References of "Sindic, Marianne"
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See detailHPAEC-PAD profiles of maltooligosaccharide produced by hydrolysis of sorghum starches using amylases from various sources
Boudries, Nadia; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima et al

in International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science (2015), 3 (4)

Starches isolated from white and pigmented sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were used to determine enzymatic activity of starch hydrolysis by fungal (Aspergillus Oryzae) and bacterial (Bacillus ... [more ▼]

Starches isolated from white and pigmented sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were used to determine enzymatic activity of starch hydrolysis by fungal (Aspergillus Oryzae) and bacterial (Bacillus Subtilis) α-amylase and oligosaccharides profiles of hydrolysate was determinate in same conditions by High Performance Exchange Anion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPEAC-PAD). Pure starches from potato, amylose and amylopectin were used for comparison. Oligosaccharide compositions ranging from glucose (DP1) to maloheptaose (DP7) as well as the significantly effect of α-amylase source and starch structure were determined. [less ▲]

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See detailFingerprint profiling of polysaccharide kefiran extracted from kefir grains biomass
Pop, Carmen; M. Rotar, Ancuta; C. Salanțӑ, Liana et al

in Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies (2015), 21(2), 207-212

Kefiran is a water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from kefir grains biomass. The identification and quantification of kefiran monosaccharides were carried out by HPTLC after the complete acid hydrolysis ... [more ▼]

Kefiran is a water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from kefir grains biomass. The identification and quantification of kefiran monosaccharides were carried out by HPTLC after the complete acid hydrolysis of kefiran solutions. The mobile phase was a mixture of n-propanol: acetic acid: water (70:20:10, v/v). For derivatization was used p-aminobenzoic acid and o-phosphoric acid in methanol. The identified HPTLC fractions were glucose (Rf 0.71) and galactose (Rf 0.66), which indicates a high purity of the extracted kefiran. The relative concentrations of each monosaccharide identified in samples are dependent on the initial molecular weight of the polymer chain. The kefiran isolated from kefir grains grown in milk is a heteropolysaccharide which contains D-glucose and D-galactose units in a ratio of 0.94:1.1. [less ▲]

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See detailDu grain au pain : les outils de 1ère transformation
Winandy, Stéphane ULg; Di Tanna, Sybille ULg; Sindic, Marianne ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailComposition en acides aminés et en acides gras d'un aliment de complément à base des ressources alimentaires locales : cas de la Vamine en RD Congo
Makengo Kafuti, Gisele; Mbemba Fundu, Theophile; Sindic, Marianne ULg

in International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (2015), 9(3), 1624-1629

L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les teneurs en acides aminés et acides gras d’un aliment decomplément, dénommé Vamine, fabriqué à base des produits locaux disponibles et accessibles suivants ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les teneurs en acides aminés et acides gras d’un aliment decomplément, dénommé Vamine, fabriqué à base des produits locaux disponibles et accessibles suivants:voandzou et arachides comme source protéiques; maïs et manioc. La détermination des teneurs en acides aminés essentiels donne, des taux de 115 mg de thréonine; 163,5 mg de valine; 39,25 mg de méthionine; 109,5 g de isoleucine; 232,25 mg de leucine; 84,75 mg de Tyrosine; 171 mg de phénylalanine; 149,5 mg de Histidine; 235,25 mg de lysine. Les teneurs en acides gras essentiels sont de 265 mg pour l’acide alpha linolénique et absent pour l’acide linoléique. La comparaison des concentrations des acides aminés et acides gras trouvés avec les normes FAO/OMS montre que les teneurs trouvées sont satisfaisantes et même souvent supérieures aux normes. La Vamine peut devenir un aliment de complément approprié pour la croissance des enfants en République Démocratique du Congo [less ▲]

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See detailFingerprint profiling of polysaccharide kefiran extracted from kefir grains by high-performance thin – layer chromatography
Pop, Carmen; Rotar, Ancuţa M.; Salanțӑ, Liana C. et al

Poster (2015, May 24)

Kefiran is a microbial and water-soluble polysaccharide obtained from the flora of kefir grains. It contains approximately equal amount of D - Glucose and D - Galactose, which could improve the viscosity ... [more ▼]

Kefiran is a microbial and water-soluble polysaccharide obtained from the flora of kefir grains. It contains approximately equal amount of D - Glucose and D - Galactose, which could improve the viscosity and viscoelastic properties of dairy products. Kefiran has some functional advantages such as antibacterial, antifungal and antitumor properties, it is often used in the food industry as a texturing and gelling agent. The matrix of kefiran can produce films with good appearance and satisfactory mechanical properties; it appears to have excellent potential as a film-forming agent and it can be an affordable alternative to synthetic packaging in food applications. [less ▲]

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See detailAgroecology: Unity into diversity
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural ... [more ▼]

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural research and education. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of substrate nature and β-lactoglobulin on cleanability after soiling by suspension spraying and drying
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2015), 134

Glass and stainless steel (StSteel, AISI304-2R), previously cleaned with ethanol (-Eth) or with ethanol and UV–Ozone treatment (-UVO), were soiled with quartz suspensions in water and in a β-lactoglobulin ... [more ▼]

Glass and stainless steel (StSteel, AISI304-2R), previously cleaned with ethanol (-Eth) or with ethanol and UV–Ozone treatment (-UVO), were soiled with quartz suspensions in water and in a β-lactoglobulin (β-LGB) solution, and dried. The cleanability (ease of quartz particle detachment) in water was evaluated using a radial-flow cell. The soiling suspension containing β-LGB was used as such or after heating for 4h at 75°C, which provoked coagulation of about 75% of β-LGB. The substrate–solution interfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of conditioned substrates and by contact angle measurements. The substrate surfaces are covered by a layer of organic contaminants which are not removed by pre-cleaning or are adsorbed from the surroundings. The presence of β-LGB in the soiling suspension leads to protein adsorption, but a significant amount of contaminants remains at the surface. For three of the substrates tested (Glass-Eth, Glass-UVO, StSteel-UVO) the increase of cleanability when the soiling suspension contained β-LGB may be explained by lower capillary forces acting upon drying. Capillary forces are proportional to the liquid surface tension and depend in a less important way on substrate contact angle. However the order of cleanability observed for the substrates soiled with a suspension of quartz particles in water (Glass-Eth≅Glass-UVO<StSteel-UVO<StSteel-Eth) and the influence of β-LGB on the cleanability of StSteel-Eth may not be explained only by computed capillary forces. The contact angle may exert a direct influence on droplet spreading and particle–substrate contact. The organic contaminants present on the surfaces, which are often neglected by supposing model solid surfaces, may have a significant influence on cleanability through physico-chemical processes which remain to be appreciated. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of almond kernel oils of five almonds varieties cultivated in Eastern Morocco
Houmy, Nadia ULg; Mansouri, Farid; Ben Moumen, Abdessamad et al

Poster (2015, May 03)

This study focuses on characterization of almond kernel oils extracted mechanically from five sweet almond varieties Marcona, Fournat, Ferragnes, Ferraduel and Beldi), cultivated in eastern Morocco. Oil ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on characterization of almond kernel oils extracted mechanically from five sweet almond varieties Marcona, Fournat, Ferragnes, Ferraduel and Beldi), cultivated in eastern Morocco. Oil content, physicochemical parameters, triacylglycerol and fatty acid compositions were determined. Analyzed oils showed low acidity values that range between 0.77 – 0.88 %, peroxide values range between 6.43 – 16.39 meq/kg and Iodine values range between 98.42 – 103.90%. The principal fatty acid of almond kernel oils is oleic acid (C18:1); oils of Ferragnes-Ferraduel and Beldi varieties show higher values of C18:1 respectively of 72.87 and 71.62 %, however Fournat almond kernel oil shows the lowest content of C18:1 (63.54%). HPLC analysis of triglycerides was carried out, and results show that analyzed almond kernel oils are characterized by the dominance of trioleylglycerol (OOO) that contents range between a minimum of 31.48 % for Fournat’s oil and 43.82% for Ferragnes-Ferraduel’s oil. The oxidative stability of almond kernel oils was determined by rancimat tests as the induction period (IP, h recorded by a 743 Rancimat apparatus Metrohm, Switzerland). Results show that stability, of almond kernel oils is clearly influenced by the almond variety; Oxidative stability of tested almond kernel oils ranged between an IP = 20.28 h for Marcona oil and an IP =27.55 h for Ferragnes-Ferraduel. [less ▲]

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See detailOil content, triglycerides profiles and fatty acid composition of almond kernels of some varieties cultivated in eastern Morocco
Houmy, Nadia ULg; Elamrani, Ahmed; Sindic, Marianne ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 03)

Almond tree "Prunus dulcis" is a fruit tree that belongs to the Rosaceae family. It’s a drought tolerant crop, thanks to ability of these trees to endure high water deficits. This physiological propriety ... [more ▼]

Almond tree "Prunus dulcis" is a fruit tree that belongs to the Rosaceae family. It’s a drought tolerant crop, thanks to ability of these trees to endure high water deficits. This physiological propriety of almond trees is a characteristic that prove its efficiency for valorization of semi-arid areas which are widespread in Morocco. According to Agriculture ministry reports, most of almond plantations are located in mountain areas in the Rif and foothills the high Atlas and in the southern areas in arid or semi-arid climate, but Semi-intensive plantations, conducted using modern techniques exist in regions of Fez, Meknes and Marrakech. The commercial production of Morocco is about 97000 tons in kernels and it’s marketed only locally. In the oriental region, the almond growing area is estimated to 9% of total area of almond cultivation in Morocco. Furthermore, an important new plantation program is implemented by DRA1-Oriental with collaboration of CTB2. The objective of this study is a contribution to strengthen competitiveness of the almond sector in the easthern region of Morocco, and focuses on the physico-chemical characterization of almond oils of some local varieties. Simples of 5 almond varieties (Marcona, Ferragnes-Ferraduel, Fournat and Beldi) were analysed. Results showed that yield of oil from almonds crushed mechanically vary between 46 (Fournat) and 60 % (Marcona) of kernels fresh mass. The fatty acid profile was carried out using GC-FID chromatography analysis, that shows a dominance of oleic acid (C18:1) for all analyzed almond oils; C18:1 contents range between a minimum of 63.54 % for Fournat and a maximum of 72.87 % for Ferragnes-Ferraduel. The O/L ratios range between 2.50 (Fournat) and 4.085 (Ferragnes-Ferraduel) and iodine values varied between 98,42 g I2/100g (Ferragnes-Ferraduel) and 103,89 g I2/100g (Fournat). Chromatographic analysis of triglycerides was carried out by HPLC,and results show tha the analyzed almond oils are characterized by dominance of trioleylglycerol (OOO) that contents range between a minimum of 31.48 % for Fournat’s oil and 43.82% for Ferragnes-Ferraduel’s oil. [less ▲]

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See detailDaily intake and bacteriological quality of meat consumed in the households of Kigali city (Rwanda)
Niyonzima, Eugène; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Kimonyo, Anasthase et al

Poster (2015, February 05)

Meat is worldwidely known to be a nutrient rich food. It provides valuable amounts of proteins,vitamins such as retinol and vitamin B12 and minerals namely iron, selenium and zinc with an increased ... [more ▼]

Meat is worldwidely known to be a nutrient rich food. It provides valuable amounts of proteins,vitamins such as retinol and vitamin B12 and minerals namely iron, selenium and zinc with an increased bioavailability than found in other dietary sources [1]. Along the production chain, meat can get contaminated by a wide range of spoilage and/or pathogenic microorganisms from the farm, slaughtering environment and distribution. The actual number of foodborne infections attributable to meat is difficult to assess accurately, principally because only a small proportion of illness cases is officially reported. However, by using outbreak data published internationally, Greig and Ravel [2] reported that 12.7 % of reported foodborne outbreaks were attributable to beef while 10.5 and 4.6 % were associated with chicken and pork, respectively. According to the same authors, Salmonella spp. and pathogenic E.coli, respectively, were identified as the causal agents in 32.9 and 34.6 % of foodborne outbreaks of bacterial origin attributable to beef. The objective of this study was to determine the meat consumption pattern in different socio-conomical categories of the population of Kigali city and to assess the bacteriological quality of the consumed meat. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical characterisation of the seed oils of four safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) varieties grown in north-eastern of Morocco
Ben Moumen, Abdessamad; Mansouri, Farid; Richard, Gaetan ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Science & Technology (2015)

The quality of the oil of four safflower varieties, originating from Spain (Rancho), India (Sharda) and Morocco (Cartamar and Cartafri), which were cultivated at the experimental station in Oujda (a semi ... [more ▼]

The quality of the oil of four safflower varieties, originating from Spain (Rancho), India (Sharda) and Morocco (Cartamar and Cartafri), which were cultivated at the experimental station in Oujda (a semi-arid region of eastern Morocco) was evaluated through analysis of their phenolic and carotenoid contents. The composition of the phenolic compounds of safflower oil has not yet been documented. Therefore, in this preliminary study, Thirty different phenolic compounds were identified, and significant differences between the oil varieties were observed (P < 0.05). In the seed oil from the Rancho and Sharda safflower varieties, the main phenolic compound was trans-chalcone, representing 13.45% and 11.8%, respectively, of the total phenolics, whereas in Cartamar and Cartafri oils, naringin accounted for 26.82% and 16.5%, respectively, of the total phenolics. The total carotenoid contents ranged from 1.13 mg/kg (Rancho) to 1.34 mg/kg (Cartamar and Cartafri).We observed that b-cryptoxanthin (0.31–0.37 mg/kg) and b-carotene (0.3–0.35 mg/kg) were the predominant carotenoids in all of the safflower oils that were studied. [less ▲]

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See detailA survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products
N'Guessan, Elise; Godrie, Thérèse ULg; De Laubier, Juliette ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(4), 346-354

Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively) than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1%) and fresh cheeses (3% and 0%) (P ≥ 0.05). Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli) in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytosterols composition of virgin olive oils from cultivars introduced in eastern Morocco in comparison to Picholine Marocaine
Mansouri, F.; Ben Moumen, A.; Richard, Gaetan ULg et al

in Journal of Materials and Environmental Science (2015), 6(8), 2322-2329

The aim of this study is to characterize monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOOs) of three European cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki), grown under high-density plantation system in eastern ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to characterize monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOOs) of three European cultivars (Arbequina, Arbosana and Koroneiki), grown under high-density plantation system in eastern Morocco, by comparison of their phytosterols profiles. First, physicochemical properties of these monovarietal VOOs as well as their contents of pigments and phenols were analyzed. Then, VOOs phytosterols profiles were determined by GC-FID, and show that b-sitosterol is the most abundant sterol which represent 75 to 79 % of total phytosterols in analyzed olive oils. On the basis of these results, a comparison between these monovarietal VOOs and olive oil of Picholine marocaine (autochthonous olive tree) has been carried out, and shows that majority of analytical parameters presented statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). The examined olive varieties produce excellent oils with a chemical composition within the regulatory limits and an appreciable amount of phytosterols. In addition, results showed that, total phytosterols content of olive oil from Picholine marocaine is significantly higher (2348.78 mg kg-1) than values observed for VOOs of European cultivars, which range from 1595 to 1971mg kg-1 but, Koroneiki’s VOO has the highest phenols content (493.66 mg kg-1) and the highest pigments content (3.94 and 2.17 mg kg-1 respectively for chlorophylls for carotenoids). Lastly, according to VOOs' content of minor components (phenols, pigments and phytosterols), the hierarchical cluster analysis shows a good discrimination between olive tree varieties. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations in the phytosterol and tocopherol compositions and the oxidative stability in seed oils from four safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L) varieties grown in north-eastern Morocco
Ben Moumen, Abdessamad; Mansouri, Farid; Richard, Gaetan ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Science and Technology (2015), 50(10), 22642270

Phytosterol and tocopherol contents and oxidative stability were evaluated from seeds oils of four safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L) varieties originating from Spain (Rancho), India (Sharda) and Morocco ... [more ▼]

Phytosterol and tocopherol contents and oxidative stability were evaluated from seeds oils of four safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L) varieties originating from Spain (Rancho), India (Sharda) and Morocco (Cartamar and Cartafri), which were cultivated at the experimental station in Oujda (a semi-arid region of eastern Morocco). Total phytosterols ranged from 3640 to 4140 mg kg -1. GC analysis allowed the identification of nine compounds, of which b-sitosterol was the major component. Total tocopherols ranged from 461.56 to 499.68 mg kg -1. HPLC analysis allowed the identification of three compounds,a-tocopherol (99.45%–98.84%), b-tocopherol (0.94%–0.5%) and c-tocopherol (0.21%–0.01%). Oxidative stability study showed that Sharda had the lowest induction period of 2.3 h compared with 7.18, 7 and 6.67 h for Cartafri, Rancho and Cartamar, respectively. Likewise, we established a positive correlation between the oxidative stability and c-tocopherol; however, this difference was not significant. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of the microbiological hazards of dairy products made from raw milks
Verraes, Claire; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Van Weyenberg, Stéphanie et al

in International Dairy Journal (2015), 50

This review concentrates on information concerning microbiological hazards possibly present in raw milk dairy products, in particular cheese, butter, cream and buttermilk. The main microbiological hazards ... [more ▼]

This review concentrates on information concerning microbiological hazards possibly present in raw milk dairy products, in particular cheese, butter, cream and buttermilk. The main microbiological hazards of raw milk cheeses (especially soft and fresh cheeses) are linked to Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Campylobacter. L. monocytogenes, VTEC and S. aureus have been identified as microbiological hazards in raw milk butter and cream albeit to a lesser extent because of a reduced growth potential compared with cheese. In endemic areas, raw milk dairy products may also be contaminated with Brucella spp., Mycobacterium bovis and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Potential risks due to Coxiella burnetii and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are discussed. Pasteurisation ensures inactivation of vegetative pathogenic microorganisms, which increases the safety of products made thereof compared with dairy products made from raw milk. Several control measures from farm to fork are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of the microbiological hazards of dairy products made from raw milk
Verraes, Claire; Vlaemynck, G; Van Weyenberg, S et al

in International Dairy Journal (2015), 50

This review concentrates on information concerning microbiological hazards possibly present in raw milk dairy products, in particular cheese, butter, cream and buttermilk. The main microbiological hazards ... [more ▼]

This review concentrates on information concerning microbiological hazards possibly present in raw milk dairy products, in particular cheese, butter, cream and buttermilk. The main microbiological hazards of raw milk cheeses (especially soft and fresh cheeses) are linked to Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Campylobacter. L. monocytogenes, VTEC and S. aureus have been identified as microbiological hazards in raw milk butter and cream albeit to a lesser extent because of a reduced growth potential compared with cheese. In endemic areas, raw milk dairy products may also be contaminated with Brucella spp., Mycobacterium bovis and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Potential risks due to Coxiella burnetii and Myco- bacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are discussed. Pasteurisation ensures inactivation of vegetative pathogenic microorganisms, which increases the safety of products made thereof compared with dairy products made from raw milk. Several control measures from farm to fork are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological safety and quality aspects of the short supply chain: SWOT analysis of the Belgian case study
Verraes, Claire; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Clinquart, Antoine ULg et al

in British Food Journal (2015), 117(9), 2250-2264

Purpose – In recent years consumers in Belgium have shown a great interest for foods from the short supply chain. The difference with the conventional chain is that in the short supply chain the primary ... [more ▼]

Purpose – In recent years consumers in Belgium have shown a great interest for foods from the short supply chain. The difference with the conventional chain is that in the short supply chain the primary products are locally processed and sold directly by the producer to the consumer. The short supply chain has different microbiological quality and safety aspects in comparison with the conventional chain. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate these aspects. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology consists of analyzing the available scientific literature and results of microbiological analyses on foods from the short supply chain. Findings – The main findings were that Listeria monocytogenes was frequently detected (15 percent) in sampled raw dairy products whereas Salmonella was not isolated in 1,023 samples. Human pathogenic vero (cyto) toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. are potential hazards, in particular for products that are not thermally treated. Data with regard to E. coli counts showed a greater variability in products from the short supply chain compared to the conventional chain. Research limitations/implications – The paper discusses strengths and weaknesses with impact on microbial quality and safety in operation of food safety management in the short supply chain vs the conventional chain. Originality/value – This is the first paper that assesses the risks from the short supply chain vs the conventional chain and that makes recommendations for operators in the short supply chain [less ▲]

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See detailVoedselveiligheid van insecten : een stand van zaken
Claeys, Wendie; Van Huffel, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne ULg

in Food Science and Law (2015), 2

Insects appear to be an interesting alternative source for food proteins. pending a clear European legislation, 10 insect species are currently tolerated on the Belgian market by the Belgian Food Safety ... [more ▼]

Insects appear to be an interesting alternative source for food proteins. pending a clear European legislation, 10 insect species are currently tolerated on the Belgian market by the Belgian Food Safety Agency. Edible insects are quite nutritious, but like vertebrates, they may contain pathogenes and toxic substances which can be hazardous to our health when consumed. The potential risks may, however, be largely controlled by the correct application of good hygiene and manufacturing practices during the breeding and marketing of these insects. Additionally, it is important to respect the appropriate storage and preparation conditions to heat the insects before consumption. Moreover, a possible allergic reaction of persons who are allergic to shellfishand/or dust mites cannot be excluded. [less ▲]

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