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See detailA two-time scale simulation for dynamic analysis of power systems
Ramirez-Betancour, Reymundo; Fuerte-Esquivel, Claudio; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Electric Power Systems Research (2012), 83

This paper proposes a two-time scale simulation approach of both short-term and long-term dynamics in power systems. The short-term transient period is analyzed by a full-time scale simulation while a ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a two-time scale simulation approach of both short-term and long-term dynamics in power systems. The short-term transient period is analyzed by a full-time scale simulation while a quasi-steady state model of the power system is used to simulate long-term dynamics. The proposed method is inspired of Singular Perturbation theory to model the interaction between the short-term and long-term dynamics. Based on this interaction, a suitable criterion to determine when the quasi-steady state model of a power system can be considered as a uniform approximation of the full-time scale model is proposed, which also determines the appropriate switching time between models. The proposed method is demonstrated on the 10-machine, 39-bus New England system and a 46-machine, 190-bus equivalent Mexican system. [less ▲]

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See detailSimplified dynamic simulation
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Fabozzi, Davide ULg

Conference (2011, December 06)

These are the slides of an invited presentation at the panel session "Pan European Grid Advanced Simulation and State Estimation (PEGASE)", aimed at disseminating the results of the PEGASE project funded ... [more ▼]

These are the slides of an invited presentation at the panel session "Pan European Grid Advanced Simulation and State Estimation (PEGASE)", aimed at disseminating the results of the PEGASE project funded by European Community’s 7th Framework Programme (grant agreement No. 211407) [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Proximity of Time Evolutions through Dynamic Time Warping
Fabozzi, Davide ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution (2011), 5(12), 1268-1276

Comparing time-series is a frequent task in many scientific fields. In power systems, in particular, it may be of interest to compare the outputs of a simplified and a detailed model, or to validate the ... [more ▼]

Comparing time-series is a frequent task in many scientific fields. In power systems, in particular, it may be of interest to compare the outputs of a simplified and a detailed model, or to validate the output of a model with respect to a measured time response. The classical Euclidean distance, involving pairs of points of the two data series aligned in time, is not suited to the practical time evolutions met in power systems, which often involve variable time delays and jumps at discrete times. In this paper, an alternative measure of proximity, stemming from other scientific fields, is proposed for power system applications. It consists in warping the time axis to guarantee the best match between the two time-series, i.e. it maps points on two curves that are not aligned in time so as to minimize the sum of squared differences of their ordinates. Modifications and adaptations of the classical algorithm to better fit power system problems are discussed. The method is illustrated through three representative curve comparison problems. A multi-dimensional extension allowing system-wide measures of similarity is also proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailState Reconstruction from Synchronized Phasor Measurements
Glavic, Mevludin; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe 2011 (2011, December)

The traditional state estimator relies on measurements affected by time skew and, while the whole system can be made observable, it cannot track the post-disturbance dynamics. Synchronized phasor ... [more ▼]

The traditional state estimator relies on measurements affected by time skew and, while the whole system can be made observable, it cannot track the post-disturbance dynamics. Synchronized phasor measurements, on the other hand, can track those dynamics but, in a foreseeable future, they will be available in scarce configurations that do not allow estimating the whole system state. State reconstruction precisely aims at using the available phasor measurements to track the evolution of the power system - at least in a region of interest - in between two runs of a traditional state estimator. It minimizes under constraints a weighted least square objective involving both the phasor measurements and bus power pseudo-measurements relative to a reference state. The placement of phasor measurement units at the generator buses is recommended for accuracy. Tests are reported with phasor measurements obtained from time simulation of post-disturbance system evolution. The results deal with the effect on accuracy of the relative weights assigned to phasor and pseudo-measurements, the benefit of taking the reference bus powers from the last reconstructed instead of the pre-disturbance state, and the rate of the state reconstructions. [less ▲]

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See detailReceding-horizon multi-step optimization to correct nonviable or unstable transmission voltages
Glavic, Mevludin; Hajian, Mahdi; Rosehart, William et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2011), 26(3), 1641-1650

In this paper, a receding-horizon multi-step optimization is proposed to correct non viable transmission voltages and prevent long-term voltage instability. The proposed control scheme is based on real ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a receding-horizon multi-step optimization is proposed to correct non viable transmission voltages and prevent long-term voltage instability. The proposed control scheme is based on real-time control, inspired by model predictive control, and steady state power-flow-based equations. In order to anticipate load behavior and avoid using dynamic equations in the control scheme, explicit formulations are used to model evolution of load with time. The simulation results of the proposed technique are presented on the Nordic32 test system. [less ▲]

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See detailOn simplified handling of state events in time-domain simulation
Fabozzi, Davide ULg; Chieh, Angela S.; Panciatici, Patrick et al

in Proceedings of the 17th PSCC (2011, August)

The power system models typically used in dynamic simulations involve discrete events in addition to the standard differential-algebraic equations. Those events cause the system to jump from one ... [more ▼]

The power system models typically used in dynamic simulations involve discrete events in addition to the standard differential-algebraic equations. Those events cause the system to jump from one continuous behavior to another. Solvers have to handle those jumps. This paper focuses on simplified time simulation where large steps are used in conjunction with stiff-decay integration methods to obtain approximate solutions in short computing times. In the proposed simulation scheme, the simulation time steps are not synchronized with the system jumps, which are treated a posteriori in a corrective step. In this context, the paper analyzes several simple nonlinear models involving limiters, switches, minimum gates, etc. from which some precautions to be taken at the modelling and solving stages are stressed. The paper also reports on results obtained with a representative power system model. [less ▲]

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See detailA short Survey of Methods for Voltage Instability Detection
Glavic, Mevludin; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE PES General Meeting (2011, July)

This paper shortly surveys existing and proposed methods for voltage instability detection. The emphasis is on methods relying on real-time measurements as well as on long-term voltage instability ... [more ▼]

This paper shortly surveys existing and proposed methods for voltage instability detection. The emphasis is on methods relying on real-time measurements as well as on long-term voltage instability. Methods are classified according to the required measurement configuration: local vs. wide-area, standard SCADA-type vs. synchronized phasor measurements, etc. In the various categories, some of the features are summarized, and what appears to the authors as advantages or limitations is shortly discussed. An important feature is the ability to anticipate instability. Some tracks for further work on the subject are also outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating State Reconstruction from Scarce Synchronized Phasor Measurements
Glavic, Mevludin; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE Trondheim Power Tech 2011 conference (2011, June)

Synchronized phasor measurements can potentially track the system dynamics between two classical state estimations. However, in the PMU configurations available nowadays and in the near future, those ... [more ▼]

Synchronized phasor measurements can potentially track the system dynamics between two classical state estimations. However, in the PMU configurations available nowadays and in the near future, those measurements are too scarce for the whole system state to be estimated. Therefore, we investigate the possibility to reconstruct coherent, time-synchronized system states from the available PMU data. State reconstruction is formulated as an optimization problem. The objective is to minimize, in the space of bus powers, the distance between the reconstructed state and the last state estimate provided by a standard state estimator. PMU data are imposed as equality constraints. Furthermore, the placement of PMUs near generators is advocated for higher accuracy of state reconstruction. The performance and potential benefits of the approach are illustrated by processing snapshots obtained from detailed time simulation of a test system subject to a disturbance and corrective actions. [less ▲]

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See detailA load shedding scheme against both short- and long-term voltage instabilities in the presence of induction motors
Otomega, Bogdan; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE Trondheim Power Tech 2011 conference (2011, June)

In the presence of induction motors in loads, long-term voltage instability may result in sharp voltage decreases, once the generators supporting transmission voltages have their field currents limited ... [more ▼]

In the presence of induction motors in loads, long-term voltage instability may result in sharp voltage decreases, once the generators supporting transmission voltages have their field currents limited. Furthermore, after a fault, induction motors may fail re-accelerating and their stalling leads to short-term voltage instability. This paper investigates the ability of the load shedding scheme, previously proposed by the authors, to deal with both short and long-term voltage instabilities. The scheme is distributed with minimal amount of information exchange. It is also shown that the selectivity of this protection scheme can be increased by prioritizing in time the various controllers. Detailed time simulations of a test system are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailOn angle references in long-term time-domain simulations
Fabozzi, Davide ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2011), 26(1), 483-484

Abstract—In power system dynamic models the complex network equations and the various phasors are projected onto reference axes. After a short critical review of commonly chosen reference axes, this ... [more ▼]

Abstract—In power system dynamic models the complex network equations and the various phasors are projected onto reference axes. After a short critical review of commonly chosen reference axes, this letter proposes to use the center-of-inertia at the previous integration time step. This approach is shown to combine the advantages of the center-of-inertia with a sparser Jacobian structure and an easier handling of network splits. [less ▲]

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See detailA Taxonomy of Multi-Area State Estimation Methods
Gomez-Exposito, Antonio; de la Villa Jaen, Antonio; Gomez-Quiles, Catalina et al

in Electric Power Systems Research (2011), 81(4), 1060-1069

This paper presents a critical review of the state of the art in Multi-Area State Estimation (MASE) methods, which are currently gaining renewed interest due to their capability of properly tracking multi ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a critical review of the state of the art in Multi-Area State Estimation (MASE) methods, which are currently gaining renewed interest due to their capability of properly tracking multi-TSO transactions and accommodating highly redundant information systems. Based on several classification criteria, a taxonomy of MASE methods is first proposed. Two main categories, namely two-step or hierarchical versus decentralized, are identified. Then, for each class of methods, the resulting model structure and area interactions are discussed and a brief presentation is made of a selected subset of references. [less ▲]

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See detailWind integration and AGC frequency dynamics simulations using Quasi Steady-State approximation
Lebeau, Simon; Qako, Niko; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proc. of 9th international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power in powers systems (2010, October)

Frequency dynamics studies are important at Hydro-Québec (HQ). Wind integration raises questions about HQ ability to maintain frequency regulation in normal operation and during contingencies. Quasi ... [more ▼]

Frequency dynamics studies are important at Hydro-Québec (HQ). Wind integration raises questions about HQ ability to maintain frequency regulation in normal operation and during contingencies. Quasi Steady-State (QSS) approximation is the best alternative to simulate long-term voltage and frequency dynamics without compromising the exactness of simulation results. Collaboration between HQ and University of Liège allowed the development of numerous models. Frequency dynamics is represented by machines inertia, speed governors and a complete AGC controlling 13 hydro power plants including transmission delays. For voltage dynamics, static var compensators, synchronous condensers and tap changer transformers are also represented. Wind farms are modeled as generation patterns (Pwind = f(t)) including a Wind Farm Management System (WFMS). This paper addresses wind farm integration and AGC frequency regulation. Based on HQ field measurements and observations, the most pessimistic cases were simulated. Two scenarios are detailed: the 3500 MW of wind farms currently planned for 2015 and a hypothetical 10 000 MW of wind integration. The results show that actual AGC settings are accurate for the planned wind farms, but might need some changes for a 10 000 MW scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalization and latency concepts applied to time simulation of large power systems
Fabozzi, Davide ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the 2010 IREP Symposium (2010, August)

This paper reports on investigations to speed up time domain simulations of large electric power systems. First, a decomposed scheme is considered which exploits the bordered block diagonal structure of ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on investigations to speed up time domain simulations of large electric power systems. First, a decomposed scheme is considered which exploits the bordered block diagonal structure of the original Jacobian involved in the Newton iterations, and keeps the resulting “local” Jacobians constant over multiple iterations. Next, a localization technique is considered, allowing to perform less iterations on the system components with lower activity. Finally, a third scheme consists of visiting only a subset of components, identified as active, and skipping the other ones, identified as latent. The first two techniques solve the whole set of equations with the required accuracy, while the third one involves an adjustable degree of approximation. The methods are illustrated on a small system, while preliminary checks of computational savings from a large test system are reported. Additional results deal with the application of the localization and latency techniques to simplified simulation of the detailed model. [less ▲]

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See detailAn integrated autonomous protection system against voltage instability based on Load Tap Changers
Vournas, Costas; Lambrou, C.; Glavic, M. et al

in Proceedings of the 2010 IREP Symposium- Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control – VIII (2010, August)

In this paper we propose a local, completely autonomous protection system against voltage instability that can be readily integrated in the controller of each bulk power delivery LTC transformer. The ... [more ▼]

In this paper we propose a local, completely autonomous protection system against voltage instability that can be readily integrated in the controller of each bulk power delivery LTC transformer. The protection system will identify an imminent voltage instability and will subsequently apply the necessary corrective measures to restore stable operation by properly adjusting the distribution voltage setpoint of the LTC. Application of this system on a 52-bus test system showed excellent performance for two unstable cases. For reasons of comparison, the indirect load curtailment proposed in a severe instability case is compared with direct load shedding schemes based on the local detection of instability, as well as on a global detection of instability assuming wide area measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy and Transmission Allocation in the presence of Overlapping Electricity Markets
Marinakis, Adamantios ULg; Bakirtzis, Anastasios; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2010), 25(3), 1402-1414

The possibility for market participants to simultaneously place their bids in different markets across an interconnection is investigated in this paper. Transaction schedulers settle multilateral ... [more ▼]

The possibility for market participants to simultaneously place their bids in different markets across an interconnection is investigated in this paper. Transaction schedulers settle multilateral transactions among participants, while a central entity coordinates the overall operation through interactions with the transaction schedulers. Two issues are dealt with in this context. First, the market participants are allowed to place their bids simultaneously in more than one transactions scheduler’s market, and, second, the available transmission capacity is fairly shared among the transaction schedulers. Economically interesting transactions are favored, while confidentiality of market data and independence of transaction schedulers’ clearing mechanisms are preserved. The corresponding iterative algorithm is illustrated in detail on a 15-bus as well as the IEEE-RTS system. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive Wide-Area Closed-Loop Undervoltage Load Shedding Using Synchronized Measurements
Glavic, Mevludin; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of IEEE PES 2010 General Meeting (2010, July)

This paper proposes an emergency load shedding scheme aimed at stopping a developing voltage instability before system disruption. The proposed scheme has a wide-area view of the system, adapts itself to ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes an emergency load shedding scheme aimed at stopping a developing voltage instability before system disruption. The proposed scheme has a wide-area view of the system, adapts itself to the emergency situation to be handled, and works in closed-loop. It relies on the detection of voltage instability from synchronized measurements recently proposed by the authors. It inherits the assumptions of this detection method (availability of a rich phasor measurement set and communication infrastructure). The method is adaptive in so far as the voltage thresholds used by this undervoltage load shedding scheme are determined from the measurements of the system evolution itself, and the curtailed power is adjusted to the severity of the situation. The features of the proposed scheme are illustrated on a small but realistic system. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy and transmission allocation in overlapping electricity markets : incorporating N-1 security and accounting for losses
Marinakis, Adamantios ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the 7th international conference on the European Electricity Market (2010, June)

The possibility for market participants to place their bids in markets where they are not geographically located is investigated in this paper. An iterative procedure enabling the simultaneous clearing of ... [more ▼]

The possibility for market participants to place their bids in markets where they are not geographically located is investigated in this paper. An iterative procedure enabling the simultaneous clearing of those overlapping markets by transaction schedulers while managing the resulting pre and post-contingency congestion is proposed. Transmission losses are calculated during the iterations and are accounted for by allocating them to the various transaction schedulers. The procedure is illustrated and commented on a test system. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimal Reduction of Unscheduled Flows for Security Restoration: Application to Phase Shifter Control
Marinakis, Adamantios ULg; Glavic, Mevludin; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2010), 25(1), 506-515

More and more transmission system operators, noticeably in Europe, equip their systems with phase shifting transformers to counteract transit flows that take place in a large meshed interconnection. This ... [more ▼]

More and more transmission system operators, noticeably in Europe, equip their systems with phase shifting transformers to counteract transit flows that take place in a large meshed interconnection. This paper proposes algorithms for the coordinated control of several phase shifters by one operator with the objective of reducing the unscheduled flow through its system. Minimum reduction of unscheduled flow and minimum deviation with respect to present operating point are sought in order to minimize the trouble caused, while ensuring secure operation. Attention is paid to combining pre and post-contingency controls. The resulting algorithms, simple and compatible with real-time applications, are illustrated on a realistic test system. [less ▲]

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See detailSecuring Transient Stability using Time-Domain Simulations within an Optimal Power Flow
Zarate-Minano, Rafael; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg; Milano, Federico et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2010), 25(1), 243-253

This paper provides a methodology to restore transient stability. It relies on a well-behaved optimal power flow model with embedded transient stability constraints. The proposed methodology can be used ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a methodology to restore transient stability. It relies on a well-behaved optimal power flow model with embedded transient stability constraints. The proposed methodology can be used for both dispatching and redispatching. In addition to power flow constraints and limits, the resulting optimal power flow model includes discrete time equations describing the time evolution of all machines in the system. Transient stability constraints are formulated by reducing the initial multi-machine model to a one-machine infinite-bus equivalent. This equivalent allows imposing angle bounds that ensure transient stability. The proposed optimal power flow model is tested and analyzed using an illustrative 9-bus system, the well-known New England 39-bus, 10-machine system and a real-world 1228-bus system with 292 synchronous machines. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized tap changer blocking and load shedding against voltage instability: prospective tests on the RTE system
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Otomega, Bogdan; Lefebvre, Hervé et al

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2009), 31(9), 570-576

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on prospective tests of a system protection scheme against long-term voltage instability relying on a set of distributed controllers, each monitoring a transmission voltage, blocking tap changers and shedding loads in a zone. The emergency actions adjust in magnitude and location to the disturbance. Each controller acts in closed-loop, which guarantees robustness. The method is illustrated on a real-life model of the Western region of the RTE system. The choice of the controller settings is discussed in some detail and examples of performance are given, combining the above remedial action with capacitor switching and secondary voltage control. [less ▲]

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