Novel fragments of clavulanate observed in the structure of the class A b-lactamase from Bacillus licheniformis BS3
; Mercuri, Paola ; Herman, Raphaël et al
in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2012), 67(10), 2379-2387Detailed reference viewed: 28 (12 ULg)
Development of new drugs for an old target — the penicillin binding proteins.
Zervosen, Astrid ; Sauvage, Eric ; Frère, Jean-Marie et al
in Molecules (2012), 17(11), 12478-505
The widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to the worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains. Bacteria have developed resistance to β-lactams by two main mechanisms: the production of β ... [more ▼]
The widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to the worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains. Bacteria have developed resistance to β-lactams by two main mechanisms: the production of β-lactamases, sometimes accompanied by a decrease of outer membrane permeability, and the production of low-affinity, drug resistant Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs). PBPs remain attractive targets for developing new antibiotic agents because they catalyse the last steps of the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, which is unique to bacteria, and lies outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we summarize the “current state of the art” of non-β-lactam inhibitors of PBPs, which have being developed in an attempt to counter the emergence of β-lactam resistance. These molecules are not susceptible to hydrolysis by β-lactamases and thus present a real alternative to β-lactams. We present transition state analogs such as boronic acids, which can covalently bind to the active serine residue in the catalytic site. Molecules containing ring structures different from the β-lactam-ring like lactivicin are able to acylate the active serine residue. High throughput screening methods, in combination with virtual screening methods and structure based design, have allowed the development of new molecules. Some of these novel inhibitors are active against major pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and thus open avenues new for the discovery of novel antibiotics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (9 ULg)
Synthesis and evaluation of boronic acids as inhibitors of Penicillin Binding Proteins of classes A, B and C.
Zervosen, Astrid ; Bouillez, André ; et al
in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 20(12), 3915-24
In response to the widespread use of beta-lactam antibiotics bacteria have evolved drug resistance mechanisms that include the production of resistant Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs). Boronic acids are ... [more ▼]
In response to the widespread use of beta-lactam antibiotics bacteria have evolved drug resistance mechanisms that include the production of resistant Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs). Boronic acids are potent beta-lactamase inhibitors and have been shown to display some specificity for soluble transpeptidases and PBPs, but their potential as inhibitors of the latter enzymes is yet to be widely explored. Recently, a (2,6-dimethoxybenzamido)methylboronic acid was identified as being a potent inhibitor of Actinomadura sp. R39 transpeptidase (IC(50): 1.3muM). In this work, we synthesized and studied the potential of a number of acylaminomethylboronic acids as inhibitors of PBPs from different classes. Several derivatives inhibited PBPs of classes A, B and C from penicillin sensitive strains. The (2-nitrobenzamido)methylboronic acid was identified as a good inhibitor of a class A PBP (PBP1b from Streptococcus pneumoniae, IC(50)=26muM), a class B PBP (PBP2xR6 from Streptococcus pneumoniae, IC(50)=138muM) and a class C PBP (R39 from Actinomadura sp., IC(50)=0.6muM). This work opens new avenues towards the development of molecules that inhibit PBPs, and eventually display bactericidal effects, on distinct bacterial species. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (15 ULg)
Unprecedented inhibition of resistant penicillin binding proteins by bis-2-oxoazetidinyl macrocycles
; Dive, Georges ; Zervosen, Astrid et al
in MedChemComm (2012), 3Detailed reference viewed: 37 (7 ULg)
Unexpected tricovalent binding mode of boronic acids within the active site of a penicillin binding protein.
Zervosen, Astrid ; Herman, Raphaël ; Kerff, Frédéric et al
in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2011)
Boronic acids bearing appropriate side chains are good inhibitors of serine amidohydrolases. The boron usually adopts a tetrahedral conformation, bound to the nucleophilic serine of the active site and ... [more ▼]
Boronic acids bearing appropriate side chains are good inhibitors of serine amidohydrolases. The boron usually adopts a tetrahedral conformation, bound to the nucleophilic serine of the active site and mimicking the transition state of the enzymatic reaction. We have solved the structures of complexes of a penicillin-binding protein, the DD-peptidase from Actinomadura sp. R39, with four amidomethylboronic acids (2,6 dimethoxybenzamidomethylboronic acid, phenylacetamidomethylboronic acid, 2-chlorobenzamidomethylboronic acid, and 2-nitrobenzamidomethylboronic acid) and the pinacol ester derived from phenylacetamidomethylboronic acid. We found that, in each case, the boron forms a tricovalent adduct with Ogamma of Ser49, Ser298, and the terminal amine group of Lys410, three key residues involved in the catalytic mechanism of penicillin-binding proteins. This represents the first tricovalent enzyme-inhibitor adducts observed by crystallography. In two of the five R39-boronate structures, the boronic acid is found as a tricovalent adduct in two monomers of the asymmetric unit and as a monocovalent adduct with the active serine in the two remaining monomers of the asymmetric unit. Formation of the tricovalent complex from a classical monocovalent complex may involve rotation around the Ser49 Calpha-Cbeta bond to place the boron in a position to interact with Ser298 and Lys410, and a twisting of the side chain amide such that its carbonyl oxygen is able to hydrogen bond to the oxyanion hole NH of Thr413. Biphasic kinetics were observed in three of the five cases and details of the reaction between R39 and 2,6-dimethoxybenzamidomethylboronic acid were studied. Observation of biphasic kinetics was not, however, thought to be correlated to formation of tricovalent complexes, assuming that the latter do form in solution. Based on the crystallographic and kinetic results, a reaction scheme for this unexpected inhibition by boronic acids is proposed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (15 ULg)
Structure Guided Development of Potent Reversibly Binding Penicillin Binding Protein Inhibitors
; Zervosen, Astrid ; Sauvage, Eric et al
in ACS Medicinal Chemistry letters (2011), 2 (3)
Following from the evaluation of different types of electrophiles, combined modeling and crystallographic analyses are used to generate potent boronic acid based inhibitors of a penicillin binding protein ... [more ▼]
Following from the evaluation of different types of electrophiles, combined modeling and crystallographic analyses are used to generate potent boronic acid based inhibitors of a penicillin binding protein. The results suggest that a structurally informed approach to penicillin binding protein inhibition will be useful for the development of both improved reversibly binding inhibitors, including boronic acids, and acylating inhibitors, such as β-lactams. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (9 ULg)
Kinetics of Reactions of the Actinomadura R39 dd-Peptidase with Specific Substrates.
; ; et al
in Biochemistry (2011), 50(3), 376-387
The Actinomadura R39 dd-peptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis and aminolysis of a number of small peptides and depsipeptides. Details of its substrate specificity and the nature of its in vivo substrate are ... [more ▼]
The Actinomadura R39 dd-peptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis and aminolysis of a number of small peptides and depsipeptides. Details of its substrate specificity and the nature of its in vivo substrate are not, however, well understood. This paper describes the interactions of the R39 enzyme with two peptidoglycan-mimetic substrates 3-(d-cysteinyl)propanoyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine and 3-(d-cysteinyl)propanoyl-d-alanyl-d-thiolactate. A detailed study of the reactions of the former substrate, catalyzed by the enzyme, showed dd-carboxypeptidase, dd-transpeptidase, and dd-endopeptidase activities. These results confirm the specificity of the enzyme for a free d-amino acid at the N-terminus of good substrates and indicated a preference for extended d-amino acid leaving groups. The latter was supported by determination of the structural specificity of amine nucleophiles for the acyl-enzyme generated by reaction of the enzyme with the thiolactate substrate. It was concluded that a specific substrate for this enzyme, and possibly the in vivo substrate, may consist of a partly cross-linked peptidoglycan polymer where a free side chain N-terminal un-cross-linked amino acid serves as the specific acyl group in an endopeptidase reaction. The enzyme is most likely a dd-endopeptidase in vivo. pH−rate profiles for reactions of the enzyme with peptides, the thiolactate named above, and β-lactams indicated the presence of complex proton dissociation pathways with sticky substrates and/or protons. The local structure of the active site may differ significantly for reactions of peptides and β-lactams. Solvent kinetic deuterium isotope effects indicate the presence of classical general acid/base catalysis in both acylation and deacylation; there is no evidence of the low fractionation factor active site hydrogen found previously in class A and C β-lactamases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg)
Three factors that modulate the activity of class D β-lactamases and interfere with the post-translational carboxylation of Lys 70
Vercheval, Lionel ; Di Paolo, Alexandre ; et al
in Biochemical Journal (2010), 432(3), 495-504
Lys-70 carboxylation in the active site of class D β lactamases is essential for their activity. Structural, kinetic and affinity studies show that this post-translational modification can be affected by ... [more ▼]
Lys-70 carboxylation in the active site of class D β lactamases is essential for their activity. Structural, kinetic and affinity studies show that this post-translational modification can be affected by the presence of a poor substrate such as moxalactam but also by the V117T substitution. Val-117 is a strictly conserved hydrophobic residue located in the active site. In addition, inhibition of class D β lactamases by chloride ions is due to a competition between the side chain carboxylate of the modified Lys 70 and chloride ions. Determination of the individual kinetic constants shows that the deacylation of the acyl-enzyme is the rate limiting step for the wild type OXA 10 β lactamase. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 92 (26 ULg)
Current challenges in antimicrobial chemotherapy: focus on beta-lactamase inhibition.
Bebrone, Carine ; Lassaux, Patricia ; Vercheval, Lionel et al
in Drugs (2010), 70(6)
The use of the three classical beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, sulbactam) in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy to combat the beta ... [more ▼]
The use of the three classical beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, sulbactam) in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy to combat the beta-lactamase mediated resistance. However, these inhibitors are efficient in inactivating class A beta-lactamases only and the efficiency of the inhibitor/antibiotic combination can be compromised by several mechanisms among which the production of naturally resistant class B or class D enzymes, the hyperproduction of AmpC or even the production of evolved inhibitor-resistant class A enzymes. There is thus an urgent need in the development of novel inhibitors. For serine active enzymes (classes A, C and D), derivatives of the beta-lactam ring such as 6-beta-halogenopenicillanates, beta-lactam sulfones, penems and oxapenems, monobactams or trinems seem to be potential starting points to design efficient molecules (among which AM-112 and LK-157). Moreover, a promising non-beta-lactam molecule, NXL-104 is now under clinical trial. In contrast, an ideal inhibitor of metallo-beta-lactamases (class B) remains to be found, despite the huge number of potential molecules already described (biphenyl tetrazoles, cysteinyl peptides, mercaptocarboxylates, succinic acid derivatives, etc). The search for such an inhibitor is complicated by the absence of a covalent intermediate in their catalytic mechanisms and the fact that beta-lactam derivatives often behave as substrates rather than as inhibitors. Currently, the most promising broad spectrum inhibitors of class B enzymes are molecules presenting chelating groups (thiols, carboxylates, etc) combined with an aromatic group. This review describes all the types of molecules already tested as potential beta-lactamase inhibitors and thus constitutes an update of the current status in beta-lactamase inhibitor discovery. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 96 (21 ULg)
Specific Structural Features of the N-Acetylmuramoyl-l-Alanine Amidase AmiD from Escherichia coli and Mechanistic Implications for Enzymes of This Family.
Kerff, Frédéric ; ; Mercier, Frédéric et al
in Journal of Molecular Biology (2010), 397
AmiD is the fifth identified N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine zinc amidase of Escherichia coli. This periplasmic lipoprotein is anchored in the outer membrane and has a broad specificity. AmiD is capable of ... [more ▼]
AmiD is the fifth identified N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine zinc amidase of Escherichia coli. This periplasmic lipoprotein is anchored in the outer membrane and has a broad specificity. AmiD is capable of cleaving the intact peptidoglycan (PG) as well as soluble fragments containing N-acetylmuramic acid regardless of the presence of an anhydro form or not, unlike the four other amidases, AmiA, AmiB, AmiC, and AmpD, which have some specificity. AmiD function is, however, not clearly established but it could be part of the enzymatic machinery involved in the PG turnover in E. coli. We solved three structures of the E. coli zinc amidase AmiD devoid of its lipidic anchorage: the holoenzyme, the apoenzyme in complex with the substrate anhydro-N-acetylmuramic-acid-l-Ala-gamma-d-Glu-l-Lys, and the holoenzyme in complex with the l-Ala-gamma-d-Glu-l-Lys peptide, the product of the hydrolysis of this substrate by AmiD. The AmiD structure shows a relatively flexible N-terminal extension that allows an easy reach of the PG by the enzyme inserted into the outer membrane. The C-terminal domain provides a potential extended geometrical complementarity to the substrate. AmiD shares a common fold with AmpD, the bacteriophage T7 lysozyme, and the PG recognition proteins, which are receptor proteins involved in the innate immune responses of a wide range of organisms. Analysis of the different structures reveals the similarity between the catalytic mechanism of zinc amidases of the AmiD family and the thermolysin-related zinc peptidases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 91 (19 ULg)
Crystal structure of a complex between the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase and a peptidoglycan-mimetic boronate inhibitor: interpretation of a transition state analogue in terms of catalytic mechanism.
; Rocaboy, Mathieu ; Kerff, Frédéric et al
in Biochemistry (2010), 49(30), 6411-9
The Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase is a bacterial low molecular weight class C penicillin-binding protein. It has previously been shown to catalyze hydrolysis and aminolysis of small D-alanyl-D-alanine ... [more ▼]
The Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase is a bacterial low molecular weight class C penicillin-binding protein. It has previously been shown to catalyze hydrolysis and aminolysis of small D-alanyl-D-alanine terminating peptides, especially those with a side chain that mimics the amino terminus of the stem peptide precursor to the bacterial cell wall. This paper describes the synthesis of (D-alpha-aminopimelylamino)-D-1-ethylboronic acid, designed to be a peptidoglycan-mimetic transition state analogue inhibitor of the R39 DD-peptidase. The boronate was found to be a potent inhibitor of the peptidase with a K(i) value of 32 +/- 6 nM. Since it binds some 30 times more strongly than the analogous peptide substrate, the boronate may well be a transition state analogue. A crystal structure of the inhibitory complex shows the boronate covalently bound to the nucleophilic active site Ser 49. The aminopimelyl side chain is bound into the site previously identified as specific for this moiety. One boronate oxygen is held in the oxyanion hole; the other, occupying the leaving group site of acylation or the nucleophile site of deacylation, appears to be hydrogen-bonded to the hydroxyl group of Ser 298. The Ser 49 oxygen appears to be hydrogen bonded to Lys 52. If it is assumed that this structure does resemble a high-energy tetrahedral intermediate in catalysis, it seems likely that Ser 298 participates as part of a proton transfer chain initiated by Lys 52 or Lys 410 as the primary proton donor/acceptor. The structure, therefore, supports a particular class of mechanism that employs this proton transfer device. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULg)
Structural basis for the interaction of lactivicins with serine beta-lactamases.
; Charlier, Paulette ; Herman, Raphaël et al
in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53(15), 5890-4
Lactivicin (LTV) is a natural non-beta-lactam antibiotic that inhibits penicillin-binding proteins and serine beta-lactamases. A crystal structure of a BS3-LTV complex reveals that, as for its reaction ... [more ▼]
Lactivicin (LTV) is a natural non-beta-lactam antibiotic that inhibits penicillin-binding proteins and serine beta-lactamases. A crystal structure of a BS3-LTV complex reveals that, as for its reaction with PBPs, LTV reacts with the nucleophilic serine and that cycloserine and lactone rings of LTV are opened. This structure, together with reported structures of PBP1b with lactivicins, provides a basis for developing improved lactivicin-based gamma-lactam antibiotics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
Structural basis of the inhibition of class A beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins by 6-beta-iodopenicillanate
Sauvage, Eric ; Zervosen, Astrid ; Dive, Georges et al
in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2009), 131(42), 15262-15269
6-Beta-halogenopenicillanates are powerful, irreversible inhibitors of various beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins. Upon acylation of these enzymes, the inhibitors are thought to undergo a ... [more ▼]
6-Beta-halogenopenicillanates are powerful, irreversible inhibitors of various beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins. Upon acylation of these enzymes, the inhibitors are thought to undergo a structural rearrangement associated with the departure of the iodide and formation of a dihydrothiazine ring, but, to date, no structural evidence has proven this. 6-Beta-iodopenicillanic acid (BIP) is shown here to be an active antibiotic against various bacterial strains and an effective inhibitor of the class A beta-lactamase of Bacillus subtilis BS3 (BS3) and the D,D-peptidase of Actinomadura R39 (R39). Crystals of BS3 and of R39 were soaked with a solution of BIP and their structures solved at 1.65 and 2.2 A, respectively. The beta-lactam and the thiazolidine rings of BIP are indeed found to be fused into a dihydrothiazine ring that can adopt two stable conformations at these active sites. The rearranged BIP is observed in one conformation in the BS3 active site and in two monomers of the asymmetric unit of R39, and is observed in the other conformation in the other two monomers of the asymmetric unit of R39. The BS3 structure reveals a new mode of carboxylate interaction with a class A beta-lactamase active site that should be of interest in future inhibitor design. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 86 (32 ULg)
Critical role of tryptophan 154 for the activity and stability of class D beta-lactamases.
; Vercheval, Lionel ; Bouillenne, Fabrice et al
in Biochemistry (2009), 48(47), 11252-63
The catalytic efficiency of the class D beta-lactamase OXA-10 depends critically on an unusual carboxylated lysine as the general base residue for both the enzyme acylation and deacylation steps of ... [more ▼]
The catalytic efficiency of the class D beta-lactamase OXA-10 depends critically on an unusual carboxylated lysine as the general base residue for both the enzyme acylation and deacylation steps of catalysis. Evidence is presented that the interaction between the indole group of Trp154 and the carboxylated lysine is essential for the stability of the posttranslationally modified Lys70. Substitution of Trp154 by Gly, Ala, or Phe yielded noncarboxylated enzymes which displayed poor catalytic efficiencies and reduced stability when compared to the wild-type OXA-10. The W154H mutant was partially carboxylated. In addition, the maximum values of k(cat) and k(cat)/K(M) were shifted toward pH 7, indicating that the carboxylation state of Lys70 is dependent on the protonation level of the histidine. A comparison of the three-dimensional structures of the different proteins also indicated that the Trp154 mutations did not modify the overall structures of OXA-10 but induced an increased flexibility of the Omega-loop in the active site. Finally, the deacylation-impaired W154A mutant was used to determine the structure of the acyl-enzyme complex with benzylpenicillin. These results indicate a role of the Lys70 carboxylation during the deacylation step and emphasize the importance of Trp154 for the ideal positioning of active site residues leading to an optimum activity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (15 ULg)
The Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Structure and Role in Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis
Sauvage, Eric ; Kerff, Frédéric ; Terrak, Mohammed et al
in FEMS Microbiology Reviews (2008), 32(2), 234-58
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) have been scrutinized for over 40 years. Recent structural information on PBPs together with the ongoing long-term biochemical experimental investigations, and results ... [more ▼]
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) have been scrutinized for over 40 years. Recent structural information on PBPs together with the ongoing long-term biochemical experimental investigations, and results from more recent techniques such as protein localization by green fluorescent protein-fusion immunofluorescence or double-hybrid assay, have brought our understanding of the last stages of the peptidoglycan biosynthesis to an outstanding level that allows a broad outlook on the properties of these enzymes. Details are emerging regarding the interaction between the peptidoglycan-synthesizing PBPs and the peptidoglycan, their mesh net-like product that surrounds and protects bacteria. This review focuses on the detailed structure of PBPs and their implication in peptidoglycan synthesis, maturation and recycling. An overview of the content in PBPs of some bacteria is provided with an emphasis on comparing the biochemical properties of homologous PBPs (orthologues) belonging to different bacteria. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 83 (24 ULg)
Crystal structure and activity of Bacillus subtilis YoaJ (EXLX1), a bacterial expansin that promotes root colonization.
Kerff, Frédéric ; Amoroso, Ana Maria ; Herman, Raphaël et al
in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2008), 105(44), 16876-81
We solved the crystal structure of a secreted protein, EXLX1, encoded by the yoaJ gene of Bacillus subtilis. Its structure is remarkably similar to that of plant beta-expansins (group 1 grass pollen ... [more ▼]
We solved the crystal structure of a secreted protein, EXLX1, encoded by the yoaJ gene of Bacillus subtilis. Its structure is remarkably similar to that of plant beta-expansins (group 1 grass pollen allergens), consisting of 2 tightly packed domains (D1, D2) with a potential polysaccharide-binding surface spanning the 2 domains. Domain D1 has a double-psi beta-barrel fold with partial conservation of the catalytic site found in family 45 glycosyl hydrolases and in the MltA family of lytic transglycosylases. Domain D2 has an Ig-like fold similar to group 2/3 grass pollen allergens, with structural features similar to a type A carbohydrate-binding domain. EXLX1 bound to plant cell walls, cellulose, and peptidoglycan, but it lacked lytic activity against a variety of plant cell wall polysaccharides and peptidoglycan. EXLX1 promoted plant cell wall extension similar to, but 10 times weaker than, plant beta-expansins, which synergistically enhanced EXLX1 activity. Deletion of the gene encoding EXLX1 did not affect growth or peptidoglycan composition of B. subtilis in liquid medium, but slowed lysis upon osmotic shock and greatly reduced the ability of the bacterium to colonize maize roots. The presence of EXLX1 homologs in a small but diverse set of plant pathogens further supports a role in plant-bacterial interactions. Because plant expansins have proved difficult to express in active form in heterologous systems, the discovery of a bacterial homolog opens the door for detailed structural studies of expansin function. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 142 (12 ULg)
Importance of the conserved residues in the peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase module of the class A penicillin-binding protein 1b of Escherichia coli.
Terrak, Mohammed ; Sauvage, Eric ; Derouaux, Adeline et al
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(42), 28464-70
The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to ... [more ▼]
The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to the GT51 family, are characterized by five conserved motifs, and have some fold similarity with the phage lambda lysozyme. In this work, we have systematically modified all the conserved amino acid residues of the GT module of Escherichia coli class A PBP1b by site-directed mutagenesis and determined their importance for the in vivo and in vitro activity and the thermostability of the protein. To get an insight into the GT active site of this paradigm enzyme, a model of PBP1b GT domain was constructed based on the available crystal structures (PDB codes 2OLV and 2OLU). The data show that in addition to the essential glutamate residues Glu233 of motif 1 and Glu290 of motif 3, the residues Phe237 and His240 of motif 1 and Gly264, Thr267, Gln271, and Lys274 of motif 2, all located in the catalytic cavity of the GT domain, are essential for the in vitro enzymatic activity of the PBP1b and for its in vivo functioning. Thus, the first three conserved motifs contain most of the residues that are required for the GT activity of the PBP1b. The residues Asp234, Phe237, His240, Thr267, and Gln271 are proposed to maintain the structure of the active site and the positioning of the catalytic Glu233. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 87 (13 ULg)
Crystal structures of complexes of bacterial DD-peptidases with peptidoglycan-mimetic ligands: the substrate specificity puzzle.
Sauvage, Eric ; ; et al
in Journal of Molecular Biology (2008), 381(2), 383-93
The X-ray crystal structures of covalent complexes of the Actinomadura R39 dd-peptidase and Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 5 with beta-lactams bearing peptidoglycan-mimetic side chains ... [more ▼]
The X-ray crystal structures of covalent complexes of the Actinomadura R39 dd-peptidase and Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 5 with beta-lactams bearing peptidoglycan-mimetic side chains have been determined. The structure of the hydrolysis product of an analogous peptide bound noncovalently to the former enzyme has also been obtained. The R39 DD-peptidase structures reveal the presence of a specific binding site for the D-alpha-aminopimelyl side chain, characteristic of the stem peptide of Actinomadura R39. This binding site features a hydrophobic cleft for the pimelyl methylene groups and strong hydrogen bonding to the polar terminus. Both of these active site elements are provided by amino acid side chains from two separate domains of the protein. In contrast, no clear electron density corresponding to the terminus of the peptidoglycan-mimetic side chains is present when these beta-lactams are covalently bound to PBP5. There is, therefore, no indication of a specific side-chain binding site in this enzyme. These results are in agreement with those from kinetics studies published earlier and support the general prediction made at the time of a direct correlation between kinetics and structural evidence. The essential high-molecular-mass PBPs have demonstrated, to date, no specific reactivity with peptidoglycan-mimetic peptide substrates and beta-lactam inhibitors and, thus, probably do not possess a specific substrate-binding site of the type demonstrated here with the R39 DD-peptidase. This striking deficiency may represent a sophisticated defense mechanism against low-molecular-mass substrate-analogue inhibitors/antibiotics; its discovery should focus new inhibitor design. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg)
2-Aminopropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid: Synthesis and co-crystallization with the class A beta-lactamase BS3 of Bacillus licheniformis.
; Sauvage, Eric ; Charlier, Paulette et al
in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2008), 18(13), 3764-8
The title compound 4 has been prepared in four steps from ethylglycinate in 63% overall yield. This amino analog of citric acid has been co-crystallized with the class A beta-lactamase BS3 of Bacillus ... [more ▼]
The title compound 4 has been prepared in four steps from ethylglycinate in 63% overall yield. This amino analog of citric acid has been co-crystallized with the class A beta-lactamase BS3 of Bacillus licheniformis and the structure of the complex fully analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Tris-ethyl aminocitrate 3 and the free tris-acid 4 have been tested against a member beta-lactamase from all distinct subgroups. They are novel inhibitors of class A beta-lactamases, still modest but more potent than citrate and isocitrate. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg)