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See detailSur la diminution de densité qu'éprouvent certains corps à la suite d'une forte compression et sur la raison probable de ce phénomène
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1904), XXIII

Spring, Walthere. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 1-15; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In a previous ... [more ▼]

Spring, Walthere. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 1-15; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In a previous communication (Abstr., 1884, 256), the author has shown that lead, zinc, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium alum, when strongly compressed, exhibit a diminished density. These observations have been extended to various metals by Kahlbaum, Roth and Siedler (Abstr., 1902, ii, 259), and to steel by Grunmach (Ann. Phys. Chem., 1889, 67, 227). It is now shown that specimens of lead, tin, cadmium, and silver which have been forced through small apertures under pressure exhibit slight diminutions from the normal densities of these metals, whereas bismuth, similarly prepared, shows an increase in density. Further, when two plates of the same metal, one having been compressed and the other being the metal in the normal condition, are simultaneously placed in an electrolyte, a slight permanent current is produced, in one direction with the first four metals, which expand on liquefaction, and in the opposite direction for bismuth, which contracts when liquefied. Other slight changes in physical properties are also induced by strong compression. The author suggests that these changes in density are due to the assumption by these substances under compression of the molecular condition characteristic of the liquid state. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la décomposition de quelques sulfates acides à la suite d'une déformation mécanique
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1904), XXIII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 187-201; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A series of experiments ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1904), 23, 187-201; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A series of experiments on anhydrous and hydrated sulfates of the alkali metals was conducted to study the decomposition of some acid sulfates as the result of mechanical deformation. The compression was effected in a steel cylinder, the bottom of which was perforated with a single small hole to permit liquid to flow away and provided with a loosely-fitting piston between which and the walls of the cylinder the salt could "flow". Results demonstrate that under compression involving mechanical deformation, compounds which may be regarded as resulting from the combination of a solid with a liquid tend to decompose into these generators. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la décomposition de quelques sulfates acides à la suite d'une déformation mécanique
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1904), (5), 290-309

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1904, 290-309; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1904, 290-309; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). There after earlier investigations of the authors, (see page 776), perhaps strong compression the same effect as increased temperature on firm body exercises, then it was to be assumed that crystal water-containing salts and acid salts will or less disintegrate with intensive mechanical deformation into their components. For examination the acid sulfates of the alkali metals were selected, with which, as the subsequent compilation shows, which is smaller molecular volume than the sum of the volumes of the developing decomposition products, which decomposition is connected with volume increase. Salt, Density, Molecular volumes. (* determined by the author). Li2SO4, 2.228 *, 2LiHSO4 = 98.1. LiHSO4, 2.123 *, Li2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 102.3. Na2SO4, 2.655, 2NaHSO4 = 98.6. NaHSO4, 2.435 with 13° *, Na2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 106.4. K2SO4 , 2.670, 2KHSO4 = 118. KHSO4, 2.302 with 13° * K2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 118.1. Rb2SO43.596 with 16° *, RbHSO4 = 125.8. RbHSO4, 2.892 with 16° *, Rb2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 126.9. Cs2SO44.250 with 16° * ,2CsHSO4 = 136.6. CsHSO4, 3.352 with 16° *, Cs2SO4 +. H2SO4 = 137.7. Since it not actually concerns around production of a simple hydrostatic pressure, but the effect of a pressing with deformation, the salts in a steel cylinder were pressed together, which possessed an opening, which permitted a "flow through" of the examined substance in the ground; Rise in temperature was completely impossible. The received results are the following. LiHSO4 separates due to pressing into an effluent acid-richer component (approximately 9LiHSO4•2H2SO4) and a part staying, which approaches the composition of the neutral salt. With that salts LiHSO4•H2O continues to go the decay still, whereby the water partly flows. With NaHSO4 no clear flow with occurring cleavage could be observed, on the other hand a clear cleavage occurs, in the discharge of a large quantity crystal water with different hydrates of the acid sulfate, in particular at somewhat increased temperature and a considerable quantity expresses H2SO4; at low temperature first water is separated. The salt 5NaHSO4• H2SO4• 7H2O develops with 40° liquid approximately the composition NaHSO4 has acid, the mass staying; with 80° the decomposition continues to go still, as a small quantity of Na2SO4 develops. The acid sulfates the pressing with 100°, applied by potassium, rubidium, cesium decomposing with; not; hereby it stands in the agreement that these salts are resistant in relation to the effect of the heat. In further experiments a mixture of NaHSO4 with different basic oxides : PbO, CuO, HgO, Ag2O, strong pressure suspended. In completely closed cylinder, without which possibility of flow stepped, like the continuous coloring showed no reaction . If against it the pressure with a mechanical deformation is accompanied (small opening in the ground), takes place a reaction up to complete neutralization of the H2SO4 contained in the acid sulfate; the same effect reached by simple grating, whereby CuO white CuSO4Na2• SO4• H2O gives. From the observations it follows except the analogy between heat effect and pressing still that so-called molecular compounds/connections are less resistant opposite the deformation than atomic compounds/connections. An explanation of the features follows from the conception that pressing causes a change of the molecular condition in the sense of a "pseudo fusion". These procedures have a great importance probably on geological of areas (ground pressure). Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la décomposition de quelques sulfates acides à la suite d'une déformation mécanique
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in Journal de Chimie Physique (1904), 2

Spring, W. Journal de Chimie Physique (1904), 2, 472-97; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A series of experiments on anhydrous and ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Journal de Chimie Physique (1904), 2, 472-97; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). A series of experiments on anhydrous and hydrated sulfates of the alkali metals was conducted to study the decomposition of some acid sulfates as the result of mechanical deformation. The compression was effected in a steel cylinder, the bottom of which was perforated with a single small hole to permit liquid to flow away and provided with a loosely-fitting piston between which and the walls of the cylinder the salt could "flow". Results demonstrate that under compression involving mechanical deformation, compounds which may be regarded as resulting from the combination of a solid with a liquid tend to decompose into these generators. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques expériences sur l'imbibition du sable par les liquides et les gaz ainsi que sur son tassement
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in Nouveaux Mémoires de la Société Belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d'Hydrologie. Série in-4 (1903), XVII

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See detailSur la diminution de densité qu'éprouvent certains corps à la suite d'une forte compression et sur la raison probable de ce phénomène
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1903), (12), 1066-1082

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1903, 1066-82; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1904), 1903, 1066-82; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). At an amount of metals, as well as other materials, very strong pressure causes, (over 10000 atmospheres, instead of a density increase a decrease [with (NH4)2SO4 for example: 1.773 to 1.750). For these by the author, as well as feature examined more near by KAHLBAUM is tried an explanation, by being brought in compound/connection with the variation in volume with melting. It assumed that perfectly spherical bodies under the influence of an all-sided working strong pressure partly do not arrive at "flowing", thus a change of their molecular structure in the sense of a reduction that is experienced viscosity (pseudo fusion). If this view applies, then bodies, which expand when melting, must experience a volume increase with strong pressure also and in reverse. This consequence is confirmed by the experience. Examples of the first type are tin, lead, cadmium, silver, during bismuth when melting pull together and accordingly also with strong pressure at density increase. Author made wires of different metals, by being pressed by close openings, and observed the fact that Bi-wire was first completely flexible and returned only to some bends to the brittle condition whereby the acceptance by high pressure caused one flowing is supported. The obtained wires were divided ever into 2 parts, and heats one half up to near the melting point, whereby S.c. returned to the normal condition. If one dipped now the "started" and the "fluent" wire together into a salt solution of the same metal, then a weak current could be proven by means of a sensitive galvanometer. The voltage/tension amounts to the following: with tin 0.11, lead 0.12, cadmium 0.20, silver 0.98, bismuth 0.385 milivolts. With the four first, lower volume increase melting metals the "fluent" wire cathode was, with bismuth anode. Similar results were obtained with polished metal bars and rolled out volumes. Over the density variations of some metals with 16° the following table gives information. Metal, Density of the, Fluent, Rolled Metals, Started metals. Lead..., 11.3351, 11.3348, 11.3410. Tin..., 7.3011, 7.3016, 7.3137. Cadmium..., 8.6558, 8.6603, 8.6633. Silver..., 10.2485, 10.2531, 10.2696. Bismuth..., 9.8522, -, 9.8354. One must "protect" from this between firm, in which a metal cannot experience noticeable deformation, and which "apparent" firm differentiates, which by the loss of crystalline structure and the ability of flowing is characterized. Certain materials go possessing easily into this condition over (plastic metals), during different this ability in very small measure or at all; materials of the latter type (coal, sand) cannot be combined also through still so high pressure to a uniform mass. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la transparence des milieux troubles aux rayons X
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1903), XXI

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1903), 21, 460-64; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In order to determine ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1903), 21, 460-64; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In order to determine, whether medium affect the x-ray by aqueous-alcoholic resin solution and furthermore colloidal solutions of S, gold and platinum prepared and the behavior of the x-rays when passing these liquids compared to their behavior when passing a equivalent thick layer of pure water and in order to leave the opacity of the clouding substance unconsidered actually, the termination coil which contained the pure water, was dressed in compact substance in the way that the quantity latter the same was in colloidal condition in the applied liquid. The experiments ran in as much quite negatively as the applied cloudy medium that let the x-rays happen exactly just as easily as the water in compound with the membrane of compact substance; only the resin solution showed a small, but possibly coincidental difference in the permeability, but so, as if the cloudy medium would have been more transparent. One does not have to conclude from experiments that the x-rays do not change with the passage by cloudy medium, anyhow is weakened their effect on the photographic plate. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRecherches expérimentales sur la filtration et la pénétration de l'eau dans le sable et le limon
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in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1902), XXXIX

Spring, W. Annales de la Societe; geologique de Belgique; Memoires (1902), 29, 17-48; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Annales de la Societe; geologique de Belgique; Memoires (1902), 29, 17-48; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). In the experiments iron hydroxide was removed from sand by HCl by, subsequently the sand was boiled off with water and under water filled into 2 cm wide glass tubes. The tubes were sealed by an bored-through stopper provided at the lower, rear end a thin wire gauze and eventually a thin cotton wool plug, and the outflow tube pushed into the same leads into a container with water under constant pressure; the other tube end was provided with an inlet tube, which was also connected also to a water container under constant pressure. During off-time of the experiments the tubes were sealed air-proof. Both the tubes and the container intended for the in-take of the water flowed through were placed beside each other and were subjected thus in same way to the by the way almost constant temperature. An indispensable condition for the success of the experiments is the uniform grain size of the sand, which by the way may be put into the tubes only by small amounts. The substantial results of these investigations touching different hydrologic and soil science controversial issues are the subsequent: 1. The velocity of water circulating in horizontal direction in a sand does is not in reverse relation to the thickness of the filter and in straight relation to the applied pressure. In thick filter columns the pressure effect decreases more and more, and the movement of the water is only based on the imbibition. The effect even of a very strong pressure stops after short extending, and the water flows, as if no pressure was applied, therefore a pressure locally applied on a sand layer does not propagate on a considerable distance. 2. With the filtration in vertical direction according results are obtained only for same particle size of the sand; since this condition in nature is hardly fulfilled, no generally valid mathematical formula can be set up for this circulation. Under influence of the water movement in vertical direction the fine parts of the sand move upward, so that the water passage is hindered here and a to a certain extent an automatic rational filter is formed. 3. The resistance of the filter exerted on the passed water decreases apparently proportional to the filter thickness, the POISEUILLE law is only valid for thin filters. 4. If the water percolating the sand filter contains air, so it sticks at the sand grains on certain positions and hinders to a high degree the descending of the water. 5. The runoff from a vertically placed filter decreases only proportional to the thickness at the point, when the pressure reached a certain intensity. If this pressure is only weak, then the filtrate quantity increases with the filter thickness, because then the weight of the water column makes an effect. From this the conclusion is to be drawn that the seepage water quantities supplied to a groundwater stream are not pressed down by any means by the thickness of the layer to be percolated. 6. The volume of the water moistening the sand predominates the volume of the voids of the sand grains in apparent contact the more, the finer the sand is. The free space between the sand grains influnces therefore enormously the mobility of the sand impregnated with water (swimming sand). 7. Temperature increase accelerates the action of a filter due to the reduction of the inner friction of the filter fluid, however for a doubling of the filtrate quantity a rise in temperature to almost 30° is required. 8. The loess loam from the Hesbaye is still permeable for water at a thickness of 8 m (and probably still further). The same applies to clay, as long as he does not stand under pressure, thus it can be unhinderedly expanding correspondingly to the infiltration. 10. From all that it follows that the down flow of the meteoric water cannot take place regularly through the soil in parallel layers. Flowing on into the depth takes place only in limited space, because of the soil air which has to be displaced, since channels must remain for escaping air. Here the water penetrates only if the surface is sprinkled or covered by a rather high water layer or by melting snow, respectively. If the water begins to penetrate, then its velocity increases with the height of the water column. Subsequently on the superficial layers a suction effect is then carried out, which stops only then if the flow downward is in equilibrium with the capillary impregnation, and so the movement is downward annihilated. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur la transparence des milieux troubles aux rayons X
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1902), (12), 938-943

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See detailSur la cause de la direction du clivage des phyllades et des schistes
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1902), (2), 150-154

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See detailLe bleu du ciel
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Speech (1902)

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See detailSur les conditions dans lesquelles certains corps prennent la texture schisteuse
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in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique. Mémoires (1902), XXIX

Annales de la Societe geologique de Belgique; memoires (1902), 29, 49-60, 6(ii), 257-61; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Earlier ... [more ▼]

Annales de la Societe geologique de Belgique; memoires (1902), 29, 49-60, 6(ii), 257-61; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Earlier investigations (Bulletin of the Royal Academy of Bolgique [3] 35. 31-34. 1898) it had resulted in that pressure alone is not sufficient, in order to produce foliation of rocks or solid bodies but that two conditions must be fulfilled: in homogeneity and one-sided pressure. First by the elementary analysis it was proven that the layer surfaces of a black slate are substantially more carbon-rich, as the inner of the layers between them. a sediment made of intermittent layers of clay and humic substances under pressure became a thin petalled mass with a texture of a usual slate. For the formation of transverse foliation, lead sheets covered with fat were used, as well as cubes of the mentioned clay-humus mixture, which were through-pressed by a square steel can with slit ground. In this case the foliation was parallel to the walls of the opening, thus vertical to the direction of the pressure exerted by the pin on the mass. Wet clay, as well as metallic iron also take on a slaty texture by the same treatment. From this experiments author cocludes that slaty texture is not the direct result of pressure, even if this pressure caused a liquefaction or a rearrangement of the mass. The mutual attraction of the pressed particles firstly does not occur in the direction of pressure and finally, if the pressure goes beyond a certain limit, vertical to that one. At hydrostatic pressure at all no change of the direction of attraction of the pressed particles takes place. The conditions for the slaty texture of a substance are inhomogeneous pressure in all directions and lack of homogeneity, and it is unimportant, whereby they are fulfilled. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques expériences sur la perméabilité de l'argile
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in Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique (1901), XXVIII

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See detailSur la densité de l'iodure cuivreux
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique. 2e série (1901), XX

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1901), 20, 79-80 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The sp.gr. of dry ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1901), 20, 79-80 ; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The sp.gr. of dry cuprousiodide is 5.653° at 15°, not 4.41° as stated by Schiff (Annalen, 1858, 108, 24); the molecular volume is thus 33.61, and is less than the sum of the atomic volumes of the elements (34.73), showing that, as usual, a contraction has occured in combination. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLa pression comme supplément de la température dans le phénomène de l'inflammation
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in Archives Néerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles (1901), VI (ii)

Spring, W. Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles (1901), 6(ii), 257-61; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). No ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles (1901), 6(ii), 257-61; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). No combination took place on subjecting an intimate mixture of 2 mols. of cupric oxide and 3 mols. of sulphur to a pressure of 10,000 atmospheres. Combination took place violently when the pressure on a mixture of 2 mols. of cuprous oxide and 3 mols. of sulphur rose to 8000 atmospheres; the pressure was increased gradually so that no heating by compression took place. Sulphur dioxide was formed and the residue consisted only of cuprous sulphide (2Cu2O + 3S = 2Cu2S + SO2). The ignition temperature of this mixture at the ordinary pressure is about 126°, and pressure to the extent of 8000 atmospheres has the effect of lowering this by more than 100°. The ignition temperature of the mixture of cupric oxide and sulphur could not be determined for the sulphur inflamed at 250°, but it must be higher than this. It would appear that the point of inflammation is a function of the pressure, and the experiments are being continued to ascertain if this is quite general. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailÜber das spezifische Gewicht des Kupferjodürs
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in Zeitschrift für Anorganische Chemie (1901), 27

Spring, W. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische Chemie (1901), 27, 308; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Schiff obtained a value of 4.41 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische Chemie (1901), 27, 308; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Schiff obtained a value of 4.41 for the specific gravity of cuprous iodide, while a redetermination by the author gives 5.631. The importance of this lies in the fact that cuprous iodide is now seen to be formed from the elements with contraction, whereas Schiff's figure called for twenty-four percent expansion. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailÜber die Ursache der Farblosigkeit gewisser klarer natürlicher Gewässer
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in Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Referate (1901), II

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See detailÜber den einheitlichen Ursprung der blauen Wasserfarbe
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in Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Referate (1901), II

Spring, W. N. Jahrb. f. Mineral. (1899), 1899(I), 99-104; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Author give, its investigations (see 99 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. N. Jahrb. f. Mineral. (1899), 1899(I), 99-104; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Author give, its investigations (see 99. I. 1011) continuing, some experiments, from which it concludes the fact that the pure water is actually blue, which cause suspended portion cups a shining of the same and depending upon their nature and to the emergence of a yellowish- or reddish- coloring contributes condition, which brings the latter due to its cooperation with the blue primer the different green shades of the natural water to the appearance or fading of each coloring. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'illumination de quelques verres
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1900), XIX

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1900), 19, 339-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Ruby-glass is made by the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas (1900), 19, 339-49; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Ruby-glass is made by the addition of traces of gold chloride to an ordinary fused glass; the glass so obtained is at first colourless and only assumes a ruby colour during subsequent prolonged heating. When an intensely luminous electric beam is passed tangentially through a small cylinder of the colourless gold-glass, practically no internal illumination is visible; in the case of the ruby-glass, however, a yellowish-brown, luminous trace is produced, probably due to reflection from minute particles of metallic gold. The intensity of colour of the ruby-glass depends on the time of its reheating, and determines the intensity of illumination necessary to produce a visible trace; the deeper the colour of the glass the less illumination is required. In the colourless glass, the gold probably exists in a state of extreme subdivision, and the reheating which produces the ruby colour brings about a coarser colloidal aggregation, similar to that which takes place in gelatino-bromide plates during maturation (de Bruyn, Rec. Trav. Chim., 1900, 19, 236). Red glass coloured by copper, and yellow glass coloured by silver, show respectively dull brown and greyish luminous traces, due to the finely divided metals. Glasses coloured by silicates of iron, chromium, manganese, and cobalt show only a faint luminous trace, and, allowing for the presence of small air bubbles, are optically "void" (vide). Glasses which are colourless of themselves show a faint bluish trace and are yellow when viewed through a great length; they thus resemble media containing an extremely minute turbidity (compare Abstr., 1899, ii, 537, 585). Glass decolorised by manganese compounds shows an intensely green fluorescence, the luminous trace being green when the incident light is either violet or blue, but suppressed when it is green, yellow, or red. Glasses containing iron alone or manganese alone are not fluorescent. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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