References of "Schoenen, Jean"
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See detailNG2 and phosphacan are present in the astroglial scar after human traumatic spinal cord injury.
Buss, Armin; Pech, Katrin; Kakulas, Byron A et al

in BMC Neurology (2009), 9

BACKGROUND: A major class of axon growth-repulsive molecules associated with CNS scar tissue is the family of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) has ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A major class of axon growth-repulsive molecules associated with CNS scar tissue is the family of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) has demonstrated rapid re-expression of CSPGs at and around the lesion site. The pharmacological digestion of CSPGs in such lesion models results in substantially enhanced axonal regeneration and a significant functional recovery. The potential therapeutic relevance of interfering with CSPG expression or function following experimental injuries seems clear, however, the spatio-temporal pattern of expression of individual members of the CSPG family following human spinal cord injury is only poorly defined. In the present correlative investigation, the expression pattern of CSPG family members NG2, neurocan, versican and phosphacan was studied in the human spinal cord. METHODS: An immunohistochemical investigation in post mortem samples of control and lesioned human spinal cords was performed. All patients with traumatic SCI had been clinically diagnosed as having "complete" injuries and presented lesions of the maceration type. RESULTS: In sections from control spinal cord, NG2 immunoreactivity was restricted to stellate-shaped cells corresponding to oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The distribution patterns of phosphacan, neurocan and versican in control human spinal cord parenchyma were similar, with a fine reticular pattern being observed in white matter (but also located in gray matter for phosphacan). Neurocan staining was also associated with blood vessel walls. Furthermore, phosphacan, neurocan and versican were present in the myelin sheaths of ventral and dorsal nerve roots axons. After human SCI, NG2 and phosphacan were both detected in the evolving astroglial scar. Neurocan and versican were detected exclusively in the lesion epicentre, being associated with infiltrating Schwann cells in the myelin sheaths of invading peripheral nerve fibres from lesioned dorsal roots. CONCLUSION: NG2 and phosphacan were both present in the evolving astroglial scar and, therefore, might play an important role in the blockade of successful CNS regeneration. Neurocan and versican, however, were located at the lesion epicentre, associated with Schwann cell myelin on regenerating peripheral nerve fibres, a distribution that was unlikely to contribute to failed CNS axon regeneration. The present data points to the importance of such correlative investigations for demonstrating the clinical relevance of experimental data. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of pre-emptive Vagus Nerve Stimulation on cortical spreading depression in rat
Multon, Sylvie ULg; Prodanov, D.; Chauvel, Virginie ULg et al

Poster (2008, September)

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See detailPost-Mortem, high resolution (9.4 Tesla) MRI of spinal cord injury in the rat, correlated with histology
Phan Ba, Remy ULg; Scholtes, Félix ULg; Theunissen, E. et al

Conference (2008, March 12)

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See detailRtms in Headache Prophylaxis: When Case Reports Hide Our Ignorance
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in C N S Spectrums : The International Journal of Neuropsychiatric Medicine (2008), 13(3), 185-7

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See detailTension-Type Headache: Current Research and Clinical Management
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Lancet Neurology (2008), 7(1), 70-83

Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common form of headache, and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is one of the most neglected and difficult types of headache to treat. The pathogenesis of TTH is ... [more ▼]

Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common form of headache, and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is one of the most neglected and difficult types of headache to treat. The pathogenesis of TTH is multifactorial and varies between forms and individuals. Peripheral mechanisms (myofascial nociception) and central mechanisms (sensitisation and inadequate endogenous pain control) are intermingled: the former predominate in infrequent and frequent TTH, whereas the latter predominate in CTTH. Acute therapy is effective for episodes of TTH, whereas preventive treatment--which is indicated for frequent and chronic TTH--is, on average, not effective. For most patients with CTTH, the combination of drug therapies and non-drug therapies (such as relaxation and stress management techniques or physical therapies) is recommended. There is clearly an urgent need to improve the management of patients who are disabled by headache. This Review summarises the present knowledge on TTH and discusses some of its more problematic features. [less ▲]

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See detailTMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers
Ptito, M.; Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg et al

in Experimental Brain Research (2008), 184(2), 193-200

Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we ... [more ▼]

Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailSecondary amenorrhea and cerebral ventriculomegaly
Habay, Nathalie ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(11), 662-5

Cerebral ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus are not frequently associated with endocrine disorders of the gonadotropic axis. The mechanism of this association is not clarified. The most probable cause is ... [more ▼]

Cerebral ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus are not frequently associated with endocrine disorders of the gonadotropic axis. The mechanism of this association is not clarified. The most probable cause is however a partial hypothalamic dysfunction. The examination of the few reported cases is in favour of this explanation. We present the case of a young woman with a cerebral ventriculomegaly and suffering from secondary amenorrhea. Shunt was not necessary from the neurological point of view, the problem of secondary amenorrhea and anovulatory infertility was solved by clomiphen citrate therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailAlmotriptan and its combination with aceclofenac for migraine attacks: a study of efficacy and the influence of auto-evaluated brush allodynia.
Schoenen, Jean ULg; De Klippel, N.; Giurgea, S. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2008), 28(10), 1095-105

Early treatment and combining a triptan with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) are thought to improve outcome during migraine attacks, possibly by counteracting the negative influence of ... [more ▼]

Early treatment and combining a triptan with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) are thought to improve outcome during migraine attacks, possibly by counteracting the negative influence of cutaneous allodynia. The aim of this multicentre, double-blind pilot study was to evaluate the prevalence of brush allodynia and its relative influence on the efficacy of a triptan-NSAID combination compared with headache intensity at the time of treatment. In a randomized, cross-over design, 112 migraineurs treated two moderate or severe attacks with almotriptan 12.5 mg combined with either aceclofenac 100 mg or placebo. Patients used a 2-cm brush to assess cutaneous allodynia. Allodynia was reported in 34.4% of attacks. The almotriptan-aceclofenac combination was numerically superior to triptan-placebo on 2-24-h sustained pain-free (P = 0.07), 2-h pain-free (P = 0.07) and headache recurrence (P = 0.05) rates, but not on 1-h headache relief. Allodynia numerically reduced treatment success overall, but this effect was not significant for the primary outcome measures. Headache intensity had a significant negative influence on 1-h relief in both attacks (P = 0.0001 and 0.0008, chi(2)) and on 2-24-h sustained pain-free rates in triptan-placebo-treated attacks (P = 0.013). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that headache intensity at treatment intake, rather than allodynia, significantly influenced most outcome measures, predominantly so in attacks treated with almotriptan and aceclofenac. In the latter, severe compared with moderate headache intensity reduced the likelihood of achieving the primary efficacy end-points [odds ratios (OR) 0.12 and 0.33], whereas allodynia was not a significant explanatory variable (OR 0.76 and 0.65). The results apply to the protocol used here and need to be confirmed in larger studies using quantitative sensory testing. [less ▲]

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See detailAbnormalities of the vestibulo-collic reflex are similar in migraineurs with and without vertigo.
Roceanu, A.; Allena, M.; De Pasqua, Victor ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2008), 28(9), 988-90

The amplitude and habituation of the click-evoked vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) was found reduced between attacks in migraineurs without complaints of ictal or interictal vertigo or dizziness, compared ... [more ▼]

The amplitude and habituation of the click-evoked vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) was found reduced between attacks in migraineurs without complaints of ictal or interictal vertigo or dizziness, compared with healthy subjects. As a next step we recorded VCR in 17 migraine patients (eight with migraine without aura and nine with migraine with aura) who presented ictal migrainous vertigo according to the criteria defined by Neuhauser et al., using a method described previously. Migraineurs with migrainous vertigo have similar VCR abnormalities as patients without vertigo, i.e. a decreased global amplitude and absence of habituation. Potentiation seemed more pronounced in migraineurs with vertigo (7.46 +/- 18.6), but the difference was not significant. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent migraine management - patient acceptability and future approaches.
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment (2008), 4(6), 1043-57

Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly ... [more ▼]

Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly expanded. A number of drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes and deliverable by several routes are now available both for the acute and the preventive treatments of migraine. Nevertheless, disability and satisfaction remain low in many subjects because treatments are not accessible, not optimized, not effective, or simply not tolerated. There is thus still considerable room for better education, for more efficient therapies and for greater support from national health systems. In spite of useful internationally accepted guidelines, anti-migraine treatment has to be individually tailored to each patient taking into account the migraine subtype, the ensuing disability, the patient's previous history and present expectations, and the co-morbid disorders. In this article we will summarize the phenotypic presentations of migraine and review recommendations for acute and preventive treatment, highlighting recent advances which are relevant for clinical practice in terms of both diagnosis and management. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances in cerebellar and neuromuscular transmission tests are correlated in migraine with aura.
Ambrosini, Anna; Sandor, Peter S; De Pasqua, Victor ULg et al

in Journal of Headache & Pain (2008), 9(1), 29-32

In previous studies, we described subclinical abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission and cerebellar functions in migraineurs. The aim of this study was to search if these two functions are correlated ... [more ▼]

In previous studies, we described subclinical abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission and cerebellar functions in migraineurs. The aim of this study was to search if these two functions are correlated in the same patient. Thirteen migraineurs [five without aura (MO) and eight with aura (MA)] underwent both stimulation-SFEMG and 3D-movement analysis. Single fiber EMG (SFEMG) results were expressed as the "mean value of consecutive differences" (mean MCD). Precision of arm-reaching movements (measured with an infrared optoelectronic tracking system) was expressed as the average deviation in the horizontal plane. Median values of mean MCD and mean horizontal deviation were not different between MO and MA. However, in MA, but not in MO, both variables were positively correlated. Thus, we conclude that neuromuscular transmission and cerebellar functions are correlated in the same patient when affected by migraine with aura. We suggest that this correlation might be due to a common molecular abnormality. [less ▲]

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See detailActualités thérapeutiques dans la migraine.
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Gérardy, Pierre-Yves ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 315-29

Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly ... [more ▼]

Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly expanded. A number of drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes and deliverable by several routes are now available both for the acute and the preventive treatments of migraine. Nevertheless, disability and satisfaction remain low in many subjects because treatments are not accessible, not optimized, not effective or simply not tolerated. There is thus still considerable room for better education and for more efficient therapies. In spite of useful internationally accepted guidelines, anti-migraine treatment has to be individually tailored to each patient taking into account the migraine subtype, the ensuing disability, the patient's previous history and present expectations, and the comorbid disorders. In this article we will summarize the phenotypic presentations of migraine and review recommendations for acute and preventive treatment, highlighting recent advances which are relevant for clinical practice in terms of both diagnosis and management. [less ▲]

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See detailRapid, postmortem 9.4 T MRI of spinal cord injury: correlation with histology and survival times.
Scholtes, Félix ULg; Phan-Ba, Rémy ULg; Theunissen, Evi et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2008), 174(2), 157-67

High field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used to assess experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present investigation, after partial spinal cord injury and excision of the ... [more ▼]

High field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used to assess experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present investigation, after partial spinal cord injury and excision of the whole spine, pathological changes of the spinal cord were studied in spinal cord-spine blocks, from the acute to the chronic state (24 h to 5 months). Using proton density (PD) weighted imaging parameters at a magnetic field strength of 9.4 tesla (T), acquisition times ranging from <1 to 10 h per specimen were used. High in-plane pixel resolution (68 and 38 microm, respectively) was obtained, as well as high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is important for optimal contrast settings. The quality of the resulting MR images was demonstrated by comparison with histology. The cord and the lesion were shown in their anatomical surroundings, detecting cord swelling in the acute phase (24 h to 1 week) and cord atrophy at the chronic stage. Haemorrhage was detected as hypo-intense signal. Oedema, necrosis and scarring were hyper-intense but could not be distinguished. Histology confirmed that the anatomical delimitation of the lesion extent by MRI was precise, both with high and moderate resolution. The present investigation thus demonstrates the precision of spinal cord MRI at different survival delays after compressive partial SCI and establishes efficient imaging parameters for postmortem PD MRI. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurostimulation in chronic cluster headache.
Magis, Delphine ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Current Pain and Headache Reports (2008), 12(2), 145-53

About 1% of all chronic cluster headache patients become intractable (iCCH; ie, they are refractory to adequate regimens of all established preventive drugs). Various lesional interventions have been ... [more ▼]

About 1% of all chronic cluster headache patients become intractable (iCCH; ie, they are refractory to adequate regimens of all established preventive drugs). Various lesional interventions have been attempted in these patients, none with lasting benefits. In recent years, nondestructive neurostimulation methods have raised new hope. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation (hDBS) acts rather rapidly and has durable efficacy, but it is not without risk. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) was studied in two trials that included 17 iCCH patients. Clinical efficacy was found to be very satisfactory by most patients and investigators. Although slightly less efficacious than hDBS, ONS has the advantage of being harmless and reversible. At this stage, it should be the preferred first-line invasive therapy for iCCH. Recent case reports mention efficacy of supraorbital and vagus nerve stimulation. Whether these neurostimulation methods have a place in the management of iCCH patients remains to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailTMS in migraine
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Bohotin, V.; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg

in Wassermann, E. M.; Epstein, C. M.; Ziemann, U. (Eds.) et al The Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation (2008)

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