anxious individuals because of the negative meaning they tend to ascribe to positive social information. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of happy and angry expressions on identity and expression memory for unfamiliar faces
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Comblain, Christine et al

in Cognition & Emotion (2003), 17(4), 609-622

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were ... [more ▼]

We investigated the influence of happy and angry expressions on memory for new faces. Participants were presented with happy and angry faces in an intentional or incidental learning condition and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgements were made both for identity and expression memory. Results showed that faces were better recognised when presented with a happy rather than an angry expression, but only when learning was intentional. This was mainly due to an increase of the I remember" responses for happy faces when encoding was intentional rather than incidental. In contrast, memory for emotional expressions was not different for happy and angry faces whatever the encoding conditions. We interpret these findings according to the social meaning of emotional expressions for the self. [less ▲]

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See detailPhonological short-term memory networks following recovery from Landau and Kleffner syndrome
Majerus, Steve ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2003), 19(3), 133-144

Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare acquired aphasia occurring in otherwise healthy children, together with spike-wave discharges predominating over superior temporal regions and activated by sleep ... [more ▼]

Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare acquired aphasia occurring in otherwise healthy children, together with spike-wave discharges predominating over superior temporal regions and activated by sleep. Although the outcome of language abilities is variable, a residual impairment in verbal short-term memory (STM) is frequent. This STM deficit might be related to the persistent dysfunction of those temporal lobe regions where epileptic discharges were observed during the active phase of the disorder. We tested this hypothesis by measuring brain activation during immediate serial recall of lists of 4 words, compared to single word repetition, using H(2) (15)O positron emission tomography (PET), in 3 LKS patients after recovery and in 14 healthy controls. The patients (TG, JPH, and DC) had shown abnormally increased or decreased glucose metabolism in left or right superior temporal gyrus (STG) at different stages during the active phase of their disease. At the time of this study, the patients were 6-10 years from the active phase of LKS. Results showed that Patients JPH and DC had impaired performance in the STM condition, whereas TG showed near normal performance. PET data showed that JPH and DC activated significantly less than controls left and right posterior STG. TG, having near normal STM performance, showed increased activity in the posterior part of the right STG. These data suggest that impaired verbal STM at late outcome of LKS might indeed be related to a persistent decrease of activity in those posterior superior temporal gyri that were involved in the epileptic focus during the active phase. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit learning of complex information in amnesia
Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Brain & Cognition (2003), 52(2), 250-257

Implicit learning abilities of nine amnesic patients were explored by using an artificial grammar learning task in which the test strings were constructed in such a way that grammaticality judgments could ... [more ▼]

Implicit learning abilities of nine amnesic patients were explored by using an artificial grammar learning task in which the test strings were constructed in such a way that grammaticality judgments could not be based on a simple knowledge of bigrams and trigrams (chunks). Results show that amnesic patients and controls performed at the same level during the classification task, whereas amnesic patients performed worse than controls in an explicit generation task. Moreover, there was no correlation between the implicit and explicit measures. These results are compatible with the existence of two kinds of representation intervening in artificial grammar learning. The first one based on processes leading to fragment-specific knowledge (the chunks, which can be accessed explicitly), and the second based on the learning of simple associations and more complex conditional relations between elements. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term memory effects on verbal short-term memory : a replication study
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2003), 21(Part 2), 303-310

The influence of lexico-semantic language representations stored in long-term memory (LTM) on short-term memory (STM) performance has been studied extensively in adults. However, there are relatively few ... [more ▼]

The influence of lexico-semantic language representations stored in long-term memory (LTM) on short-term memory (STM) performance has been studied extensively in adults. However, there are relatively few data on lexico-semantic LTM effects on STM in children. On the other hand, the influence of phonological LTM effects on STM has been studied more extensively in children than in adults. In this study, we explored whether these different LTM effects on verbal STM could be replicated in both adults and children by administering immediate serial recall tasks (ISR) for high- and low-frequency words, for high- and low-imageability words, for words and non-words, and for high and low phonotactic frequency non-words to 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children, to adolescents and to adults. Significant word frequency, lexicality and phonotactic frequency effects were observed in all age groups, as well as a word imageability effect which was, however, weaker than the other three effects. Our data suggest that LTM effects on STM are equivalent in both children and adults. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories for positive, negative, and neutral events
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Comblain, Christine; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2003), 17(3), 281-294

We investigated memory qualifies for positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical events. Participants recalled two personal experiences of each type and then rated their memories on several ... [more ▼]

We investigated memory qualifies for positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical events. Participants recalled two personal experiences of each type and then rated their memories on several characteristics (e.g. sensorial and contextual details). They also reported whether they 'see' the events in their memories from their own perspective ('field' memories) or whether they 'see' the self engaged in the event as an observer would ('observer' memories). Positive memories contained more sensorial (visual, smell, taste) and contextual (location, time) details than both negative and neutral events, whereas negative and neutral memories did not differ on most dimensions. Positive and negative events were more often recollected with a field perspective than neutral events. Finally, participants were classified in four groups according to the repressive coping style framework. Emotional memories of repressors were not less detailed than those of the other groups. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural correlates of "hot" and "cold" emotional processing : a multilevel approach to the functional anatomy of emotion
Schaefer, Alexandre; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Neuroimage (2003), 18(4), 938-949

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional ... [more ▼]

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional mental imagery task while mentally repeating sentences linked to the meaning of the imagery script. In the schematic conditions, participants repeated metaphoric sentences, whereas in the propositional conditions, the sentences were explicit questions about specific emotional appraisals of the imagery scenario. Five types of emotional scripts were proposed to the subjects (happiness, anger, affection, sadness, and a neutral scenario). The results supported the hypothesized distinction between schematic and propositional emotional processing modes. Specifically, schematic mode was associated with increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex whereas propositional mode was associated with activation of the anterolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, interaction analyses showed that schematic versus propositional processing of happiness (compared with the neutral scenario) was associated with increased activity in the ventral striatum whereas "schematic anger" was tentatively associated with activation of the ventral pallidum. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStates of awareness associated with memory for emotional and neutral pictures in older and younger adults
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Comblain, Christine; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Brain & Cognition (2003, March), 51(2), 220-221

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See detailSensation-seeking and impulsivity in young and older adults' decision making
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Marczewski, Philippe

in Brain & Cognition (2003), 51(2), 237-239

The somatic marker hypothesis asserts that decision-making processes involve emotion. Using a gambling task that models real-life decisions, studies showed that old adults perform less efficiently than ... [more ▼]

The somatic marker hypothesis asserts that decision-making processes involve emotion. Using a gambling task that models real-life decisions, studies showed that old adults perform less efficiently than younger adults, by adopting a strategy that is disadvantageous on the long term. This study aimed at re-examining the age effect on decisionmaking with the same paradigm, and to explore whether differences are related to sensation-seeking and impulsivity traits of personality. Young and older adults were compared on the gambling task (Bechara, Damasio, & Damasio, 2000a), and on questionnaires of sensationseeking and impulsivity. Results confirmed an age effect on the gambling task performance. Moreover, performance in both young and older adults on this task was correlated to scores on the sensation-seeking scale, but not to the rating of impulsivity [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Alzheimer's disease on the recognition of novel versus familiar words : Neuropsychological and clinico-metabolic data
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Neuropsychology (2003), 17(1), 143-154

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995 ... [more ▼]

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995) procedure. Results showed that both groups exhibited more hits and more false alarms for familiar than for novel words. The groups did not differ in the recognition of familiar words, reflecting preserved familiarity processes in AD. However, AD patients made more false alarms than NCs in the recognition of novel words, reflecting impairment of recollection processes in AD. A positron emission tomography analysis of clinico-metabolic correlations in AD patients showed a correlation between recognition of novel words and right hippocampal activity, whereas recognition of familiar words was more related to metabolic activity in the left posterior orbitofrontal cortex. [less ▲]

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