References of "Schoenen, Jean"
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See detailTMS in migraine
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Bohotin, V.; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg

in Wassermann, E. M.; Epstein, C. M.; Ziemann, U. (Eds.) et al The Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation (2008)

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See detailTherapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in brain
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 330-337

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See detailTGF-1 and TGF-2 expression after traumatic human spinal cord injury
Buss, A.; Pech, K.; Kakulas, B. A. et al

in Spinal Cord (2008), 46

TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression after traumatic human spinal cord injury.

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See detailIs the cerebral cortex hyperexcitable or hyperresponsive in migraine?
Coppola, G.; Pierelli, F.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(12), 1429-1439

Although migraineurs appear in general to be hypersensitive to external stimuli, they maybe also have increased daytime sleepiness and complain of fatigue. Neurophisiological studies between attacks have ... [more ▼]

Although migraineurs appear in general to be hypersensitive to external stimuli, they maybe also have increased daytime sleepiness and complain of fatigue. Neurophisiological studies between attacks have shown that for a number of different sensory modalities the migrainous brain is characterised by a lack of habituation of evoked responses. Whether this is due to increased cortical hyperexcitability, possibly due to decreased inhibition, or to an abnormal responsivity of the cortex due a decreased preactivation level remains disputed. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation in particular have yielded contradictory results. We will review here the available data on cortical excitability obtained with different methodological approaches in patients over the migraine cycle. We will show that these data congruently indicate that the sensory cortices of migraineurs react excessively to repetitive, but not to single, stimuli and that the controversy above hyper- versus hypo-excitability is merely a semantic misunderstanding. Describing the migrainous brain as 'hyperresponsive' would fit most of the available data. Deciphering the precise cellular and molecular underpinnings of this hyperresponsivity remains a challenge for future research. We propose, as a working hypothesis, that a thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia might be the culprit. [less ▲]

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See detailInterictal abnormalities of gamma band activity in visual evoked responses in migraine: an indication of thalamocortical dysrhythmia?
Coppola, G.; Ambrosini, Anna; Di Clemente, L. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(12), 1360-1367

Between attacks, migraineurs lack habituation in standard visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual stimuli also evoke high-frequency oscillations in the gamma band range (GBOs, 20-35 Hz) assumed to be ... [more ▼]

Between attacks, migraineurs lack habituation in standard visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual stimuli also evoke high-frequency oscillations in the gamma band range (GBOs, 20-35 Hz) assumed to be generated both at subcortical (early GBOs) and cortical levels (late GBOs). The consecutive peaks of GBOs were analysed regarding amplitude and habituation in six successive blocks of 100 averaged pattern reversal (PR)-VEPs in healthy volunteers and interictally in migraine with (MA) or without aura patients. Amplitude of the two early GBO components in the first PR-VEP block was significantly increased in MA patients. There was a significant habituation deficit of the late GBO peaks in migraineurs. The increased amplitude of early GBOs could be related to the increased interictal visual discomfort reported by patients. We hypothesize that the hypofunctioning serotonergic pathways may cause, in line with the thalamocortical dysrhythmia theory, a functional disconnection of the thalamus leading to decreased intracortical lateral inhibition, which can induce dishabituation. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation and proposal for optimization of neurophysiological tests in migraine: Part 2 - neuroimaging and the nitroglycerin test
Magis, Delphine ULg; Bendtsen, L.; Goadsby, P. J. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(12), 1339-1359

Neuroimaging methods have been widely used in headache and migraine research. They have provided invaluable information on brain perfusion, metabolism and structure during and outside of migraine attacks ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging methods have been widely used in headache and migraine research. They have provided invaluable information on brain perfusion, metabolism and structure during and outside of migraine attacks, contributing to an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder. Human models of migraine attacks are indispensable tools in pathophysiological and therapeutic research. This review of neuroimaging methods and the attack-provoking nitroglycerin test is part an initiative by a task force within the EUROHEAD project (EU Strep LSHM-CT-2004-5044837-Workpackage 9) with the objective of critically evaluating neurophysiological tests used in migraine. The first part, presented in a companion paper, is devoted to electrophysiological methods, this second part to neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and voxel-based morphometry, as well as the nitroglycerin test. For each of these methods, we summarize the results, analyse the methodological limitations and propose recommendations for improved methodology and standardization of research protocols. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation and proposal for optimalization of neurophysiological tests in migraine: Part 1 - electrophysiological tests
Magis, Delphine ULg; Ambrosini, Anna; Bendtsen, L. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(12), 1323-1338

Neurophysiological testing has become a valuable tool for investigating brain excitability and nociceptive systems in headache disorders. Previous reviews have suggested that most neurophysiological tests ... [more ▼]

Neurophysiological testing has become a valuable tool for investigating brain excitability and nociceptive systems in headache disorders. Previous reviews have suggested that most neurophysiological tests have limited value for headache diagnosis, but a vast potential for exploring the pathophysiology of headaches, the central effects of certain pharmacological treatments and phenotype-genotype correlations. Many protocols, however, lack standardization. This meta-analytical review of neurophysiological methods in migraine was initiated by a task force within the EUROHEAD project (EU Strep LSHM-CT-2004-5044837-Workpackage 9). Most of the neurophysiological approaches that have been used in headache patients are reviewed, i.e. evoked potentials, nociception-specific blink reflex, single-fibre electromyography, neuroimaging methods (functional MRI, PET, and voxel-based morphometry) and the nitroglycerin attack-provoking test. For each of them, we summarize the results, analyse the methodological limitations and propose recommendations for improved methodology and standardization of research protocols. The first part is devoted to electrophysiological methods, the second to neuroimaging techniques and the NTG test. [less ▲]

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See detailCessation versus continuation of 6-month migraine preventive therapy with topiramate (PROMPT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Diener, Hans-Christoph; Agosti, Reto; Allais, Gianni et al

in Lancet Neurology (2007), 6(12), 1054-1062

Background Use of preventive therapy for migraine is often recommended for only 6-9 months, but no randomised, placebo-controlled trials have investigated migraine frequency after the end of prophylaxis ... [more ▼]

Background Use of preventive therapy for migraine is often recommended for only 6-9 months, but no randomised, placebo-controlled trials have investigated migraine frequency after the end of prophylaxis. We assessed the effects of discontinuation of topiramate after a treatment period of 6 months. Methods 818 patients who have migraines were enrolled from 88 clinics in 21 countries. After a 4-8-week lead-in period, patients received topiramate in a 26-week open-label phase. Daily dose was increased from 25 mg to 100 mg in steps of 25 mg every week; the dose could be adjusted further in the range 50-200 mg/day, but was stable for the final 4 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to continue this dose or switch to placebo for a 26-week double-blind phase. The primary endpoint was the difference in number of days with migraine during the last 4 weeks of the double-blind phase compared with the last 4 weeks of the open-label phase. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2005-000321-29. Findings 559 patients (68.3%) completed the open-label phase; 514 entered the double-blind phase and were assigned to topiramate (n=255) or placebo (n=259). The mean increase in number of migraine days was greater in the placebo group (1.19 days in 4 weeks, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66; p < 0.0001) than in the topiramate group (0.10, -0.36 to 0.56; p=0.5756; mean difference between groups -1.09, -1.75 to -0.43). Patients in the placebo group had a greater number of days on acute medication than did those in the topiramate group (mean difference between groups -0.95, -1.49 to -0.41; p=0.0007). Quality of life, as assessed by the MIDAS questionnaire, fell in the placebo group but remained stable in the topiramate group. Patients were more satisfied with the efficacy of topiramate than with that of placebo, whereas satisfaction with tolerability was similar in both treatment groups. Interpretation Sustained benefit was reported after discontinuation of topiramate, although number of migraine days did increase. These findings suggest that patients should be treated for 6 months, with the option to continue to 12 months in some patients. [less ▲]

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See detailThe vestibulo-collic reflex is abnormal in migraine
Allena, M.; Magis, Delphine ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(10), 1150-1155

Interictal evoked central nervous system responses are characterized in migraineurs by a deficit of habituation, at both cortical and subcortical levels. The click-evoked vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR ... [more ▼]

Interictal evoked central nervous system responses are characterized in migraineurs by a deficit of habituation, at both cortical and subcortical levels. The click-evoked vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) allows the assessment of otolith function and an oligosynaptic pathway linking receptors in the saccular macula to motoneurons of neck muscles. Three blocks of 75 averaged responses to monaural 95-dB normal hearing level 3-Hz clicks were recorded over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle in 25 migraineurs between attacks and 20 healthy subjects, without vestibular symptoms. Amplitudes, raw and corrected for baseline electromyography, were significantly smaller in migraine patients. Whereas in healthy volunteers the VCR habituated during stimulus repetition (-4.96% +/- 14.3), potentiation was found in migraineurs (4.34% +/- 15.3; P = 0.04). The combination with a reduced mean amplitude does not favour vestibular hyperexcitability as an explanation for the habituation deficit in migraine, but rather an abnormal processing of repeated stimuli in the reflex circuit. [less ▲]

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See detailSearch for correlations between genotypes and electrophysiological patterns in migraine: the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and visual evoked potentials
Magis, Delphine ULg; Allena, M.; Coppola, G. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(10), 1142-1149

Interictally, migraineurs have on average a reduction in habituation of pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEP) and in mitochondrial energy reserve. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ... [more ▼]

Interictally, migraineurs have on average a reduction in habituation of pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEP) and in mitochondrial energy reserve. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in folate metabolism and its C677T polymorphism may be more prevalent in migraine. The aim of this study was to search in migraineurs for a correlation between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the PR-VEP profile. PR-VEP were recorded in 52 genotyped migraine patients: 40 female, 24 without (MoA), 28 with aura (MA). Among them 21 had a normal genotype (CC), 18 were heterozygous (CT) and 13 homozygous (TT) for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. Mean PR-VEP N1-P1 amplitude was significantly lower in CT compared with CC, and tended to be lower in TT with increasing age. The habituation deficit was significantly greater in CC compared with TT subjects. The correlation between the cortical preactivation level, as reflected by the VEP amplitude in the first block of averages, and habituation was stronger in CC than in CT or TT. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism could thus have an ambiguous role in migraine. On one hand, the better VEP habituation which is associated with its homozygosity, and possibly mediated by homocysteine derivatives increasing serotoninergic transmission, may protect the brain against overstimulation. On the other hand, MTHFR C677T homozygosity is linked to a reduction of grand average VEP amplitude with illness duration, which has been attributed to brain damage. [less ▲]

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See detailConditioning by high frequency visual stimuli of the visual evoked potential in healthy volunteers and migraineurs
Bolla, M.; Magis, Delphine ULg; Gerardy, P. et al

Poster (2007, August)

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See detailInhibition of the nociceptive R2 blink reflex after supraorbital or index finger stimulation is normal in migraine without aura between attacks
Coppola, G.; Di Clemente, L.; Fumal, Arnaud ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(7), 803-808

Coppola G, Di Clemente L, Fumal A, Magis D, De Pasqua V, Pierelli F & Schoenen J. Inhibition of the nociceptive R2 blink reflex after supraorbital or index finger stimulation is normal in migraine without ... [more ▼]

Coppola G, Di Clemente L, Fumal A, Magis D, De Pasqua V, Pierelli F & Schoenen J. Inhibition of the nociceptive R2 blink reflex after supraorbital or index finger stimulation is normal in migraine without aura between attacks. Cephalalgia 2007; 27:803-808. London. ISSN 0333-1024 In order to explore possible interictal brainstem dysfunctions in migraine, we have studied the R2 component of the nociceptive specific blink reflex (nBR) after conditioning by supraorbital or index finger stimuli in 14 untreated migraine without aura patients (MO) between attacks and in 15 healthy volunteers. We determined the R2 recovery curve at increasing inter-stimulus intervals between 50 and 600 ms. The nBR was conditioned by a paired supraorbital stimulus and, in another session, by an ipsilateral electrical shock delivered to the index finger. The R2 nBR recovery curves were normal in MO patients for both the supraorbital and peripheral conditioning. These results do not favour persistent interictal sensitization in the spinal trigeminal sensory system. They also suggest that the control exerted by descending brainstem pathways on medullary R2 interneurones is normal in migraine between attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailSearch for correlations between the therapeutic response to riboavin and migraine mitochondrial abnormalities
Coppola, Gianluca; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Magis, Delphine ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007, June), 27(6), 590

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See detailPrevalence of patent foramen ovale and MRI white matter lesions in migraine with aura
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Magis, Delphine ULg; Fumal, Arnaud ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007, June), 27(6), 577-578

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See detailTranscutaneous temporal electrotherapy in chronic migraine: a pilot study of short term efficacy and mode of action
Bolla, M.; De Pasqua, Victor ULg; Gérardy, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007, June), 27(6), 743-744

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See detailInterictal cognition in migraineurs: a study correlating psychometric and neurophysiological tests
Magis, Delphine ULg; Coppola, G.; Di Clemente, L. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007, June), 27(6), 714

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See detailA multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of multiple treatments of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine headaches
Relja, M.; Poole, A. C.; Schoenen, Jean ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(6), 492-503

Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA; BOTOX (R)) for prophylaxis of episodic migraine. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized ... [more ▼]

Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA; BOTOX (R)) for prophylaxis of episodic migraine. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized to 225, 150 or 75 U of BoNTA or placebo after a 30-day placebo run-in for three 90-day treatment cycles. The primary efficacy end-point was the mean reduction from baseline in the frequency of migraine episodes at day 180 in the placebo non-responder stratum. All groups (N = 495) improved, with no significant differences. At day 180, the frequency of migraine episodes was reduced from baseline means of 4.3, 4.7, 4.7 and 4.4 by 1.6, 1.7, 1.5 and 1.4 for BoNTA 225 U, 150 U and 75 U and placebo, respectively. The primary end-point was not met. Treatment-related adverse events were transient and mild to moderate. BoNTA treatment was safe and well tolerated but did not result in significantly greater improvement than placebo in this study. Several factors may have confounded the results. [less ▲]

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See detailPathogénie de la maladie d'Alzheimer: les mécanismes moléculaires et cellulaires
Govaerts, L.; Schoenen, Jean ULg; Bouhy, D.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(4), 209-16

Alzheimer's disease is worldwide the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are together with neuronal loss and cortical atrophy characteristic ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer's disease is worldwide the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are together with neuronal loss and cortical atrophy characteristic neuropathological features of the disease. Senile plaques contain beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide which is produced by cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. Neurofibrillary tangles are twisted helicoidal strands of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein. Both pathogenic arms which we describe are interrelated and Abeta deposition seems to potentiate tau pathology. Tangle and plaque formation is influenced by various factors including reciprocal interactions, genetic factors, inflammation and reactive oxygen species. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular cascade which leads to the neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease has led to novel disease-modifying treatment strategies. They yield varying, though encouraging, results and target various stages of the pathological process. Future cooperation between basic, clinical and pharmacological research should allow the development in a foreseeable future of strategies that can halt, or even prevent, this devastating disorder. [less ▲]

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