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See detailSmallholder pig production systems along a periurban-rural gradient in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (in press)

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little ... [more ▼]

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding pig production in the Western part of the DRC, wherefore a survey was carried out to characterize and compare 319 pig production systems in their management and feeding strategies, along a periurban - rural gradient in Western provinces of the DRC. Pig breeding was the main source of income (43 %) and half of respondent were active in mixed pig and crop production, mainly vegetable garden. Depending on the location, smallholders owned on average 18 pigs, including four sows. Piglet mortality rate varied from 9.5 to 21.8% while average weaned age ranged between 2.2 and 2.8 months. The major causes of mortality reported by the farmers were African swine fever 98%, Swine erysipelas (60%), erysipelas trypanosomiasis (31 %), Swine worm infection (17 %), and diarrhoea (12 %). The majority of the pigs were reared in pens without free roaming and fed essentially with locally available by-products and forage plants whose nature varied according with the location of the farm. The pig production systems depended on the local environment; particularly in terms of workforces, herd structure and characteristics, production parameters, pig building materials, selling price and in feed resources. It can be concluded that an improvement of Congolese pig production systems should consider (1) a reduction of inbreeding, (2) an improvement in biosafety to reduce the incidence of African swine fever and the spread of other diseases, and (3) an improvement in feeding practices. [less ▲]

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See detailNghiên cứu và thiết kế hai kiểu chuồng nuôi nhông cát Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829) phù hợp với điều kiện nuôi và vốn đầu tư tại huyện Bắc Bình, tỉnh Bình Thuận
Tran, Tinh ULg; Tran, Ngoc Nguyen Kim Dieu; Vo, Kim Thong et al

in Journal of Agriculture Sciences and Technology (2014), 1/2014

Building of an enclosure for rearing of the spotted butterfly lizard, Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829), by the first farmer in 2004 (in Hong Chinh commune, Hoa Thang ward, Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan ... [more ▼]

Building of an enclosure for rearing of the spotted butterfly lizard, Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829), by the first farmer in 2004 (in Hong Chinh commune, Hoa Thang ward, Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan province) is considered as a fortuitous discovery which was the initiator of the current expanding trend of its rearing. Because L. guttata is a wild animal, with strong disease resistance and adaptation capacity, livestock farmers are presently not very interested in important aspects: rearing techniques, enclosure’s types, sex ratio, diseases’ prevention, etc. Notably the building of enclosures not perfectly suitable breeds a noticeable loss of the number of lizards and a reduction in the profits for the farmers. To this end, the building of two types of enclosures adapted to local rearing conditions and the investing capital available in Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan province is presently essential. We descrite two types of enclosure: the first one surrounded by a bricks (or breeze blocks) wall, the second one fended by a fiber cement corrugated sheets wall. Moreover, we suggest to introduce plants in order to build a vegetal cover nearer to the natural environment of L. guttata: shrubs and a plant carpet becoming the preferential refuge area of the spotted butterfly lizard. [less ▲]

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See detailLeiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829): from the wild to the captive breeding; ethology, ecology and its functional role in ecosystems
Malaisse, François ULg; Tran, Tinh ULg; Rochette, Anne-Julie et al

in Kiernan, Mindy (Ed.) Lizards: Thermal Ecology, Genetic Diversity and Functional Role in Ecosystems (2014)

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See detailNutritive value of tropical forage plants fed to pigs in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2014), 191

The nutritive value of 20 forage plants commonly used for feeding pigs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was studied to determine chemical composition, protein amino acid profiles, mineral content ... [more ▼]

The nutritive value of 20 forage plants commonly used for feeding pigs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was studied to determine chemical composition, protein amino acid profiles, mineral content, and in vitro digestibility using a two-step method combining an enzymatic pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysis followed by a 72 h gas-test fermentation. The highest protein contents (270–320 g/kg DM) were obtained for Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, and Moringa oleifera. Grasses, Acacia mangium, and Eichhornia crassipes, showed the lowest crude protein (CP) and highest NDF contents. Cajanus cajan and Trypsacum andersonii had the most balanced amino acid profile, being deficient in lysine and slightly deficient in histidine, while Megathyrsus maximus displayed the highest number of essential amino acids deficiencies. High mineral contents were obtained from, in ascending order, with M. oleifera, V. unguiculata, E. crassipes, Ipomea batatas and Amaranthus hybridus. In vitro dry matter digestibility ranged from 0.25 to 0.52, in vitro CP digestibility from 0.23 to 0.80, in vitro energy digestibility from 0.23 to 0.52. M. esculenta, M. oleifera, I. batatas, Mucuna pruriens, V. unguiculata, P. scandens and A. hybridus showed high digestibilities for all nutrients. Gas production during fermentation of the pepsin and pancreatin-indigestible fraction of the plants varied from 42 ml/g DM for A. mangium to 202 ml/g DM for I. batatas (P<0.001). Short-chain fatty acid production during fermentation varied from 157 to 405 mg/g of the pepsin and pancreatin indigestible fraction. It is concluded that some of these species are interesting sources of proteins and minerals with a good digestibility that might be used more economically than concentrate, especially in smallholder production systems, to improve pig feeding, mineral intake and intestinal health in pigs reared in the tropics. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrimination of grassland species and their classification in botanical families by laboratory scale NIR hyperspectral imaging: preliminary results
Dale, Laura ULg; Thewis, André ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Talanta (2013), 116

The objective of this study was to discriminate by a NIR line scan hyperspectral imaging, taxonomic plant families comprised of different grassland species. Plants were collected from semi-natural meadows ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to discriminate by a NIR line scan hyperspectral imaging, taxonomic plant families comprised of different grassland species. Plants were collected from semi-natural meadows of the National Apuseni Park, Apuseni Mountains, Gârda area (Romania) according to botanical families. Chemometric tools such as PLS-DA were used to discriminate distinct grassland species, and assign the different species to botanical families. Species within the Poacea family and Other Botanical Families could be distinguished (R2=0.91 and 0.90, respectively) with greater accuracy than those species in the Fabacea family (R2=0.60). A correct classification rate of 99% was obtained in the assignment of the various species to the proper family. Moreover a complete study based on wavelength selection has been performed in order to identify the chemical compound related to each botanical family and therefore to the possible toxicity of the plant. This work could be considered as a first step for the development of a complete procedure for the detection and quantification of possible toxic species in semi-natural meadows used by grazing animals. [less ▲]

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See detailA mucin-enriched fermentation model to assess prebiotic potential of new indigestible carbohydrates
Boudry, Christelle ULg; Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULg; Blaise, Yannick ULg et al

in 64th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (2013, August 29)

Screening the prebiotic potential of novel indigestible carbohydrates (ICH) is a challenge for feed and food industry and in vitro models are increasingly used for such purposes. Recently extracellular ... [more ▼]

Screening the prebiotic potential of novel indigestible carbohydrates (ICH) is a challenge for feed and food industry and in vitro models are increasingly used for such purposes. Recently extracellular binding proteins responsible for the adherence to intestinal mucus were described for several Lactobacillus species. As this genus is known for its beneficial effect on gut health, we enriched the in vitro gas fermentation model with mucin in order to evaluate the prebiotic potential of 5 ICH. Mucin-coated microcosms (MCM) were prepared as described by Van den Abbeele et al. (2012, Microbial Biotechnology, 5, 106-115) and introduced in the fermentation bottles with an inoculum prepared from fresh faeces of 3 sows mixed with a nutritive buffer solution. Fermentation was performed at 39°C, using 200 mg of substrate, 30 ml of inoculum and 6 MCM, yielding approx. 20 mg mucin each, in 140 ml glass bottles. A first study was performed with inulin and cellulose as substrates, with and without mucus in the bottles. A second study was performed with 5 substrates (inulin, IMO, beet pulp POS, cellobiose and gluconate) in presence of mucus. After 8 and 72h, SCFA and the microflora of fermentation broth was analysed as well as the microflora on the MCM. The comparison of the microflora evolution with and without mucus showed a better development of the Lactobacillus in the fermentation broth, mainly in presence of inulin. The development of the Lactobacillus genus allowed the classification of the 5 substrates tested in the second study (Inulin > IMO > Gluconate > Cellobiose > POS)(P < 0.05) which was not possible without mucus (P > 0.05). Inulin and IMO showed also the highest development of Bifidobacteria (P < 0.05) and the highest levels of butyrate production (P < 0.05) compared to the three other substrates, indicating a high prebiotic potential. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritive value of four tropical forage legume hays fed to pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg et al

in 64th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (2013, August)

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See detailHyperspectral imaging applications in agriculture and agro-food product quality and safety control: A review
Dale, Laura ULg; Thewis, André ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Applied Spectroscopy Reviews (2013), 48(2), 142-159

In this review, various applications of Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) in agriculture and in the quality control of agro-food products are presented. NIR-HSI is an emerging technique that ... [more ▼]

In this review, various applications of Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) in agriculture and in the quality control of agro-food products are presented. NIR-HSI is an emerging technique that combines classical NIR spectroscopy and imaging techniques in order to simultaneously obtain spectral and spatial information from a field or a sample. The technique is non-destructive, non-polluting, fast and relatively inexpensive per analysis. Currently, its applications in agriculture range from vegetation mapping, crop disease, stress and yield detection to component identification in plants and impurity detection. There is growing interest in HSI for the safety and quality assessment of agro-food products. The applications have been classified from the level of satellite images to the macroscopic, if not, molecular level. [less ▲]

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See detailFertilization Effects on the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility of Semi-natural Meadows as Predicted by NIR Spectrometry
Dale, Laura ULg; Thewis, André ULg; Rotar, Ioan et al

in Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca (2013), 41(1), 42-48

Management of livestock grazing in highly-productive mountain meadows is an important aspect for the economic viability and the environmental impact of a grassland-based farm. The main aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Management of livestock grazing in highly-productive mountain meadows is an important aspect for the economic viability and the environmental impact of a grassland-based farm. The main aim of this study was to build near infrared models to determine the chemical composition and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Romanian meadow forages. The treatments were organic and mineral fertilizer combinations, and forage samples were obtained from three fertilization experiments conducted in the Apuseni Mountains; these samples were analysed using classical and NIR methods. The samples were scanned in the NIR wavelength band. The CRA-W Gembloux ‘local’ calibration models were validated with Romanian meadow forages and then used in order to predict the forage quality of samples. A second objective of the study was to determine the effects of fertilization on forage quality. The results showed a decrease in crude protein content from the NPK treatment (150:75:75), which can be explained by a reduction of Fabaceae plants with this treatment from 17.25% of the populations in the control (semi-natural meadow not fertilized) to 6.25% in the fertilized plots. The decrease in protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility was related to a reduced Fabaceae presence. Our recommendation is to use mineral fertilization with NPK doses less than 100:50:50 to improve meadow productivity; meanwhile organic fertilization can also be used to complement and maintain biodiversity and forage quality. [less ▲]

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See detailD31-1254: Influence de l'âge et du poids d'abattage sur la qualité organoleptique du poulet de chair à croissance lente en Région wallonne (Rapport final).
De Maeseneire, Coraline ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Thewis, André ULg

Report (2013)

Ces dernières années, la progression de la production avicole en Wallonie est, en grande partie, liée au développement de filières dites de qualité différenciée. En 2009, ce sont près de 2.000.000 de ... [more ▼]

Ces dernières années, la progression de la production avicole en Wallonie est, en grande partie, liée au développement de filières dites de qualité différenciée. En 2009, ce sont près de 2.000.000 de poulets qui ont été associés à ce type de production. Cependant, contrairement au poulet standard pour lesquels les pratiques sont très standardisées, les pratiques d’élevage en qualité différenciée peuvent varier, notamment la génétique, l’âge et le poids à l’abattage, le sexe de l’animal, l’accès à un parcours… Ces variations peuvent influencer l’homogénéité de la qualité organoleptique de la viande de poulet au sein d’une même filière ainsi que la perception (et la confiance) des consommateurs vis-à-vis de la viande des poulets qui en sont issus. L’objectif de ce projet est d’étudier et d’objectiver de manière scientifique la qualité organoleptique de la viande de poulet de chair au sein de trois filières avicoles de qualité différenciée afin de fournir aux détenteurs de ces filières des informations quant aux facteurs susceptibles de modifier la qualité organoleptique de leurs produits ainsi que la perception de ceux-ci par les consommateurs. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport scientifique et technique du projet HYDRASANTE (annee 3)
Boudry, Christelle ULg; François, Emmanuelle ULg; Nollevaux, Géraldine et al

Report (2013)

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See detailRelationships between carcass traits and offal components in local poultry populations (gallus gallus) of Benin
Tougan, P.U.; Dahouda, M.; Salifou, C.F.A. et al

in Journal of Applied Biosciences (2013), 69

Objectives : The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and Southe indigenous ... [more ▼]

Objectives : The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and Southe indigenous chicken ectoypes of Benin. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in local poultry populations (Gallus gallus) of Benin
Tougan, P.U.; Dahouda, M.; Salifou, C.F.A. et al

in International Journal of Biological Chemistry (2013), 7(6), 2450-2467

The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin.

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See detailRelationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in local poultry populations (Gallus gallus) of Benin
Tougan, P.U.; Dahouda, M.; Salifou, C.F.A. et al

in International Journal of Biological Chemistry (2013), 7(6), 2450-2467

The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin.

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See detailRelationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in local poultry populations (Gallus gallus) of Benin
Tougan, P.U.; Dahouda, M.; Salifou, C.F.A. et al

in International Journal of Biological Chemistry (2013), 7(6), 2450-2467

The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin.

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)