References of "Tychon, Bernard"
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See detailExploring the potential of crop specific green area index time series to improve yield estimation at regional scale
Duveiller, Gregory; de Wit, Allard; Kouadio, Amani Louis ULg et al

in Sobrino, J. A. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing (RAQRS'III) (2010)

Crop status, such as the Green Area Index (GAI), can be retrieved from satellite observations by modelling and inverting the radiative transfer within the canopy. Providing such information along the ... [more ▼]

Crop status, such as the Green Area Index (GAI), can be retrieved from satellite observations by modelling and inverting the radiative transfer within the canopy. Providing such information along the growing season can potentially improve crop growth modelling and yield estimation. However, such approaches have proven difficult to apply on coarse resolution satellite data due to the fragmented land cover in many parts of the World. Advances in operational crop mapping will sooner or later allow the production of crop maps relatively early in the crop growth season, thereby providing an opportunity to sample pixels from medium/coarse spatial resolution data with relatively high cover fraction of a particular crop type to derive crop specific GAI time series. This research explores how to use such time series derived from MODIS to produce indicators of crop yield using two approaches over part of Belgium. The first method consists in looking at metrics of the decreasing part of the GAI curves when senescence occurs. Such metrics, like the position of the inflexion point, have been shown to be significantly correlated to yield. The second approach is to optimize the WOFOST model used in the European Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) based on the GAI time series. Results show that, although the optimized model shows considerably better performance than the model running on the default parameter, the model is sometimes outperformed by the simpler metric approach. In all cases, indicators including remote sensing information provide better estimates that the average yield of previous years. [less ▲]

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See detailGMFS Final report Stage 1 and Stage 2
Gilliams, Sven; Bydekerke, Lieven; Delrue, Josefien et al

Report (2009)

Global Monitoring for Food Security (GMFS) is a Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Service Element (GSE) project, part of the European Space Agency (ESA) contribution to the European ... [more ▼]

Global Monitoring for Food Security (GMFS) is a Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Service Element (GSE) project, part of the European Space Agency (ESA) contribution to the European Union (EU) /ESA GMES Programme. GMFS aims to establish an operational service for crop monitoring in support of Food Security Monitoring to serve policy makers and operational users. The GMFS project started in March 2003 as part of Stage 1 of the ESA Earthwatch GMES services Element “Service Consolidation Actions”, and was continued in October 2005 as part of the Stage 2 of the ESA Earth watch GMES services Element – “Scaling Up Consolidated GMES Services”. In this document an overview is given of the work done throughout the previous six years. GMFS aimed at monitoring crop state /vegetation condition at continental and national scale. Low resolution Earth Observation (EO) data was used for monitoring purposes at continental scale, while at national scale products were based upon medium and high resolution data, field work and agro-meteorological models. The project was guided by a project strategy group with members from the United States Agency for International Development - Famine Early Warning System Network (USAID-FEWSNET), Directorate General for Development (DG-DEV), Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research - International Wheat Improvement Center (CGIAR-CIMMYT), European Commission Joint Research Center (EC-JRC), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). The goal of the project in Stage 1 (March 2003 –November 2004) was to consolidate an early warning system for food security. This started off by an intensive literature review and setting up an initial service for the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) in Dakar Senegal. In the second Phase of Stage 1 activities focussed more on the actual service delivery and setting up activities with users. Those activities included the monitoring agricultural production for Senegal, monitoring agriculture in Malawi and giving support to the Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission (CFSAM) of FAO /WFP. Additionally, services were set up for the centre Agro-Hydro-Météorologique (AGRHYMET) as a result of a meeting between AGHRYMET and Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO). During 2005 the early warning service was continued to support GMFS users although there was at that time no formal contract to do so. At the start of the Second Stage, in October 2005, a GMFS user executive board, consisting of one representative from: EC-JRC, FAO, WFP, Southern Africa Development Community Regional Remote Sensing Unit (SADC-RRSU), Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and AGRHYMET, was set up to support the consortium in defining the correct services and to review the work. Since the focus for the Second Stage was on up scaling the consolidated services, it was decided that the early warning service and support to the CFSAM were to be continued, the agricultural mapping service was to be expanded to more countries - namely, Senegal, Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi and Zimbabwe - and extra services on yield modeling using remote sensing and agro-meteorological models were to be provided. During the second year of this stage, the services were even more extended with, support to the Ministry of Agriculture and Meteorological Department in Mozambique, extra activities in Ethiopia and Sudan and support to the regional centers on operational use of the ESA Data Dissemination System (DDS). [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Accuracy of Simulation Model for Septoria Leaf Blotch Disease Progress on Winter Wheat.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Delfosse, Philippe; Maraite, Henri et al

in Plant Disease (2009), 93

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, for assessing the development of each of the last five leaf layers and the progress of Septoria leaf blotch, caused by Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella ... [more ▼]

A mechanistic model, PROCULTURE, for assessing the development of each of the last five leaf layers and the progress of Septoria leaf blotch, caused by Septoria tritici (teleomorph Mycosphaerella graminicola), has been applied on susceptible and weakly susceptible winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars in two locations (Everlange and Reuland) in Luxembourg over a 3-year period (2000 to 2002). A double performance assessment of PROCULTURE was conducted in this study. First, the capability of PROCULTURE to correctly simulate S. tritici incidence was checked. Second, the model's ability to accurately estimate disease severity was assessed on the basis of the difference between simulated and observed levels of disease development at each leaf layer. The model accurately predicted disease occurrence in the 2000 and 2002 seasons, on susceptible and semi-susceptible cultivars, with a probability of detection (POD) exceeding 0.90. However, in 2001, even though the POD never fell below 0.90, the false alarm ratio (FAR) was too high to consider the simulations satisfactory. Concerning the evaluation of disease severity modeling, statistical tests revealed accurate simulations performed by PROCULTURE for susceptible cultivars in 2000 and 2002. By contrast, for weakly susceptible cultivars, the model overestimated disease severity, especially for the upper leaves, for the same period. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Situation au 31 août 2009
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Scohy, Laureline; Denis, Antoine ULg et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2009), 7(3), 1-4

Les conditions atmosphériques de juillet et août ont permis aux cultures d’hiver de boucler leurs cycles dans d’excellentes conditions. Pour les cultures de printemps par contre, le mois d’août chaud et ... [more ▼]

Les conditions atmosphériques de juillet et août ont permis aux cultures d’hiver de boucler leurs cycles dans d’excellentes conditions. Pour les cultures de printemps par contre, le mois d’août chaud et sec aura pu accélérer la sénescence et créer ça et là des stress hydriques en particulier pour le maïs et la pomme de terre qui sont plus sensibles à la sécheresse que la betterave. Les rendements prédits pour la pomme de terre sont en-dessous de la moyenne, ils sont proches de la moyenne pour le maïs tandis qu’ils sont largement supérieurs pour la betterave. Des différences parfois importantes sont simulées entre les différentes régions agricoles. [less ▲]

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See detailSIMIS: Scheme Irrigation Management Information System - Formation
Nitcheu, Martial; Midekor, Akoly; Diallo, Mamadou et al

Learning material (2009)

SIMIS est un outil d’aide à décision vaste et complexe. Il permet de gérer tout périmètre irrigué sans trop de problèmes. SIMIS est constitué de programmes différents et indépendants permettant: 1) Calcul ... [more ▼]

SIMIS est un outil d’aide à décision vaste et complexe. Il permet de gérer tout périmètre irrigué sans trop de problèmes. SIMIS est constitué de programmes différents et indépendants permettant: 1) Calcul des exigences en eau de la culture; 2) Elaboration d’un plan d’irrigation: Le module permet de comparer par zone les exigences nettes et brutes en irrigation, les débits requis et les débits disponibles; 3) Elaboration des programmes d’irrigation: Différents modèles de distribution d’eau existent basé sur la rotation, basé sur l’approvisionnement proportionnel, orienté vers la demande et basé sur l’approvisionnement continu; 4) Suivi de la consommation en eau: Il compare les débits mesurés dans les canaux avec les débits du programme d’irrigation; 5) Gestion financière: calcul de la redevance eau, de gestion de la maintenance et indicateurs de performances. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Report of Wheat Leaf Rust in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Progress of its Appearance over the 2003–2008 Period
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Vrancken, Carine et al

in Plant Disease (2009), 93

Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. was identified for the first time in 2000 in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the basis of orange-to-brown, round-to-ovoid, erumpent uredinia (1 to 1.5 ... [more ▼]

Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. was identified for the first time in 2000 in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the basis of orange-to-brown, round-to-ovoid, erumpent uredinia (1 to 1.5 mm in diameter) scattered on the upper and lower leaf surfaces and producing orange-brown urediniospores that are subgloboid, approximately 20 μm in diameter, and with up to eight germ pore scattered in thick, echinulate walls. In a second phase, wheat was monitored weekly (starting from Zadoks growth stage 30, pseudo stem erection) during the 2003–2008 cropping seasons for wheat leaf rust. Disease severity (percentage of leaf area with symptoms) was recorded in four, replicated field experiments located in three villages (Diekirch District: Reuler; and Grevenmacher District: Burmerange and Christnach), which are representative of the different agroclimatological zones of Luxembourg. A significant difference in severity was observed between the sites (P < 0.01) and the years (P < 0.05). Over the 6-year period, Burmerange and Reuler consistently showed the highest and lowest disease severity, respectively. In 2003 and 2007, Burmerange (a southern site with the highest average spring temperatures of 13.6 and 14.0°C, respectively) showed the highest disease severity with 66 and 57%, respectively, whereas the lowest severity (<1% for both years) was observed in the north at Reuler (site with the lowest average spring temperatures of 12.0 and 12.4°C, respectively). Christnach, located midway between Reuler and Burmerange, showed an intermediate disease severity with 7% (2003) and 22% (2007). The disease appeared at growth stages 77 (late milk) and 87 (hard dough) in the period 2003–2005, but at an earlier stage (45, boots swollen) for 2006–2008 (P < 0.001). In 2005, low severity was recorded due to a severe drought during May, June, and July. A reason for this earlier appearance of leaf rust occurrences in the two districts may be related to an increase in the average spring temperature (average March to May temperature for Luxembourg was 8.3°C for the 1971–2000 period, 9.5°C for the 2003–2005 period, 9.9°C for the 2006–2008 period, 2007 was exceptional with 11.9°C, P < 0.01). In the past, cereal disease management strategies were oriented toward the control of predominant and yield-reducing diseases such as that caused by Septoria tritici Desm. Because the succession of mild winters and warm springs during the last 5 years allowed the early occurrence and the fast development of wheat leaf rust in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, it is advisable to take this disease into account in fungicide application schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailIMPROVING SOIL ORGANIC CARBON (SOC) PREDICTION BY FIELD SPECTROMETRY IN BARE CROPLAND BY REDUCING THE DISTURBING EFFECT OF SOIL ROUGHNESS
Denis, Antoine ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Stevens, Antoine et al

in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2009 IEEE International, IGARSS 2009 (2009, July 17)

The spatial estimation of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) at large scale in outdoor condition is an important issue. It has been largely demonstrated that diffuse reflectance spectroscopic techniques, are ... [more ▼]

The spatial estimation of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) at large scale in outdoor condition is an important issue. It has been largely demonstrated that diffuse reflectance spectroscopic techniques, are efficient for SOC determination in field conditions. However these methods are influenced by disturbing factors such as soil water content, vegetation residues and surface roughness, the later being the object of this study. Our laboratory experiments showed that the accuracy of SOC prediction from shadowed soil samples with spectroscopy techniques decreases with increasing soil shadow. In this study a new methodology using a digital camera for identifying and correcting the effect of soil shadow on field reflectance spectra measured with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) during field campaign in bare crop lands has been elaborated and tested. Results showed that the proposed shadow correction method enables improving significantly SOC prediction accuracy and performs better than traditionally used methods consisting in automatic signal processing. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Situation au 21 juin 2009
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Scohy, Laureline; Denis, Antoine ULg et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2009), 7(2), 1-5

Depuis le dernier bulletin publié fin avril, les conditions météorologiques ont été fort proches des normales avec toutefois quelques épisodes orageux qui ont pu causer ça et là des dégâts aux cultures ... [more ▼]

Depuis le dernier bulletin publié fin avril, les conditions météorologiques ont été fort proches des normales avec toutefois quelques épisodes orageux qui ont pu causer ça et là des dégâts aux cultures. La végétation semble avoir ralenti davantage sa croissance que ce qui s’observe d’habitude depuis dix ans, cela en particulier dans le Nord et le Nord-Ouest du pays, probablement en raison des conditions pluvieuses rencontrées dans ces zones. Cependant les prévisions de rendements à l’échelle nationale ne semblent pas être affectées. A l’exception du maïs, les rendements s’annoncent meilleurs que la moyenne des quatre dernières années. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique - Situation au 30 avril 2009
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Djaby, Bakary ULg; Denis, Antoine ULg et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2009), 7(1), 1-3

Alors que l’on pouvait craindre les conséquences de l’hiver froid que nous avons connu cette année, il apparaît, au niveau de nos indicateurs météorologiques et de nos indicateurs spatiaux dérivés de la ... [more ▼]

Alors que l’on pouvait craindre les conséquences de l’hiver froid que nous avons connu cette année, il apparaît, au niveau de nos indicateurs météorologiques et de nos indicateurs spatiaux dérivés de la télédétection, que les grandes cultures ont dans l’ensemble bien passé l’hiver et elles ont largement rattrapé le retard accumulé au cours des mois d’hiver et du tout début de printemps. Ceci se vérifie également sur le terrain où les stades phénologiques sont très proches de la situation normale. Aucune prévision de rendement n’est faite à ce stade. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation des prises de vue aériennes à basse altitude pour le suivi des activités hydro-agricoles - Cas du bassin du Kou (Burkina Faso)
Wellens, Joost ULg; Diallo, Mamadou; Dakoure, Denis et al

Poster (2009, March 19)

Le bassin du Kou, situé dans le sud-ouest du Burkina Faso, est depuis quelques décennies le théâtre de différentes formes de conflits liés à toute une série de problèmes que l’on rencontre généralement ... [more ▼]

Le bassin du Kou, situé dans le sud-ouest du Burkina Faso, est depuis quelques décennies le théâtre de différentes formes de conflits liés à toute une série de problèmes que l’on rencontre généralement dans des zones irriguées. Dans le bassin du Kou, les aménagements hydro-agricoles recensés couvrent une superficie totale de près de 3.200 ha ; il s’agit pour l’essentiel de périmètres privés formant la ceinture maraîchère et horticole de Bobo- Dioulasso et d’un grand périmètre de 1.200 ha réalisé par l’Etat à Bama et spécialisé dans la production du riz. Le développement d’une filière fruits et légumes sous l’impulsion de l’initiative privée est un trait caractéristique de la production irriguée dans la région. Outre l’abondance en eau liée à la présence de sources importantes, d’une nappe phréatique facilement exploitable, d’un cours d’eau pérenne et un hivernage à caractère sub-humide, la plupart des utilisateurs d’eau se retrouvent régulièrement en pénurie d’eau suite à l’extension non contrôlée de l’agriculture irriguée. Ceci a conduit les gestionnaires du bassin à rechercher des outils de contrôle et de suivi. A partir de plus de 300 prises de vue aérienne ‘amateurs’ à basse altitude, ayant une résolution de 0,8 m., une image d’occupation détaillée des sols a pu être élaborée. Des logiciels de mosaïquage, de traitement d’images et de SIG ont permis la construction d’une seule image géoréférencée. Les parcelles agricoles irriguées ont ainsi pu être délimitées. Leurs occupations ont été comparées et complétées avec les résultats d’un recensement hydro-agricole exhaustif organisé au même moment. Cette technique permet un suivi spatial des activités agricoles à moindre coût par rapport à l’acquisition des images satellites à haute résolution. L’approche est également moins sensible aux influences atmosphériques non-prévisibles dans la programmation des images satellites. Elle répond avec une précision largement suffisante aux objectifs de suivi et contrôle des parcelles irriguées demandés par les gestionnaires du bassin. [less ▲]

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See detailSet-up of CGMS in Ethiopia and first user experiences
Djaby, Bakary ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Massart, Michel

Conference (2009, March 18)

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See detailOptimisation des calendriers d'irrigation pour le périmètre irrigué de la Vallée du Kou à l'aide du logiciel SIMIS
Wellens, Joost ULg; Nitcheu, Martial; Sawadogo, Brehima et al

in Journées Scientifiques 2iE; 2009 (2009)

La vallée du Kou, situé dans le Sud-ouest du Burkina Faso, a été depuis le milieu des années 70, le lieu d’un développement rapide de l’irrigation. Reconnue comme une excellente plaine à vocation agricole ... [more ▼]

La vallée du Kou, situé dans le Sud-ouest du Burkina Faso, a été depuis le milieu des années 70, le lieu d’un développement rapide de l’irrigation. Reconnue comme une excellente plaine à vocation agricole, notamment pour la riziculture en raison de ses potentialités hydrauliques, le périmètre irrigué de la vallée du Kou revêt une importance majeure dans les économies à proximité. Malheureusement, ce périmètre de 1.260 ha est aujourd’hui peu performant. Les causes principales sont les pénuries en eau chroniques dues à une intensification des utilisateurs en amont du périmètre et la mauvaise gestion de l’eau sur le périmètre. C’est dans ce sens qu’il a été jugé nécessaire d’entreprendre une stratégie d’amélioration de la gestion de l’irrigation sur le périmètre. Après avoir élaboré un diagnostic des efficiences en irrigation, le logiciel SIMIS (Mateos et al., 2002) a été mis en place afin de proposer des scénarii d’irrigation fiables et équitables. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst report of wheat powdery mildew and its severity in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg over the 2003-2009 period
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2009), 91(S4), 109

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See detailGestion interdisciplinaire du problème d'ensablement des cuvettes en milieu sahélien nigérien
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ambouta, K, J-M

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2009), 33

Niger faces the brunt of desertification in the Sahelian belt. Many national and international programs attempt to help the country fight against this serious environmental degradation. This article ... [more ▼]

Niger faces the brunt of desertification in the Sahelian belt. Many national and international programs attempt to help the country fight against this serious environmental degradation. This article relies on an inter-university targeted program (ITP) funded by the Coopération Universitaire au Développement (CUD) called "Invasion of circular lowlands (cuvettes) of south-eastern Niger by aeolian deposits: processes, impacts and means of struggle" to demonstrate the interest of an inter / multidisciplinary approach in the research of a better solution to an environmental problem as comprehensive as that of desertification. The study is focused on a specific form of desertification, which is that of silting “cuvettes”, areas of lowlands in the south-eastern Niger. Two examples illustrate the practical contribution of this type of approach. The article also shows the link between all the teams who have contributed to the results of the ITP and the development of this special issue. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives - Quel avenir pour les cuvettes oasiennes dans le Niger oriental ?
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ambouta, Karimou Jean-Marie; Ozer, André ULg et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2009), 33

The oasian interdunal depressions of eastern Niger are areas of life providing refuge to agro-pastoral activities in a generally hostile environment. The inter-university Targeted Program (ITP) funded by ... [more ▼]

The oasian interdunal depressions of eastern Niger are areas of life providing refuge to agro-pastoral activities in a generally hostile environment. The inter-university Targeted Program (ITP) funded by the Coopération Universitaire au Développement (CUD) called "Invasion of circular lowlands (cuvettes) of south-eastern Niger by aeolian deposits: processes, impacts and means of struggle" has studied the problem of silting of these refuge areas and proposed technical means, including physical and biological fixation of dunes that threaten the villages and interdunal depressions. Given the increasing human pressure and the present climate context that seems to move towards dryer conditions, environmental degradation of the study area should be investigated more broadly. Set up of strategies to allow people to adapt their conditions of life to an environment increasingly rough should also be considered. This paper presents some possible options for adaptation and examines the question of the very future of these interdunal depressions. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical Analysis of the night weather conditions favouring the epidemic of the brown rust in the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Maraite, Henri et al

in Italian Journal of Agronomy/ Rivista di Agronomia (2008), 3

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See detailService operations report SENEGAL 2007
Delrue, Josefien; Barbieri, Massimo; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

Report (2008)

GMFS (Global Monitoring for Food Security) is a GMES Service Element (GSE) project, part of the ESA contribution to the EU / ESA GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) Programme. GMFS aims ... [more ▼]

GMFS (Global Monitoring for Food Security) is a GMES Service Element (GSE) project, part of the ESA contribution to the EU / ESA GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) Programme. GMFS aims to establish an earth observation based operational service for crop monitoring to support food security decision makers and EU policy objectives. The aim of this document, as expressed in the statement of work is to: - Evaluate the operations planned versus the services agreed - Review the external infrastructure - Review issues and experiences with relation to adopted standards The aim of the document is to give a complete report of all activities executed by the service partners to deliver agricultural monitoring services to the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) in Senegal for the 2007 growing season. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring soil organic carbon in croplands using imaging spectroscopy (moca project)
Stevens, Antoine; van Wesemael, Bas; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2008, February 12)

The detection of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration is essential in both the assessment of SOC sequestration and soil quality. Within the EU soil thematic strategy the depletion of organic ... [more ▼]

The detection of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration is essential in both the assessment of SOC sequestration and soil quality. Within the EU soil thematic strategy the depletion of organic matter is mentioned as one of the major threats to the soil resource. As one of the first countries Luxemburg has taken the initiative to monitor the SOC concentration of individual fields to allow for eventual CO2 credits and as an indicator for good agro-ecological conditions (GAEC). The aim of this project is to develop an efficient and operational methodology to detect SOC changes in croplands using Imaging Spectroscopy and to map the SOC contents of croplands with high resolution and minimal calibration. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal agricultural monitoring systems by integration of earth observation and modelling techniques (globam project).
Defourny, Pierre; Bériaux, Emilie; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2008, February 12)

Nowadays, food security and crop production variability become a major concern. Moreover, in spite of major technological and methodological EO improvements observed since the late 1990’s, very little ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, food security and crop production variability become a major concern. Moreover, in spite of major technological and methodological EO improvements observed since the late 1990’s, very little change has been observed in the operational systems. A major gap exists between the remote sensing operationally used and the current scientific state of the art in EO crop monitoring. There is a lack of relevant field data over large areas, and these data are very much needed to gain a better understanding of potential improvements of the operational systems. [less ▲]

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