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See detailCathepsin D processes human prolactin into multiple 16K-like N-terminal fragments: Study of their antiangiogenic properties and physiological relevance
Piwnica, David; Touraine, Philippe; Struman, Ingrid ULg et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2004), 18(10), 2522-2542

16K prolactin (PRL) is the name given to the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment obtained by proteolysis of rat PRL by tissue extracts or cell lysates, in which cathepsin D was identified as the candidate protease ... [more ▼]

16K prolactin (PRL) is the name given to the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment obtained by proteolysis of rat PRL by tissue extracts or cell lysates, in which cathepsin D was identified as the candidate protease. Based on its antiangiogenic activity, 16K PRL is potentially a physiological inhibitor of tumor growth. Full-length human PRL ( hPRL) was reported to be resistant to cathepsin D, suggesting that antiangiogenic 16K PRL may be physiologically irrelevant in humans. In this study, we show that hPRL can be cleaved by cathepsin D or mammary cell extracts under the same conditions as described earlier for rat PRL, although with lower efficiency. In contrast to the rat hormone, hPRL proteolysis generates three 16K-like fragments, which were identified by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry as corresponding to amino acids 1 - 132 ( 15 kDa), 1 - 147 (16.5 kDa), and 1 - 150 ( 17 kDa). Biochemical and mutagenetic studies showed that the species-specific digestion pattern is due to subtle differences in primary and tertiary structures of rat and human hormones. The antiangiogenic activity of N-terminal hPRL fragments was assessed by the inhibition of growth factor-induced thymidine uptake and MAPK activation in bovine umbilical endothelial cells. Finally, an N-terminal hPRL fragment comigrating with the proteolytic 17-kDa fragment was identified in human pituitary adenomas, suggesting that the physiological relevance of antiangiogenic N-terminal hPRL fragments needs to be reevaluated in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailThe antiangiogenic factor 16K human prolactin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis by a mechanism that requires activation of nuclear factor-kappa B
Tabruyn, Sébastien ULg; Sorlet, C. M.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULg et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (2003), 17(9), 1815-1823

We have previously shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) has antiangiogenic properties, including the ability to induce apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin (16K hPRL) has antiangiogenic properties, including the ability to induce apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we examined whether the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway was involved in mediating the apoptotic action of 16K hPRL in bovine adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells. In a dose-dependent manner, treatment with 16K hPRL induced inhibitor kappaB-alpha degradation permitting translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus and reporter gene activation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of a nondegradable inhibitor kappaB-alpha mutant or treatment with NF-kappaB inhibitors blocked 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis. Treatment with 16K hPRL activated the initiator caspases-8 and -9 and the effector caspase-3, all of which were essential for stimulation of DNA fragmentation. This activation of the caspase cascade by 16K hPRL was also NF-kappaB dependent. These findings support the conclusion that NF-kappaB signaling plays a central role in 16K hPRL-induced apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. [less ▲]

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See detail16K hPRL prevents angiogenesis by inducing both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of endothelial cells
Tabruyn, Sébastien ULg; Sorlet, Catherine; Georges, Angélique et al

Poster (2003)

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