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See detailSur la floculation des milieux troubles
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique. 2e série (1900), XIX

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1900), 19, 204-35 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). This paper commences ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1900), 19, 204-35 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). This paper commences with an historical summary of the researches of previous observers on liquids rendered turbid by the presence of solid substances in a minute state of division (pseudo-solutions), and a bibliography of the subject is given in an appendix. Details are then given of the author's own experiments, the results of which are summarised as follows. Solutions of salts which, which like those of polyvalent metals, cannot be obtained in an optically transparent condition (Abstr., 1899, ii, 537) bring about the flocculation of turbid liquids much more readily than solutions of any other salts. This result is due partly to the agglutinative power of the metallic hydroxides formed by the hydrolysing action of the water, and partly to the flocculating action of the acids simultaneously produced. The extent of the flocculation caused by hydroxides is closely connected with their chemical and physical character as well as with the nature of the turbidity. The behaviour of the turbidity towards salt solutions somewhat resembles that of a membrane, the acid formed by the hydrolysis of the salt traversing the liquid by diffusion whilst the metallic hydroxide is precipitated with the substance causing the turbidity. The persistence of very fine turbidities bears a relation to the Brownian motion. In consequence of this motion, particles suspended in pure water frequently collide with one another without coming into actual contact, but if an electrolyte is present the particles agglutinate, the Brownian motion ceases, and the flocks formed are deposited. The flocculation of liquids is not brought about by electrical action at a distance, as by Rontgen rays or the electricity developed by a statical machine or an induction coil, and cannot therefore be compared with the precipitation of dust particles in air. The feeblest electric current is, however, sufficient to induce clarification, which in the majority of cases commences at the cathode. Electrolytes of the same conductivity but having different anions and cations influence the flocculation very unequally. Electrolytes having the same cation induce flocculation in equal times, whilst the nature of the anion plays only a secondary part. The rate of flocculation in different electrolytes having the same anion is exactly in the order of the velocities of the cations in electrolysis. It therefore appears that the primary cause of the flocculation brought about by electrolytes is to be sought in the velocities of the ions. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la floculation des milieux troubles
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1900), (7), 483-520

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique. (1899), 37, 790-815; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In this very interesting stand the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique. (1899), 37, 790-815; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In this very interesting stand the author gives comprehensive preparation of the philosophy, which led it with its numerous individual investigations, and over the results of these test series. It is possible to seemed that the sedimentary rocks formed, because the apparent is not plastic and weldable bodies accept this characteristics have under pressure. Indeed it showed up with many materials, in particular metals that with pressure alone, without heating up from the powder a connected block develops. This characteristics are proportional with different metals of their weld ability. In addition, with the baud a pressure of 10000 atmospheres is sufficient not yet, in order to cause a cementing. Since a layer height of 50000 m corresponds to this pressure, it is impossible that the sandstones formed alone with pressure. With the metals cementing is based on the ability show also in firm solution and diffusion features. Metals is dissolve mutually it can be combined also in the firm like copper with tin and copper with zinc. On the other hand it does not let itself weld together with zinc with pressure, mix also in the melted lead and zinc (perfectly). The more firmly, the less volatile and a material is less fusible, all the lets is with pressure weld together itself. It shows up with diamond, corundum, quartz and other materials. Without pressure, only by bare laying of smooth surfaces on top of each other such metals, are with each other mixable, can be combined at higher temperature. Two pieces applies mainly for the same metal; with platinum, gold and copper, with the temperature test of 1600 and 1800° the lower melting point was appropriate, just like with such, with those the melting point only for 200° is higher than the test temperature. Also copper and zinc chop lower these conditions together, as a layer brass form 1/4 mm of thickness, also during zinc and lead, zinc and bismuth do not unite. The fact that the solid materials of lower pressure in each other diffuses the results also from the experiments with barium carbonate and sodium sulfate and Barium sulfate and sodium carbonate which from both sides without presence of a solvent with lower pressure became the same equilibrium reached. Chemical reactions in the firm capability of the lower pressure however only then take place, when the volume are not increased. Where by the reaction with Volume decrease is caused, the reaction lower pressure can occur as with mixtures of silver with sulfur with large mobility of the molecules; it does not have to occur however, if the mobility is missing, which with mixtures of zinc and sulfur the case is, although the formation will take place from sulfur zinc also with lower contraction. With agreement a volume distinction occurs, with pressure the coalescence be never caused. with pressure a cleavage is on the contrary often caused with the hydrate of the sulfur arsenic and with the calcium copper acetate. Also transformations of a modification into another, of prism sulfur in octahedral, of graphite in diamond are caused with pressure, and thereby a decreasing of volume occurs. The experiments over the influence of the pressure on firm body did not offer the possibility, the formation of the sedimentary rocks of interpreting in particular the sandstones and conglomerates because quartz does not become plastic and weldable. If however water present with pressure and the formation of a liquid solution is often favored, which works then cementing. In the sandstones and conglomerates consists the binder of amorphously aqueous silicic acid. The author knows by the behavior of these, in particular the younger rocks against caustic potash solution after, by which the amorphous silicic acid is not the quartz grains are dissolved, so that the rock disintegrated. A solution of silicic acid in water can develop with pressure. If one soaks the volume with a colloidal solution of silicic acid, then occurs no caking, because with the drying up, the amorphous silicic acid contracts itself and view the surfaces which can be cemented replaces. One must press evenly as when gluing the wood into pieces together which can be cemented loosely, so that it shrinks with the drying up in the measure like the binder, advances and the relief of that to prevent cementing surfaces. That is caused with the formation of the sandstones with the low pressure of the lay-over sand masses. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'illumination de quelques verres
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1900), (12), 1014-1027

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See detailPropriétés des solides sous pression, diffusion de la matière solide, mouvements internes de la matière solide
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Société chimique de Belgique (Ed.) Walthère Spring : Oeuvres complètes (1900)

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See detailRemarques sur une note récente de M. Pernter, concernant la couleur bleue du ciel
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1899), XXXVII(6), 441-446

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See detailSur l'unité d'origine du bleu de l'eau
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1899), (2), 72-80

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg. (1899), 72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Tyndall's experiments have been repeated and it was ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. Acad. roy. Belg. (1899), 72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Tyndall's experiments have been repeated and it was found that suspended particles do not give a blue color to the water. Further experiments showed that fluorescence was not a factor, and the final conclusion reached is that the blue color of water is due simply and solely to the fact that water is blue in color. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la réalisation d'un liquide optiquement vide
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1899), XXXVII(3), 174-191

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1899), 37(3), 174-91; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1899), 37(3), 174-91; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). During had succeeded Tyndall to lead the proof that in completely clear, dust-free air the way of convergent, intensive light is not visible, is in liquids also with most careful purification after Lallemand the way of the light bundle to be always recognized. Lallemand believed that the molecules of the liquids take up and laterally disseminated the ether movement of the light that the lighting of the liquid is thus due by a luminous beam not to reflections at suspended parts, but to the lateral dispersion of the light by the molecules of the liquids. Also Soret had not succeeded it to clean water in such a way that it was on the inside illuminated by a light bundle; he believed however nevertheless that the lighting is due only to suspended materials. It, completely clear succeeded to the author, to manufacture optically empty water in which the way of a luminous beam is not visible. Also by most careful distillation water can be released not completely from clouding additions. Tap water even gave a distillate, which was cloudier, as the applied water. The filtration, in particular also by cotton wool, which cleans air perfectly, eliminated the turbidity, but did not increase it. On the other hand the production of a clear succeeded, from a light bundle did not illuminate water by the effect of a high-tension stream of small current on suspensions. In a U-pipe a suspension of silicic acid by a stream by 16 volts at the anode, predecting the silicic acid at the cathode was clarified set off perfectly. Similar results batten experiments with solutions of colloidal ferric oxide and with suspensions of zinc and cadmium hydroxide. It the complete removal of the turbidity is not based probably on the direct effect of the electrolysis, but on the coagulation of the suspended colloidal materials and thereby to cause entrainments of the turbidity. It succeeded also to make absolutely clear by chemical preparation of colloidal precipitations in water this to e.g. by Lime water in a solution of water-glass or of charring, and by formation of hydroxides of aluminum, iron, cadmium and zinc, whereby the containers must be always locked, since otherwise the water at air immediately takes up dust and thereby clouds themselves. The precipitation, which causes clarifying, must be colloidal; crystalline precipitation, like barium sulfate or calcium oxalate is almost non-active. Filtration water by colloidal precipitation clarifies the water likewise, if the filtrate does not find an opportunity to come with always dusty air into contact. Organic liquids could not be clarified by colloidal precipitations. That is partially because of it that the precipitation becomes complete only in presence of electrolytes, during the organic liquids usually no to electrolytes. The author believes that the translucence of organic liquids with more than four or five atoms carbon is to be led back not only to the mixed dust, but also to a natural Fluorescence. The translucence water after the principal matter probably not by the dust is even caused, but by finest, the dust stubborn adhering gas vesicles. These gas bubbles have different thickness and to show the most diverse spectral colors, even with dominance of the red and orange. The blue color the natural water cannot be caused therefore by selective reflection at the suspended materials. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la diffusion de la lumière par les solutions
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1899), XXXVII(4), 300-315

Spring, W. Chemiker-Zeitung (1899), 23, 375-77; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed Jully 15, 2010). Following its studies over the color water(see p ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Chemiker-Zeitung (1899), 23, 375-77; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed Jully 15, 2010). Following its studies over the color water(see p. 1011) reports authors over experiments concerning so-called shining of the liquids was examined particularly to solutions, D. hot liquids, those from molecules with different forces of attraction combined law. The used solutions disintegrate after their behavior into three groups: asymmetrical those of the alkali metal salts, education those of the ground compound/connection and heavy metal salts and C. those of the actual colloidal solutions only the solutions of the group of asymmetrical - were examined chlorides, bromides, chlorates and nitrates of sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium and barium - can be represented without special difficulty optically empty(Tyndall), by distillation to one with usual water solution of these salts some drops of a colloidal iron, zinc or a cadmium oxide hydrate solution prepared add, the well jelly precipitation tear then all for portion cups with itself and leave an optically empty liquid. A similar clarifying of the solutions from the second group could not be accomplished because of the chemical reactions occurring thereby and the formation of basic salts. Author was content to compare a shining of the filtered solutions with that distilled water also filtered solutions the zinc, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel old person behaved completely like distilled water, on the other hand solutions of aluminum, chrome, a, copper, mercury and lead salts made the electrical light bundle strongly visible. In by the dissociated effect water is formed for the latter trap on the salts a metal oxide hydrate, which, equal the colloids, which reflects light laterally. Addition decreased from HCl to the solutions(lead solution except for) corresponding shining, with the help of a strong light bundle one can recognize therefore the character of a solution. Clear one aqueous solutions of really colloidal substances such as gelatin, rubber arabicum, dextrine, alcoholic of colophony, sandarac, mastic, lacquer, furthermore stagnant Selfen solutions, diluted Solutions of alkali silicates, of different coloring materials as citizen of Berlin blue, Phenyl blue etc. show a constant strong light cone in each concentration. The past experiments could not decide the question, whether this light diffusion depends dissolved substances on the imperfect type of the solution or however on the molecular size, yet. From its observations author concludes that the clear can be separated solutions, which appear alike with usual lighting in intensive light into such asymmetrical, which behave as optically empty, and in education such, which reflects the light laterally. Only the first are chemically completely homogeneous, in them are an intimate mutual compound gel to assume with the solvent. That light-ether is closer in such a solution than everywhere in the empty area, but from same condensation. Those optically empty solutions are all also Electrolyte, the ions cause therefore no unequal condensation of light ether. In that it already cause the electrostatic forces before the light of a stream a regular distribution of the ions, so that these probably affect the refractive indexes, but the continuous light in its straight-line run cannot disturb. Although solutions that To group of education as electrolytes seem, steps the diffusion of the light only after suitable Diluted the solution up. Furthermore the salts of the metals concerned do not suffer an hydrolytic Dissociation, absolute homogeneity can any more exist, and consequently the hydrolysis is to be differentiated from the electrolytic Dissociation with respect to the light bundle. Finally come the solutions as really not electrolytic, i.e. as colloidal forwards, then they cause the diffusion of the light in each degrees of the Diluted u.7 can be never regarded as true transparent liquids. Substances with complicated molecules behave in an intensive light beam, similarly a molecular complex, therefore the majority of the organic bodies causes a light diffusion similarly colloidal solutions, but becomes shining organic liquids still more complicated by the occurrence of fluorescence features. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'unité d'origine du bleu de l'eau
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1899), XVIII

Spring, W.Rec. trav. Chim. Pays-Bas (1899). 18, 1-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After a short overview of the theories on the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W.Rec. trav. Chim. Pays-Bas (1899). 18, 1-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). After a short overview of the theories on the blue of the sky and water, author turns against Abegg, that, despite the work of Soret (C. r. d. l'Acad. des sciences 69. 1192) and the author's (see Bull. Acad. Royal Belgique [3] 36. 266; C. 99. I. 146), in articles on the color of the seas and lakes (Naturw. Rundsch. 13. 169) their blue color is encountered by two different causes, namely one is attributed to the natural blue coloring of water, and secondly, reflection features. By new experiments concerning the details to the original works it must be referred by author that particles to which the water (distilled or natural) owes its discoloration and the light waves of each length in same way reflected, does not show it therefore a blue color water can arrange. Author sees experiments a new confirmation of its into this previously (previously cited) expressed opinion that the color is compensated to and for itself blue water by in it suspended particles depending upon their nature modified or respectively to the colorlessness. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailÜber die eisenhaltigen Farbstoffe sedimentärer Erdboden und über den wahrscheinlichen Ursprung der rothen Felsen
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Referate (1899), I

Spring, W. N. Jahrb. f. Mineral (1899), 47-62; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Author arrives to the conclusion that not the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. N. Jahrb. f. Mineral (1899), 47-62; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Author arrives to the conclusion that not the emergence of the red color, but those the yellow consequence is a more complicated chemical process. Chemically pure ferric oxide becomes hydrated under waters automatically ferric oxide. This spontaneous drainage will have colored all sediments wine red, if ferric oxide hydrate had remained for itself, now is received it however with strange oxides compounds, and is these chromogenic, then the product is yellow to brown, if really heterogeneous groups are present, in other set-up, depending upon the number of Fe2O3-Groups, more or less red. The red sediments will from this an agreed transfer of this two sediments to present: a mechanical (sand or Thon) and a coloring as consequence of chemical processes. The humus materials reduced the dissolved iron compounds (see Bull. Acad. roy. Belgique 34. 578-600; C. 98. I. 410) and a precipitation of humus-acid ferrous oxide on the Sandoder thin particles produces. The approximated and magnesium compounds were held back by the CO2 water. The manganese divides the fate of the iron. The Fe-Mn-precipitation is assailed by that dissolved O and the SiO2. The O works it because of the ferric oxide burning, forms for water and CO2. As transition materials and spathic manganese seem inevitable. The SiO2 reacted to the fresh carbonates, it develops silicates, which work cementing and which against further oxidation protect ferrous oxide. Depending upon the quantity of the humus-acid iron salts ferric oxide remains and colors violet red as firm oxide after terminated burning, or the SiO2 is able to hold every iron, whereby green layers develop. The more SiO2 is present, the more disappears the red color. The yellow rocks are assailed by HCl, without a greener residue remains, therefore must the sedimenting without reduction features have taken place at one time here. The iron compounds were connected to them with SiO2 and other oxides are associated, so that the humus materials could not react, those were suspended than yellow sludge in the water. One can say thus, the red deposit originates from clear, the yellow from cloudy water. The yellow sediments are stable, on the other hand it is not impossible that red gradually by penetration of acid water etc. become yellow. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la plasticité des corps solides et ses rapports avec la formation des roches
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1899), XIV

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See detailSur la réalisation d'un liquide optiquement vide
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique. 2e série (1899), XVIII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1899), 18, 153-68; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Tyndall has assumed that ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1899), 18, 153-68; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Tyndall has assumed that when a beam of light passes through a gas its path is made evident by the illumination of minute solid or liquid particles present as impurities. Lallemand, however, from experiments with carefully distilled liquids, concluded that the illumination of a fluid medium by light is a specific property of the medium, and that each medium has a certain "coefficient of illumination", dependent on its nature. The author now shows that, although it is impossible to obtain a truly transparent liquid (that is, one which is not rendered luminous by the passage of a beam of light) by distillation or filtration, liquids can be rendered optically pure by means of a current of electricity; on passing, for example, a current through water containing a small quantity of silica or ferric hydroxide in suspension, the suspended matter is deposited at the cathode, and carries with it the minute particles which render the water capable of being illuminated. The same result is also obtained by adding clear lime water to a solution of silicic acid, and leaving the precipitate to subside in a stoppered vessel; on examining the liquid in a beam of light, care being taken that the vessel is not opened, it is found to be perfectly transparent. The subsidence of other gelatinous precipitates, such as the hydroxides of iron, aluminium, and zinc, from water renders the latter non-illuminable; the subsidence of crystalline precipitates, however, such as barium sulphate or calcium oxalate, gives no such result. It thus appears probable that the minute suspended particles can only be removed by being surrounded, during the precipitation, with a heavy, gelatinous envelope. The filtration of water through a layer of a gelatinous precipitate, out of contact with the air, renders it transparent; but if filtered in contact with air, this result is not obtained. The reason why distillation fails to yield transparent liquids is thus made evident. In the case of organic liquids, the author has not obtained such definite results; the subsidence of gelatinous precipitates from organic liquids is, as a rule, very incomplete, so that optical transparency cannot generally be obtained. It appears probable also, that many organic liquids become luminous on the passage of a beam of light, owing to fluorescence. The particles which are rendered luminous in water by a beam of light appear to consist largely of organic matter, but luminescence is also due to minute bubbles of gas; this is made clear by the increased illumination which occurs when the pressure in the space above the water is diminished, and by the fact that optically transparent water is rendered luminescent by passing air through it. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailProgramme du cours pratique de chimie générale
Spring, Walthère ULg

Learning material (1899)

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See detailSur la diffusion de la lumière par les solutions
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1899), XVIII

Spring, W. Chemiker-Zeitung (1899), 23, 375-77; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed Jully 15, 2010). Following its studies over the color water(see p ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Chemiker-Zeitung (1899), 23, 375-77; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed Jully 15, 2010). Following its studies over the color water(see p. 1011) reports authors over experiments concerning so-called shining of the liquids was examined particularly to solutions, D. hot liquids, those from molecules with different forces of attraction combined law. The used solutions disintegrate after their behavior into three groups: asymmetrical those of the alkali metal salts, education those of the ground compound/connection and heavy metal salts and C. those of the actual colloidal solutions only the solutions of the group of asymmetrical - were examined chlorides,bromides, chlorates and nitrates of sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium and barium - can be represented without special difficulty optically empty(Tyndall), by distillation to one with usual water solution of these salts some drops of a colloidal iron, zinc or a cadmium oxide hydrate solution prepared add, the well jelly precipitation tear then all for portion cups with itself and leave an optically empty liquid. A similar clarifying of the solutions from the second group could not be accomplished because of the chemical reactions occurring thereby and the formation of basic salts. Author was content to compare a shining of the filtered solutions with that distilled water also filtered solutions the zinc, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel old person behaved completely like distilled water, on the other hand solutions of aluminum, chrome, a, copper, mercury and lead salts made the electrical light bundle strongly visible. In by the dissociated effect water is formed for the latter trap on the salts a metal oxide hydrate, which, equal the colloids, which reflects light laterally. Addition decreased from HCl to the solutions(lead solution except for) corresponding shining, with the help of a strong light bundle one can recognize therefore the character of a solution. Clear one aqueous solutions of really colloidal substances such as gelatin, rubber arabicum, dextrine, alcoholic of colophony, sandarac, mastic, lacquer, furthermore stagnant Selfen solutions, diluted Solutions of alkali silicates, of different coloring materials as citizen of Berlin blue, Phenyl blue etc. show a constant strong light cone in each concentration. The past experiments could not decide the question, whether this light diffusion depends dissolved substances on the imperfect type of the solution or however on the molecular size, yet. From its observations author concludes that the clear can be separated solutions, which appear alike with usual lighting in intensive light into such asymmetrical, which behave as optically empty, and in education such, which reflects the light laterally. Only the first are chemically completely homogeneous, in them are an intimate mutual compound gel to assume with the solvent. That light-ether is closer in such a solution than everywhere in the empty area, but from same condensation. Those optically empty solutions are all also Electrolyte, the ions cause therefore no unequal condensation of light ether. In that it already cause the electrostatic forces before the light of a stream a regular distribution of the ions, so that these probably affect the refractive indexes, but the continuous light in its straight-line run cannot disturb. Although solutions that To group of education as electrolytes seem, steps the diffusion of the light only after suitable Diluted the solution up. Furthermore the salts of the metals concerned do not suffer an hydrolytic Dissociation, absolute homogeneity can any more exist, and consequently the hydrolysis is to be differentiated from the electrolytic Dissociation with respect to the light bundle. Finally come the solutions as really not electrolytic, i.e. as colloidal forwards, then they cause the diffusion of the light in each degrees of the Diluted u.7 can be never regarded as true transparent liquids. Substances with complicated molecules behave in an intensive light beam, similarly a molecular complex, therefore the majority of the organic bodies causes a light diffusion similarly colloidal solutions, but becomes shining organic liquids still more complicated by the occurrence of fluorescence features. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'influence de l'électricité sur la sédimentation des liquides troubles
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1898), XXXV(6), 780-784

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See detailSur la cause de l'absence de coloration de certaines eaux limpides naturelles
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique. 2e série (1898), XVII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1898), 17, 359-75; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Compare Abstr., 1884, 259 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1898), 17, 359-75; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Compare Abstr., 1884, 259, and Bull. Acad. roy. Belg., 1886, [iii], 12, 814, and 1897, [iii], 34, 578. Although it is well recognised that pure water is blue when viewed through a thickness greater than 1 metre, the only natural waters which appear blue are those of mountain streams which have their origin in the ice and snow of great altitudes. Berzelius has stated (Jabresbericht, 1830, 9, 207) that the extraordinarily clear water of Lake Wettern, in Sweden, is perfectly colourless when viewed through a thickness of more than 32 feet, and has hence raised objection to the view that pure water is blue. The author has previously shown (loc. cit.) that if water contains one ten-millionth part of its weight of colloidal ferric hydroxide, it no longer appears blue, but green in colour; with quantities greater than this, the colour is yellow or brown. By macerating fragments of a red rock, such as a Devonian schist, during several weeks with frequently renewed hot caustic potash, and subsequently washing with water by repeated decantation, a point is ultimately reached when the red coloring-matter ceases to subside from the washing water, even after standing several months; the particles of suspended ferric oxide (haematite) are no longer visible under a magnifying power of 150 diameters, and probably correspond with the dust of the Devonian epoch. On adding a few drops of this turbid solution to a large volume of pure water, the latter is rendered perfectly clear and colourless when viewed through a thickness of 6 metres. When the proportion of ferric oxide, however, is increased, the water quenches more and more of the transmitted light, until it finally becomes opaque, although appearing red by reflected light. These observations explain the fact that terrestrial waters rarely appear blue. That the waters of Alpine streams are generally blue is probably due to their being entirely free from suspended anhydrous ferric oxide; the cosmic dust with which they are often contaminated consists principally of meteoric iron, which possesses different optical properties from haematite, and is incapable of destroying the natural blue colour of the water. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur les matières colorantes à base de fer, des terrains de sédiment et sur l'origine probable des roches rouges
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1898), XXXV(5), 521-545

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See detailNote sur un oxyde de fer tétrahydraté
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1898), XXXV(5), 546-547

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See detailSur la cause de l'absence de coloration de certaines eaux limpides naturelles
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-arts de Belgique. Sciences. 3e série (1898), XXXVI(9-10), 266-276

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1898), 38(3), 266-76 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1898), 38(3), 266-76 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Tying to its earlier reports over the role of the iron compounds and the humin substances with the feature of the coloring of water and over the elimination of this substances under influence of sunlight, etc. (Bulletin Acad. roy. Bolgique [3] 34. 578; C. 98. I. 410 and Rec. trav. chim. Pays-Bas 17. 202; C. 98. II. 224) author the cause of the colorlessness many discusses clear waters, about what already Berzelius (Annual Report f. Chemistry 9. 207) expressed its astonishment. Terrestrial water only very rarely will appear blue, since in all ground are traces of hematite, and this the blue color water for our eye compensates. On the other hand the glaciers and the snow of high peaks do not contain hematite, water from high regions throw their blue and therefore can maintain their color. Furthermore the influence of the iron compounds on the coloring water is very differenct, depending on whether they are in the form of their hydrates or anhydrous oxides in the water; into latter trap they step with the Humin or the organic substances water not into reaction, the water more generally continues to appear colorless. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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