References of "Van der Linden, Martial"
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See detailMapping the updating process: common and specific brain activations across different versions of the running span task
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2007), 43(1), 146-158

Neuroimaging studies exploring the neural substrates of executive functioning have only rarely investigated whether the non-executive characteristics of the experimental executive tasks could contribute ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging studies exploring the neural substrates of executive functioning have only rarely investigated whether the non-executive characteristics of the experimental executive tasks could contribute to the observed brain activations. The aim of this study was to determine cerebral activity in three different tasks involving the updating executive function. The experimental updating tasks required subjects to process strings of items (respectively letters, words, and sounds) of unknown lengths, and then to recall or identify a specific number of presented items. Conjunction and functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that the cerebral areas activated by all three experimental tasks are the left frontopolar cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and premotor cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulcus, right inferior parietal lobule and cerebellum. Some regions of this network appear to be more specific to each updating task. These results clearly indicate that the neural substrates underlying a specific executive process (in this case, updating) are modulated by the exact requirements of the task (such as the material to process or the kind of response) and the specific cognitive processes associated with updating. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of processing fluency to preference : a comparison with familiarity-based recognition
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2007), 19(1), 119-140

There is a great deal of evidence supporting the idea that, when a stimulus is processed fluently, it is more likely to be judged as pleasant. However, this influence of fluency on preference judgement ... [more ▼]

There is a great deal of evidence supporting the idea that, when a stimulus is processed fluently, it is more likely to be judged as pleasant. However, this influence of fluency on preference judgement seems to depend on several experimental conditions. So we tried to better understand these conditions via a comparison with recognition and by manipulating some aspects of the procedure (test format) and material (similarity and figure-ground contrast of the stimuli). Two experiments showed that some conditions maximally induce the use of processing fluency in a preference judgement, as in a recognition task. We discuss the implications of these findings for the well-documented discrepancy-attribution hypothesis (Whittlesea [less ▲]

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See detailA multicomponent exploration of verbal short-term storage deficits in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease
Peters, Frédéric; Majerus, Steve ULg; Olivier, Laurence et al

in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology (2007), 29(4), 405-417

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term ... [more ▼]

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term storage (STS) impairment are still unclear for both populations. We explored verbal STS functioning in patients with AD, elderly participants, and young participants, by investigating a series of processes that could underlie STS impairments in normal elderly and AD populations. The processes we investigated were (a) the influence of lexical and sublexical language knowledge on short-term storage performance, (b) functioning of the phonological loop component via word length and phonological similarity effects, and (c) executive control processes (coordination and integration). For the AD and elderly groups, the influence of language knowledge on verbal STS performance and the functioning of the phonological loop were preserved. In contrast, the AD group showed deficits for coordination and integration processes. Our results suggest that the verbal STS deficit observed in AD patients is related to impaired executive control processes. On the other hand, language-related processes underlying passive storage capacity seem to be preserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory performance in chronic pain patients
Grisart, Jacques; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

in Behaviour research and therapy (2007), 45

This study examines the selective impact of chronic pain on memory functioning in a recognition task. Thirty chronic pain patients and 30 healthy control subjects performed a yes–no word recognition test ... [more ▼]

This study examines the selective impact of chronic pain on memory functioning in a recognition task. Thirty chronic pain patients and 30 healthy control subjects performed a yes–no word recognition test. The contribution of recollection and familiarity to both groups’ performance was compared by means of the Remember/Know (R/K) procedure, which distinguishes recognition based on the recollection of the encoding episode (R responses) and recognition accompanied by a feeling of familiarity (K responses). Chronic pain patients showed a decrease in recollection together with an increase in familiarity: indeed, they reported less R and more K responses than control subjects. This pattern of performance was not related to the overall recognition ability. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the attentional cost of chronic pain, suggesting a selective impact of chronic pain on the most attention-demanding cognitive processes, such as recollection. This study emphasises the relevance of specific procedures distinguishing the underlying components of memory functioning rather than solely global indicators. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional aspects of mental time travel
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2007), 30

We consider three possible reasons why humans might accord a privileged status to emotional information when mentally traveling backward or forward in time. First, mental simulation of emotional ... [more ▼]

We consider three possible reasons why humans might accord a privileged status to emotional information when mentally traveling backward or forward in time. First, mental simulation of emotional situations helps one to make adaptive decisions. Second, it can serve an emotion regulation function. Third, it helps people to construct and maintain a positive view of the self. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Alzheimer's disease a disconnection syndrome? Evidence from a crossmodal audio-visual illusory experiment
Delbeuck, Xavier; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Neuropsychologia (2007), 45(14), 3315-3323

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), loss of connectivity in the patient's brain has been evidenced by a range of electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies. However, few neuropsychological research projects ... [more ▼]

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), loss of connectivity in the patient's brain has been evidenced by a range of electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies. However, few neuropsychological research projects have sought to interpret the cognitive modifications following the appearance of AD in terms of a disconnection syndrome. In this paper, we sought to investigate brain connectivity in AD via the study of a crossmodal effect. More precisely, we examined the integration of auditory and visual speech information (the McGurk effect) in AD patients and matched control subjects. Our results revealed impaired crossmodal integration during speech perception in AD, which was not associated with disturbances in the separate processing of auditory and visual speech stimuli. In conclusion, our data suggest the occurrence of a specific, audio-visual integration deficit in AD, which might be the consequence of a connectivity breakdown and corroborate the observation from other studies of crossmodal deficits between the auditory and visual modalities in this population. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFace Recognition Failures in Schizotypy
Laroi, Frank ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg et al

in Cognitive Neuropsychiatry (2007), 12(6), 554-71

INTRODUCTION: Studies suggest an important role of disturbances of self in schizophrenia and in schizotypy. Based on findings from a previous study (Bredart & Young, 2004), we developed a questionnaire ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Studies suggest an important role of disturbances of self in schizophrenia and in schizotypy. Based on findings from a previous study (Bredart & Young, 2004), we developed a questionnaire assessing self-face recognition failures in everyday life (Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire; SFRQ) to investigate the relations between dimensions of schizotypy (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, disorganised) and self-face recognition disturbances. METHODS: A sample of nonclinical participants (n = 170) completed the SFRQ and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. RESULTS: Factor analysis of SFRQ items revealed a clear three-factor structure consisting of: (1) self-face recognition difficulties, (2) unusual perception of own or other faces, and (3) other-face recognition difficulties. Correlational analyses between schizotypy dimensions and the SFRQ revealed that only the cognitive-perceptual and disorganised schizotypy dimensions correlated significantly with the SFRQ. By contrast, the interpersonal schizotypy dimension was not associated with the SFRQ. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further support that positive (cognitive-perceptual) and negative (interpersonal) schizotypy represent discrete neurobehavioural dimensions. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory dysfunctions in stroke patients
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Godefroy, Olivier; Bogousslavsky, Julien (Eds.) The behavioural and cognitive neurology of stroke (2007)

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See detailThe effects of angry and happy expressions on recognition memory for unfamiliar faces in delusion-prone individuals
Laroi, Frank ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry (2006), 37(4), 271-282

Numerous studies suggest a cognitive bias for threat-related material in delusional ideation. However, few studies have examined this bias using a memory task. We investigated the influence of delusion ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies suggest a cognitive bias for threat-related material in delusional ideation. However, few studies have examined this bias using a memory task. We investigated the influence of delusion-proneness on identity and expression memory for angry and happy faces. Participants high and low in delusion-proneness were presented with happy and angry faces and were later asked to recognise the same faces displaying a neutral expression. They also had to remember what the initial expressions of the faces had been. Remember/know/guess judgments were asked for both identity and expression memory. Results showed that delusion-prone participants better recognised the identity of angry faces compared to non-delusional participants. Also, this difference between the two groups was mainly due to a greater number of remember responses in delusion-prone participants. These findings extend previous studies by showing that delusions are associated with a memory bias for threat-related stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailAutobiographical memory in non-amnesic alcohol-dependent patients
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Verbanck, Paul et al

in Psychological Medicine (2006), 36(12), 1707-1715

Background. Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with a wide range of cognitive deficits. However, little is known about memory for real-life events (autobiographical memory) in non-amnesic alcoholic ... [more ▼]

Background. Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with a wide range of cognitive deficits. However, little is known about memory for real-life events (autobiographical memory) in non-amnesic alcoholic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) non-amnesic alcoholics' ability to recall specific autobiographical memories and (b) their subjective experience when they access specific memories.Method. Twenty non-amnesic (without Korsakoff syndrome) recently detoxified alcoholics and 20 healthy controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), which assesses the frequency of specific (versus general) memories recalled in response to cue words, and the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ), which assesses subjective experience (e.g. the amount of sensory and contextual details experienced) when remembering specific events.Results. Alcoholic patients recalled specific memories less frequently and general memories more frequently than healthy controls. Nevertheless, when a specific past event was accessed, alcoholic patients subjectively experienced as many sensory and contextual details as controls.Conclusions. These findings suggest that non-amnesic alcoholics have difficulties strategically accessing event-specific autobiographical knowledge, which might result from changes in frontal lobe function that are associated with alcoholism. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the relationship between new word learning and short-term memory for serial order recall, item recall, and item recognition
Majerus, Steve ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Elsen, B. et al

in European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (2006), 18(6), 848-873

We reexplored the relationship between new word learning and verbal short-term memory (STM) capacities, by distinguishing STM for serial order information, item recall, and item recognition. STM ... [more ▼]

We reexplored the relationship between new word learning and verbal short-term memory (STM) capacities, by distinguishing STM for serial order information, item recall, and item recognition. STM capacities for order information were estimated via a serial order reconstruction task. A rhyme probe recognition task assessed STM for item recognition. Item recall capacities were derived from the proportion of item errors in an immediate serial recall task. In Experiment 1, strong correlations were observed between item recall and item recognition, but not between the item STM tasks and the serial order task, supporting recent theoretical positions that consider that STM for item and serial order rely on distinct capacities. Experiment 2 showed that only the serial order reconstruction task predicted independent variance in a paired associate word - nonword learning task. Our results suggest that STM capacities for serial order play a specific and causal role in learning new phonological information. [less ▲]

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See detailTime Course of Attention for Alcohol Cues in Abstinent Alcoholic Patients: The Role of Initial Orienting
Noel, Xavier; Colmant, Maud; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2006), 30(11), 1871-1877

Objective: Addicted people are characterized by enhanced attention for drug cues leading to drug use. However, there is little research on the component processes of attention in individuals with ... [more ▼]

Objective: Addicted people are characterized by enhanced attention for drug cues leading to drug use. However, there is little research on the component processes of attention in individuals with alcoholism. Here, we examine 2 distinct components of attention in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals and social drinkers of alcohol, that is to say, the initial orienting to alcohol-related cues, and the maintenance of attention to them. Method: The present study used an ‘‘alcohol’’ version of the visual probe detection task with alcohol-related or neutral pictures being presented briefly (i.e., 50 ms), to assess initial orienting, or longer (i.e., 500 and 1,250 ms), to assess the maintenance of attention. Results: Only alcoholic patients were faster in detecting a probe displayed immediately after pictures related to alcohol presented for 50 ms than in detecting the same probe replacing non– alcohol-related pictures. However, when pictures were presented for 500 ms, only social alcohol drinkers were faster in detecting the probe replacing alcohol scenes. At a stimulus of 1,250 ms duration, no group showed attentional bias toward alcohol cues. In addition, the severity of alcoholism measured by the total number of prior detoxification treatments was positively correlated with the attentional bias (or ‘‘attraction’’) for alcohol pictures presented for 50 ms. Conclusions: These results show that, subsequent to initial visual orienting to alcohol-related cues, abstinent patients’ attention was disengaged from these stimuli, thus suggesting a visual approachdisengagement attentional pattern. The influence of these findings on relapse was discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories for social and non-social events in social phobia
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; d'Acremont, Mathieu et al

in Memory (2006), 14(5), 637-647

Previous studies failed to show clear differences between people with social phobia and non-anxious individuals regarding the specificity and affective intensity of their autobiographical memories for ... [more ▼]

Previous studies failed to show clear differences between people with social phobia and non-anxious individuals regarding the specificity and affective intensity of their autobiographical memories for social events. However, these studies did not assess the subjective experience associated with remembering. In this study, people with social phobia and non-anxious control participants recalled social and non-social events, and rated the phenomenal characteristics of their memories. The memories of people with social phobia for social events contained fewer sensorial details but more self-referential information than controls memories. In addition, people with social phobia remembered social situations from an observer perspective, viewing themselves as if from outside, to a greater extent than controls. By contrast, the two groups did not differ concerning their memories for non-social events. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive models of social phobia. [less ▲]

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See detailMere exposure effect : a consequence of direct and indirect fluency-preference links
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2006), 15(2), 323-341

In three experiments, picture quality between test items was manipulated to examine whether subjects' expectations about the fluency normally associated with these different stimuli might influence the ... [more ▼]

In three experiments, picture quality between test items was manipulated to examine whether subjects' expectations about the fluency normally associated with these different stimuli might influence the effects of fluency on preference or familiarity-basea recognition responses. The results showed that fluency due to pre-exposure influenced responses less when objects were presented with high picture quality, suggesting that attributions of fluency to preference and familiarity are adjusted according to expectations about the different test pictures. However, this expectations influence depended on subjects' awareness of these different quality levels. Indeed, imperceptible differences seemed not to induce expectations about the test item fluency. In this context, fluency due to both picture quality and pre-exposure influenced direct responses. Conversely, obvious, and noticed, differences in test picture quality did no affect responses, suggesting that expectations moderated attributions of fluency only when fluency normally associated with these different stimuli was perceptible but difficult to assess. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual differences in the phenomenology of mental time travel: The effect of vivid visual imagery and emotion regulation strategies
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2006), 15(2), 342-350

It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual ... [more ▼]

It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual differences in dimensions that have been shown to affect memory for past events similarly influence the experience of projecting oneself into the future. We found that individuals with a higher capacity for visual imagery experienced more visual and other sensory details both when remembering past events and when imagining future events. In addition, individuals who habitually use suppression to regulate their emotions experienced fewer sensory, contextual, and emotional details when representing both past and future events, while the use of reappraisal had no effect on either kind of events. These findings are consistent with the view that mental time travel into the past and into the future relies on similar mechanisms. [less ▲]

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