References of "Schoenen, Jean"
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See detailPreventive Antimigraine Drugs
Silberstein, SD; Latsko, M; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C; Chaitow, L; Schoenen, Jean (Eds.) Multidisciplinary Management of Migraine (2012)

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See detailEffects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on somatosensory evoked potentials and high frequency oscillations in migraine.
Coppola, Gianluca; De Pasqua, Victor; Pierelli, Francesco et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2012), 32(9), 700-9

Background: In previous studies we found that high-frequency somatosensory oscillations (HFOs) reflecting thalamo-cortical activation were decreased in migraineurs between attacks and that high-frequency ... [more ▼]

Background: In previous studies we found that high-frequency somatosensory oscillations (HFOs) reflecting thalamo-cortical activation were decreased in migraineurs between attacks and that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was able to normalize the habituation deficit of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Here we study the effects of activating (10 Hz) or inhibiting (1 Hz) rTMS on conventional low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs). Subjects and methods: rTMS was applied on the motor cortex of 13 healthy volunteers (HVs) and 13 migraine without aura (MO) patients. We measured N20-P25 LF-SSEP amplitude and habituation, and maximal peak-to-peak amplitude of early and late HFOs before and after rTMS. Results: In HVs, 1 Hz rTMS significantly reduced the amplitude of the first LF-SSEP block and its habituation. In MO patients, 10 Hz rTMS increased the amplitude of the first block and induced habituation. Ten Hz rTMS produced an increase of late HFO in both groups, but more interestingly, in MO patients also significantly increased the early HFOs, which are reduced at baseline compared to those of HVs. Conclusions: These data confirm for SSEP that excitatory rTMS can normalize habituation in migraine patients and show that this is accompanied by early an HFO increase, which is thought to reflect thalamo-cortical activity. Taken together with similar effects we observed for VEPs, this finding supports the hypothesis that dysfunctioning thalamo-cortical loops may be responsible for the interictal habituation deficit in migraine. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy and tolerability of lasmiditan, an oral 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist, for the acute treatment of migraine: a phase 2 randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study.
Farkkila, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Geraud, Gilles et al

in Lancet Neurology (2012), 11(5), 405-13

BACKGROUND: Lasmiditan (COL-144) is a novel, centrally acting, highly selective 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist without vasoconstrictor activity that seemed effective when given as an intravenous infusion in a ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Lasmiditan (COL-144) is a novel, centrally acting, highly selective 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist without vasoconstrictor activity that seemed effective when given as an intravenous infusion in a proof-of-concept migraine study. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of oral lasmiditan for the acute treatment of migraine. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-ranging study in 43 headache centres in five European countries, patients with migraine with and without aura and who were not using prophylaxis were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) to treat one moderate or severe attack at home with 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, or 400 mg lasmiditan, or placebo. Study drug and placebo were supplied in identical numbered tablet packs. The randomisation code was generated by an independent statistician. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was dose response for headache relief (moderate or severe becoming mild or none) at 2 h. The primary analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00883051. FINDINGS: Between July 8 2009, and Feb 18, 2010, 512 patients were randomly assigned to treatment, 391 of whom received treatment. 86 patients received placebo (81 included in primary analysis) and 305 received lasmiditan (50 mg n=79, 100 mg n=81, 200 mg n=69, and 400 mg n=68 included in primary analysis). There was a linear association between headache response rate at 2 h and lasmiditan dose (Cochran-Armitage test p<0.0001). Every lasmiditan treatment dose significantly improved headache response at 2 h compared with placebo (lasmiditan 50 mg: difference 17.9%, 95% CI 3.9-32.1, p=0.022; 100 mg: 38.2%, 24.1-52.4, p<0.0001; 200 mg: 28.8%, 9.6-39.9, p=0.0018; 400 mg: 38.7%, 23.9-53.6, p<0.0001). The proportion of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events increased with increasing doses (53/82 [65%], 59/82 [72%], 61/71 [86%], and 59/70 [84%] for lasmiditan 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg, respectively vs 19/86 [22%] for placebo). Most adverse events were mild or moderate in intensity, with 16 of 82 (20%), 23 of 82 (28%), 28 of 71 (39%), and 31 of 70 (44%) of patients on lasmiditan 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg, respectively reporting a severe adverse event compared with five of 86 (6%) on placebo. The most common adverse events were CNS related and included dizziness, fatigue, vertigo, paraesthesia, and somnolence. INTERPRETATION: Oral lasmiditan seems to be safe and effective in the acute treatment of migraine. Further assessment in larger placebo-controlled and triptan-controlled trials are needed to assess the potential role of lasmiditan in acute migraine therapy. FUNDING: CoLucid Pharmaceuticals. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of systemic kynurenine on cortical spreading depression and its modulation by sex hormones in rat.
Chauvel, Virginie ULg; Vamos, Eniko; Pardutz, Arpad et al

in Experimental Neurology (2012), 236(2), 207-14

BACKGROUND: The aura symptoms in migraine are most likely due to cortical spreading depression (CSD). CSD is favored by NMDA receptor activation and increased cortical excitability. The latter probably ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The aura symptoms in migraine are most likely due to cortical spreading depression (CSD). CSD is favored by NMDA receptor activation and increased cortical excitability. The latter probably explains why migraine with aura may appear when estrogen levels are high, like during pregnancy. Kynurenic acid, a derivative of tryptophan metabolism, is an endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist whose cerebral concentrations can be augmented by systemic administration of its precursor l-kynurenine. OBJECTIVE: To determine if exogenous administration of l-kynurenine is able to influence KCl-induced CSD in rat, if the effect is sex-dependent and if it differs in females between the phases of the estrous cycle. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of l-kynurenine (L-KYN, 300mg/kg), L-KYN combined with probenecid (L-KYN+PROB) that increases cortical concentration of KYNA by blocking its excretion from the central nervous system, probenecid alone (PROB, 200mg/kg) or NaCl. Cortical kynurenic acid concentrations were determined by HPLC (n=7). Thirty minutes after the injections, CSDs were elicited by application of 1M KCl over the occipital cortex and recorded by DC electrocorticogram. In NaCl and L-KYN groups, supplementary females were added and CSD frequency was analyzed respective to the phases of the estrous cycle determined by vaginal smears. RESULTS: In both sexes, PROB, L-KYN and L-KYN+PROB increased cortical kynurenic acid level. PROB, L-KYN and L-KYN+PROB with increasing potency decreased CSD frequency in female rats, while in males such an effect was significant only for L-KYN+PROB. The inhibitory effect of L-KYN on CSD frequency in females was most potent in diestrus. CONCLUSION: l-Kynurenine administration suppresses CSD, most likely by increasing kynurenic acid levels in the cortex. Females are more sensitive to this suppressive effect of l-kynurenine than males. These results emphasize the role of sex hormones in migraine and open interesting novel perspectives for its preventive treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailMesenchymal Stem Cell Graft Improves Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats through Neurotrophic and Pro-Angiogenic Actions.
Quertainmont, Renaud; Cantinieaux, Dorothée ULg; Botman, Olivier et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(6), 39500

Numerous strategies have been managed to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) but an optimal strategy doesn't exist yet. Actually, it is the complexity of the injured spinal cord ... [more ▼]

Numerous strategies have been managed to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) but an optimal strategy doesn't exist yet. Actually, it is the complexity of the injured spinal cord pathophysiology that begets the multifactorial approaches assessed to favour tissue protection, axonal regrowth and functional recovery. In this context, it appears that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could take an interesting part. The aim of this study is to graft MSCs after a spinal cord compression injury in adult rat to assess their effect on functional recovery and to highlight their mechanisms of action. We found that in intravenously grafted animals, MSCs induce, as early as 1 week after the graft, an improvement of their open field and grid navigation scores compared to control animals. At the histological analysis of their dissected spinal cord, no MSCs were found within the host despite their BrdU labelling performed before the graft, whatever the delay observed: 7, 14 or 21 days. However, a cytokine array performed on spinal cord extracts 3 days after MSC graft reveals a significant increase of NGF expression in the injured tissue. Also, a significant tissue sparing effect of MSC graft was observed. Finally, we also show that MSCs promote vascularisation, as the density of blood vessels within the lesioned area was higher in grafted rats. In conclusion, we bring here some new evidences that MSCs most likely act throughout their secretions and not via their own integration/differentiation within the host tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailSustained effeciveness of occipital nerve stimulation in drug-resistant chronic cluster headache
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; Gerardy, Pierre-Yves; Remacle, Jean-Michel et al

in Headache (2011)

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See detailKynurenic acid is able to suppress cortical spreading depression and the effect size is sex hormone dependent
Chauvel, Virginie ULg; Vamos, Eniko; Pardutz, Arpat et al

Poster (2011, June)

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See detailKynurenine administration suppresses cortical spreading depression in rat and the effect size is sex hormone dependent
Chauvel, Virginie ULg; Vamos, Eniko; Pardutz, Arpat et al

Poster (2011, May)

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See detailInvolvement of placental growth factor in Wallerian degeneration
Chaballe, Linda ULg; Close, Pierre ULg; SEMPELS, Maxime ULg et al

in Glia (2011), 59(3), 379-396

Wallerian degeneration (WD) is an inflammatory process of nerve degeneration, which occurs more rapidly in the peripheral nervous system compared with the central nervous system, resulting, respectively ... [more ▼]

Wallerian degeneration (WD) is an inflammatory process of nerve degeneration, which occurs more rapidly in the peripheral nervous system compared with the central nervous system, resulting, respectively in successful and aborted axon regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) and macrophages, under the control of a network of cytokines and chemokines, represent the main cell types involved in this process. Within this network, the role of placental growth factor (PlGF) remains totally unknown. However, properties like monocyte activation/attraction, ability to increase expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, as well as neuroprotective effects, make it a candidate likely implicated in this process. Also, nothing is described about the expression and localization of this molecule in the peripheral nervous system. To address these original questions, we decided to study PlGF expression under physiological and degenerative conditions and to explore its role in WD, using a model of sciatic nerve transection in wild-type and Pgf(-/-) mice. Our data show dynamic changes of PlGF expression, from periaxonal in normal nerve to SCs 24h postinjury, in parallel with a p65/NF-κB recruitment on Pgf promoter. After injury, SC proliferation is reduced by 30% in absence of PlGF. Macrophage invasion is significantly delayed in Pgf(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice, which results in worse functional recovery. MCP-1 and proMMP-9 exhibit a 3-fold reduction of their relative expressions in Pgf(-/-) injured nerves, as demonstrated by cytokine array. In conclusion, this work originally describes PlGF as a novel member of the cytokine network of WD. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of kynurenic acid on sensitivity to cortical spreading depression in rats
Chauvel, Virginie ULg; Vamos, Eniko; Pardutz, Arpat et al

Poster (2011, January 31)

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See detailSupraorbital transcutaneous neurostimulation has sedative effects in healthy subjects.
Piquet, Maxime; Balestra, Costantino; SAVA, Simona Liliana ULg et al

in BMC Neurology (2011), 11

BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly(R) device now also allows supraorbital TNS ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly(R) device now also allows supraorbital TNS. During observational clinical studies, several patients reported decreased vigilance or even sleepiness during a session of supraorbital TNS. We decided therefore to explore in more detail the potential sedative effect of supraorbital TNS, using standardized psychophysical tests in healthy volunteers. METHODS: We performed a double-blind cross-over sham-controlled study on 30 healthy subjects. They underwent a series of 4 vigilance tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale, d2 test). Each subject was tested under 4 different experimental conditions: without the neurostimulation device, with sham supraorbital TNS, with low frequency supraorbital TNS and with high frequency supraorbital TNS. RESULTS: As judged by the results of three tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale) there was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in vigilance and attention during high frequency TNS, while there were no changes during the other experimental conditions. Similarly, performance on the d2 test was impaired during high frequency TNS, but this change was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Supraorbital high frequency TNS applied with the Cefaly(R) device decreases vigilance in healthy volunteers. Additional studies are needed to determine the duration of this effect, the underlying mechanisms and the possible relation with the stimulation parameters. Meanwhile, this effect opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of hyperarousal states and, possibly, insomnia. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of light deprivation on visual evoked potentials in migraine without aura.
Coppola, Gianluca; Cremers, Julien ULg; GERARD, Pascale ULg et al

in BMC Neurology (2011), 11

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the interictal habituation deficit of cortical visual evoked potentials (VEP) in migraine are not well understood. Abnormal long-term functional plasticity of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the interictal habituation deficit of cortical visual evoked potentials (VEP) in migraine are not well understood. Abnormal long-term functional plasticity of the visual cortex may play a role and it can be assessed experimentally by light deprivation (LD). METHODS: We have compared the effects of LD on VEP in migraine patients without aura between attacks (MO, n = 17) and in healthy volunteers (HV, n = 17). Six sequential blocks of 100 averaged VEP at 3.1 Hz were recorded before and after 1 hour of LD. We measured VEP P100 amplitude of the 1st block of 100 sweeps and its change over 5 sequential blocks of 100 responses. RESULTS: In HV, the consequence of LD was a reduction of 1st block VEP amplitude and of the normal habituation pattern. By contrast, in MO patients, the interictal habituation deficit was not significantly modified, although 1st block VEP amplitude, already lower than in HV before LD, further decreased after LD. CONCLUSIONS: Light deprivation is thought to decrease both excitatory and subsequent inhibitory processes in visual cortex, which is in line with our findings in healthy volunteers. The VEP results in migraine patients suggest that early excitation was adequately suppressed, but not the inhibitory mechanisms occurring during long term stimulation and habituation. Accordingly, deficient intracortical inhibition is unlikely to be a primary factor in migraine pathophysiology and the habituation deficit. [less ▲]

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See detailHabituation of evoked responses is greater in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine than in controls: a contrast with the common forms of migraine.
Hansen, Jacob Moller; Bolla, Monica; Magis, Delphine ULg et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2011)

Background: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare, dominantly inherited subtype of migraine with transient hemiplegia during the aura phase. Mutations in at least three different genes can produce ... [more ▼]

Background: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare, dominantly inherited subtype of migraine with transient hemiplegia during the aura phase. Mutations in at least three different genes can produce the FHM phenotype. The mutated FHM genes code for ion transport proteins that animal and cellular studies have associated with disturbed ion homeostasis, altered cellular excitability, neurotransmitter release, and decreased threshold for cortical spreading depression. The common forms of migraine are characterized interictally by a habituation deficit of cortical and subcortical evoked responses that has been attributed to neuronal dysexcitability. FHM and the common forms of migraine are thought to belong to a spectrum of migraine phenotypes with similar pathophysiology, and we therefore examined whether an abnormal habituation pattern would also be found in FHM patients. Methods: In a group of genotyped FHM patients (five FHM-1, four FHM-2), we measured habituation of visual evoked potentials (VEP), auditory evoked potentials including intensity dependence (IDAP), the nociception-specific blink reflex (nsBR) and compared the results to a group of healthy volunteers (HV). Results: FHM patients had a more pronounced habituation during VEP (P = 0.025) and nsBR recordings (P = 0.023) than HV. There was no difference for IDAP, but the slope tended to be steeper in FHM. Conclusion: Contrary to the common forms of migraine, FHM patients are not characterized by a deficient, but rather by an increased habituation in cortical/brain stem evoked activities. These results suggest differences between FHM and the common forms of migraine, as far as central neuronal processing is concerned. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-mortem assessment of rat spinal cord injury and white matter sparing using inversion recovery-supported proton density magnetic resonance imaging
Scholtes, Félix ULg; Theunissen, E.; Phan Ba, Remy ULg et al

in Spinal Cord : The Official Journal of the International Medical Society of Paraplegia (2011)

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See detailPlacental growth factor: a tissue modelling factor with therapeutic potentials in neurology?
Chaballe, Linda ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg; Franzen, Rachelle ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2011), 111(1), 10-7

Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic factor that belongs to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. Besides its well known capacity to potentiate the angiogenic action of VEGF ... [more ▼]

Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic factor that belongs to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. Besides its well known capacity to potentiate the angiogenic action of VEGF, PlGF also participates in inflammatory processes by attracting and activating monocytes; it plays therefore more specifically a role in pathological conditions. PIGF and its two receptors, VEGFR-1 and neuropilins (NRPs), are expressed in the brain and increase after experimental stroke, but their precise functions in the nervous system remain underexplored. In this review article, we summarize present knowledge on the role of PlGF in various nervous system disease processes. Given the available data, P1GF has neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties that make it an actor of considerable interest in the pathophysiology and potentially in the therapy of degenerative and traumatic brain or spinal cord diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache (2nd edition).
Sandrini, G.; Friberg, L.; Coppola, G. et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2011), 18

Background and purpose: A large number of instrumental investigations are used in patients with non-acute headache in both research and clinical fields. Although the literature has shown that most of ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose: A large number of instrumental investigations are used in patients with non-acute headache in both research and clinical fields. Although the literature has shown that most of these tools contributed greatly to increasing understanding of the pathogenesis of primary headache, they are of little or no value in the clinical setting. Methods: This paper provides an update of the 2004 EFNS guidelines and recommendations for the use of neurophysiological tools and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache (first edition). Even though the period since the publication of the first edition has seen an increase in the number of published papers dealing with this topic, the updated guidelines contain only minimal changes in the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation. Results: (i) Interictal EEG is not routinely indicated in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with headache. Interictal EEG is, however, indicated if the clinical history suggests a possible diagnosis of epilepsy (differential diagnosis). Ictal EEG could be useful in certain patients suffering from hemiplegic or basilar migraine. (ii) Recording evoked potentials is not recommended for the diagnosis of headache disorders. (iii) There is no evidence warranting recommendation of reflex responses or autonomic tests for the routine clinical examination of patients with headache. (iv) Manual palpation of pericranial muscles, with standardized palpation pressure, can be recommended for subdividing patient groups but not for diagnosis. Pain threshold measurements and EMG are not recommended as clinical diagnostic tests. (v) In adult and pediatric patients with migraine, with no recent change in attack pattern, no history of seizures, and no other focal neurological symptoms or signs, the routine use of neuroimaging is not warranted. In patients with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, neuroimaging should be carefully considered and may necessitate additional scanning of intracranial/cervical vasculature and/or the sellar/orbital/(para)nasal region. In patients with atypical headache patterns, a history of seizures and/or focal neurological symptoms or signs, MRI may be indicated. (vi) If attacks can be fully accounted for by the standard headache classification (IHS), a PET or SPECT scan will normally be of no further diagnostic value. Nuclear medical examinations of the cerebral circulation and metabolism can be carried out in subgroups of patients with headache for the diagnosis and evaluation of complications, when patients experience unusually severe attacks or when the quality or severity of attacks has changed. (vii) Transcranial Doppler examination is not helpful in headache diagnosis. Conclusion: Although many of the examinations described in the present guidelines are of little or no value in the clinical setting, most of the tools, including thermal pain thresholds and transcranial magnetic stimulation, have considerable potential for differential diagnostic evaluation as well as for the further exploration of headache pathophysiology and the effects of pharmacological treatment. [less ▲]

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