References of "Terrak, Mohammed"
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See detailKinetic characterization of the monofunctional glycosyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Nguyen-Disteche, M.

in Journal of Bacteriology (2006), 188(7), 2528-2532

The glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs (MGTs) belong to the GT51 family in the sequence-based classification of GTs. They both possess ... [more ▼]

The glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs (MGTs) belong to the GT51 family in the sequence-based classification of GTs. They both possess five conserved motifs and use lipid II precursor (undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate-N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramoyl- pentapeptide) to synthesize the glycan chain of the bacterial wall peptidoglycan. MGTs appear to be dispensable for growth of some bacteria in vitro. However, new evidence shows that they may be essential for the infection process and development of pathogenic bacteria in their hosts. Only a small number of class A PBPs have been characterized so far, and no kinetic data are available on MGTs. In this study, we present the principal enzymatic properties of the Staphylococcus aureus MGT. The enzyme catalyzes glycan chain polymerization with an efficiency of similar to 5,800 M-1 s(-1) and has a pH optimum of 7.5, and its activity requires metal ions with a maximum observed in the presence of Mn2+. The properties of S. aureus MGT are distinct from those of S. aureus PBP2 and Escherichia coli MGT, but they are similar to those of E. coli PBP1b. We examined the role of the conserved Glu100 of S. aureus MGT (equivalent to the proposed catalytic Glu233 of E. coli PBP1b) by site-directed mutagenesis. The Glu100Gln mutation results in a drastic loss of GT activity. This shows that Glu100 is also critical for catalysis in S. aureus MGT and confirms that the conserved glutamate of the first motif EDXXFXX(H/N)X(G/A) is likely the key catalytic residue in the GT51 active site. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the bifunctional glycosyltransferase/acyltransferase penicillin-binding protein 4 of Listeria monocytogenes
Zawadzka-Skomial, J.; Markiewicz, Z.; Nguyen-Disteche, M. et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2006), 188(5), 1875-1881

Multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are essential enzymes responsible for bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) assembly. Their glycosyltransferase activity catalyzes glycan chain elongation ... [more ▼]

Multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are essential enzymes responsible for bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) assembly. Their glycosyltransferase activity catalyzes glycan chain elongation from lipid II substrate (undecaprenyl-pyrophosphoryi-N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid-pentapeptide), and their transpeptidase activity catalyzes cross-linking between peptides carried by two adjacent glycan chains. Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen which exerts its virulence through secreted and cell wall PG-associated virulence factors. This bacterium has five PBPs, including two bifunctional glycosyltransferase/transpeptidase class A PBPs, namely, PBP1 and PBP4. We have expressed and purified the latter and have shown that it binds penicillin and catalyzes in vitro glycan chain polymerization with an efficiency of 1,400 M-1 s(-1) from Escherichia coli lipid II substrate. PBP4 also catalyzes the aminolysis (D-Ala as acceptor) and hydrolysis of the thiolester donor substrate benzoyl-Gly-thioglycolate, indicating that PBP4 possesses both transpeptidase and carboxyeptidase activities. Disruption of the gene lmo2229 encoding PBP4 in L. monocytogenes EGD did not. p have any significant effect on growth rate, peptidoglycan composition, cell morphology, or sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics but did increase the resistance of the mutant to moenomycin. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of the light chain-binding domain of myosin V.
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Lu, Renne C et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2005), 102(36), 12718-23

Myosin V is a double-headed molecular motor involved in organelle transport. Two distinctive features of this motor, processivity and the ability to take extended linear steps of approximately 36 nm along ... [more ▼]

Myosin V is a double-headed molecular motor involved in organelle transport. Two distinctive features of this motor, processivity and the ability to take extended linear steps of approximately 36 nm along the actin helical track, depend on its unusually long light chain-binding domain (LCBD). The LCBD of myosin V consists of six tandem IQ motifs, which constitute the binding sites for calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like light chains. Here, we report the 2-A resolution crystal structure of myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1p) bound to the IQ2-IQ3 fragment of Myo2p, a myosin V from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This structure, combined with FRET distance measurements between probes in various CaM-IQ complexes, comparative sequence analysis, and the previously determined structures of Mlc1p-IQ2 and Mlc1p-IQ4, allowed building a model of the LCBD of myosin V. The IQs of myosin V are distributed into three pairs. There appear to be specific cooperative interactions between light chains within each IQ pair, but little or no interaction between pairs, providing flexibility at their junctions. The second and third IQ pairs each present a light chain, whether CaM or a CaM-related molecule, bound in a noncanonical extended conformation in which the N-lobe does not interact with the IQ motif. The resulting free N-lobes may engage in protein-protein interactions. The extended conformation is characteristic of the single IQ of myosin VI and is common throughout the myosin superfamily. The model points to a prominent role of the LCBD in the function, regulation, and molecular interactions of myosin V. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Iq motif defines the conformation of the interacting calmodullin
Rebowski; Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Lu, R. C. et al

in Biophysical Journal (2004, January), 86

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See detailStructural basis of protein phosphatase 1 regulation
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Kerff, Frédéric ULg; Langsetmo, K. et al

in Nature (2004), 429(6993), 780-4

The coordinated and reciprocal action of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases and phosphatases produces transient phosphorylation, a fundamental regulatory mechanism for many biological processes ... [more ▼]

The coordinated and reciprocal action of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases and phosphatases produces transient phosphorylation, a fundamental regulatory mechanism for many biological processes. The human genome encodes a far greater number of Ser/Thr protein kinases than of phosphatases. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), in particular, is ubiquitously distributed and regulates a broad range of cellular functions, including glycogen metabolism, cell-cycle progression and muscle relaxation. PP1 has evolved effective catalytic machinery but lacks substrate specificity. Substrate specificity is conferred upon PP1 through interactions with a large number of regulatory subunits. The regulatory subunits are generally unrelated, but most possess the RVxF motif, a canonical PP1-binding sequence. Here we reveal the crystal structure at 2.7 A resolution of the complex between PP1 and a 34-kDa N-terminal domain of the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit MYPT1. MYPT1 is the protein that regulates PP1 function in smooth muscle relaxation. Structural elements amino- and carboxy-terminal to the RVxF motif of MYPT1 are positioned in a way that leads to a pronounced reshaping of the catalytic cleft of PP1, contributing to the increased myosin specificity of this complex. The structure has general implications for the control of PP1 activity by other regulatory subunits. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neck domain of myosin V
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Staford, Walter; Lu, Renne

in Biophysical Journal (2004), 86

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See detailPP1 targeting and regulation as revealed by the structure of a PP1 delta-MYPT1 complex.
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Kerff, Frédéric ULg; Langsetmo, K. et al

in Biophysical Journal (2004), 86(1), 172-172

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See detailTwo distinct myosin light chain structures are induced by specific variations within the bound IQ motifs-functional implications
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Wu, G.; Stafford, W. F. et al

in EMBO Journal (2003), 22(3), 362-71

IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized ... [more ▼]

IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The crystal structures of Mlc1p bound to IQ2 and IQ4 of Myo2p differ dramatically. When bound to IQ2, Mlc1p adopts a compact conformation in which both the N- and C-lobes interact with the IQ motif. However, in the complex with IQ4, the N-lobe no longer interacts with the IQ motif, resulting in an extended conformation of Mlc1p. The two light chain structures relate to two distinct subfamilies of IQ motifs, one of which does not interact with the N-lobes of calmodulin-like light chains. The correlation between light chain structure and IQ sequence is demonstrated further by sedimentation velocity analysis of complexes of Mlc1p with IQ motifs from Myo2p and Iqg1p. The resulting 'free' N-lobes of myosin light chains in the extended conformation could mediate the formation of ternary complexes during protein localization and/or partner recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystallization, X-ray characterization and selenomethionine phasing of Mlc1p bound to IQ motifs from myosin V
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Otterbein, L. R.; Wu, G. et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography (2002), 58(Pt 10 Pt 2), 1882-5

Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like protein from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it has been identified as a subunit of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and a binding partner of an IQGAP-like protein ... [more ▼]

Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like protein from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it has been identified as a subunit of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and a binding partner of an IQGAP-like protein, Iqg1p. Through its interactions with these two proteins, Mlc1p plays a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis. Mlc1p has been crystallized in complexes with four different IQ target motifs from the neck region of Myo2p: IQ2, IQ3, IQ4 and IQ2-IQ3 (referred to as IQ2,3). Electron-density maps for two of the complexes (Mlc1p-IQ4 and Mlc1p-IQ2,3) were obtained from multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiments based on selenomethionine derivatives. The other two structures (Mlc1p-IQ2 and Mlc1p-IQ3) were determined by molecular replacement using the partially refined structure of Mlc1p-IQ2,3 as a search model. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Catalytic, Glycosyl Transferase and Acyl Transferase Modules of the Cell Wall Peptidoglycan-Polymerizing Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b of Escherichia Coli
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Ghosh, Tushar K.; van Heijenoort, Jean et al

in Molecular Microbiology (1999), 34(2), 350-364

The penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1b of Escherichia coli catalyses the assembly of lipid-transported N-acetyl glucosaminyl-beta-1, 4-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)-meso-diaminopimelyl ... [more ▼]

The penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1b of Escherichia coli catalyses the assembly of lipid-transported N-acetyl glucosaminyl-beta-1, 4-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)-meso-diaminopimelyl+ ++- (L)-D-alanyl-D-alanine disaccharide pentapeptide units into polymeric peptidoglycan. These units are phosphodiester linked, at C1 of muramic acid, to a C55 undecaprenyl carrier. PBP1b has been purified in the form of His tag (M46-N844) PBP1bgamma. This derivative provides the host cell in which it is produced with a functional wall peptidoglycan. His tag (M46-N844) PBP1bgamma possesses an amino-terminal hydrophobic segment, which serves as transmembrane spanner of the native PBP. This segment is linked, via an congruent with 100-amino-acid insert, to a D198-G435 glycosyl transferase module that possesses the five motifs characteristic of the PBPs of class A. In in vitro assays, the glycosyl transferase of the PBP catalyses the synthesis of linear glycan chains from the lipid carrier with an efficiency of congruent with 39 000 M-1 s-1. Glu-233, of motif 1, is central to the catalysed reaction. It is proposed that the Glu-233 gamma-COOH donates its proton to the oxygen atom of the scissile phosphoester bond of the lipid carrier, leading to the formation of an oxocarbonium cation, which then undergoes attack by the 4-OH group of a nucleophile N-acetylglucosamine. Asp-234 of motif 1 or Glu-290 of motif 3 could be involved in the stabilization of the oxocarbonium cation and the activation of the 4-OH group of the N-acetylglucosamine. In turn, Tyr-310 of motif 4 is an important component of the amino acid sequence-folding information. The glycosyl transferase module of PBP1b, the lysozymes and the lytic transglycosylase Slt70 have much the same catalytic machinery. They might be members of the same superfamily. The glycosyl transferase module is linked, via a short junction site, to the amino end of a Q447-N844 acyl transferase module, which possesses the catalytic centre-defining motifs of the penicilloyl serine transferases superfamily. In in vitro assays with the lipid precursor and in the presence of penicillin at concentrations sufficient to derivatize the active-site serine 510 of the acyl transferase, the rate of glycan chain synthesis is unmodified, showing that the functioning of the glycosyl transferase is acyl transferase independent. In the absence of penicillin, the products of the Ser-510-assisted double-proton shuttle are glycan strands substituted by cross-linked tetrapeptide-pentapeptide and tetrapeptide-tetrapeptide dimers and uncross-linked pentapeptide and tetrapeptide monomers. The acyl transferase of the PBP also catalyses aminolysis and hydrolysis of properly structured thiolesters, but it lacks activity on D-alanyl-D-alanine-terminated peptides. This substrate specificity suggests that carbonyl donor activity requires the attachment of the pentapeptides to the glycan chains made by the glycosyl transferase, and it implies that one and the same PBP molecule catalyses transglycosylation and peptide cross-linking in a sequential manner. Attempts to produce truncated forms of the PBP lead to the conclusion that the multimodular polypeptide chain behaves as an integrated folding entity during PBP1b biogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe non-penicillin-binding module of the tripartite penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia Coli is required for folding and/or stability of the penicillin-binding module and the membrane-anchoring module confers cell septation activity on the folded structure
Goffin, Colette ULg; Fraipont, Claudine ULg; Ayala, Juan et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (1996), 178(18), 5402-5409

The ftsI-encoded multimodular class B penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is a key element of the cell septation machinery of Escherichia coli. Altered ftsI genes were overexpressed, and the gene products ... [more ▼]

The ftsI-encoded multimodular class B penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is a key element of the cell septation machinery of Escherichia coli. Altered ftsI genes were overexpressed, and the gene products were analyzed with respect to the level of production, stability, penicillin affinity, and cell septation activity. In contrast to the serine beta-lactamases and low-molecular-mass PBPs which are autonomous folding entities, the S-259-to-V-577 penicillin-binding module of M-1-to-V-577 PBP3 lacks the amino acid sequence information for correct folding. The missing piece of information is provided by the associated G-57-to-E-258 non-penicillin-binding module which functions as a noncleaved, pseudointramolecular chaperone. Key elements of the folding information reside within the motif 1-containing R-60-to-W-110 polypeptide segment and within G-188-to-D-197 motif 3 of the n-PB module. The intermodule interaction is discussed in the light of the known three-dimensional structure (at 3.5-A [0.35-nm] resolution) of the analogous class B PBP2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. Pares, N. Mouz, Y. Petillot, R. Hakenbeck, and O. Dideberg, Nature Struct. Biol. 3:284-289, 1996). Correct folding and adoption of a stable penicillin-binding conformation are necessary but not sufficient to confer cell septation activity to PBP3 in exponentially growing cells. The in vivo activity of PBP3 also depends on the M-1-to-E-56 amino-terminal module which encompasses the cytosol, the membrane, and the periplasm and which functions as a noncleaved pseudo-signal peptide. [less ▲]

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