References of "Sandersen, Charlotte"
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See detailDoppler Echocardiographic follow up of three horses with congestive heart failure and treated with quinapril, digoxin, and diuretics
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Borde, Laura ULg et al

Poster (2011, February)

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are recommended therapy in human and canine patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), but little is known concerning their efficiency to treat horses with CHF ... [more ▼]

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are recommended therapy in human and canine patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), but little is known concerning their efficiency to treat horses with CHF. Enalapril has been shown to be poorly absorbed in horses and quinapril has been shown to decrease the severity of the insufficiency and to increase the stroke volume (SV) and the cardiac output (CO) in horses with mitral regurgitation (MR) without signs of CHF. The objective of this cases report was to evaluate the effect of quinapril associated with routine treatment in horses with CHF. Three horses with clinical, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic signs of severe MR, CHF and secondary atrial fibrillation were studied (Fig 1 to 3). None of them had been previously treated for those problems. According to the ACVIM classification system for management of canine CHF, they were therefore classified in class C. They were treated with quinapril 0.2mg/kg SID PO, digoxin 0.011mg/kg BID PO, and furosemide 1mg/kg BID IM. Standard echocardiographic and Doppler measurements were performed before treatment (T0), and 1 and 4 weeks after starting treatment (W1 and W4, respectively). All horses showed a transient clinical improvement (decrease of edemas and disappearance of the dyspnea) after 1 week of treatment, but clinical signs deteriorated within the following weeks in 2 horses that were euthanized for ethical reasons. The third horse kept a steady clinical status and was discharged with the treatment pursued at home. Evolution (in %) of main echocardiographic parameters at W1 and W4 compared to T0 values are showed in Table1. Large individual variations in response to the treatment were seen. Nevertheless, in all horses, a decrease of the Heart Rate (HR) was observed after 1 week of treatment, but the HR increased again after 1 month of treatment (Fig 4). On the contrary, no increase in SV or CO, and no decrease in LVIDd were seen in response to treatment (Fig 5). In the 2 horses that were euthanized, the fractional shortening (FS) and the pre-ejection to ejection time ratio (PEP/ET) decreased and the mitral E peak velocity increased with treatment, whereas they followed the opposite evolution in the surviving horse. No conclusion can be drawn from this study because of the limited number of studied cases. However, it would be interesting to extend it to additional cases and to less severely affected cases (i.e. horses classified in class C after initial treatment or class B horses). Negative chronotropic effect of digoxin was suggested after 1 week of treatment since a decrease of the HR was observed in all horses. However, this effect seemed to decrease after 1 month of treatment. Those preliminary results of echocardiography suggest that quinapril in association with digoxin and furosemide at the used dosage could be inefficient to reduce the left ventricular filling pressure and to improve the myocardial contractility in horses with severe CHF. This could however be due to the fact that the 3 studied horses were cases refractory to classic treatment (thus to be classified in class D). [less ▲]

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See detailModulating effects of acepromazine on the reactive oxygen species production by stimulated equine neutrophils
Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2011), 38

To investigate the effect of acepromazine (ACP) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by stimulated equine neutrophils.

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See detailEchocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function in colic horses
Borde, Laura ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Leroux, Aurélia ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2011), 31(8), 481-487

Background: Echocardiography has not been reported to study hemodynamic disturbances in colic horses. Objectives: To non invasively assess the impact of colic-related endotoxin shock on equine cardiac ... [more ▼]

Background: Echocardiography has not been reported to study hemodynamic disturbances in colic horses. Objectives: To non invasively assess the impact of colic-related endotoxin shock on equine cardiac function. Animals: Fifty horses admitted in clinic on emergency for colic. Methods: A shock score from 1 to 4 was established for each horse based on clinical evaluation, non invasive systolic blood pressure and blood tests measurements. Left ventricular echocardiographic and Doppler parameters were compared between the 4 groups according to the shock score (1 = no or discrete signs of shock, n=11; 2 = mild shock, n=17; 3 = moderate shock, n=12; 4 = severe shock, n=10) using a multivariable analysis. Horses with a score shock of 1 were considered as control. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The stroke volume, stroke index, ejection time, ejection time index corrected for heart rate, aortic velocity time integral, aortic flow acceleration time and aortic flow deceleration time were significantly lower whereas acceleration rate of aortic flow ejection and heart rate were significantly higher in shocked horses than in controls. Cardiac output was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Clinical importance: Even if those results are difficult to interpret because of the shock-induced changes in loading conditions of the heart, they suggest that alterations in some indicators of systolic function can be quantified by Doppler echocardiography in horses with colic-induced endotoxemic shock. Ultrasonographic monitoring of cardiovascular function could thus be of interest in equine intensive care. [less ▲]

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See detailInhalation with NDS27 attenuates pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation in recurrent airway obstruction
Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Olejnik, Dorine; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2011)

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See detailEmergence of bovine ehrlichiosis in Belgian cattle herds
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Ramery, Eve ULg; O'Grady, Luke et al

in Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (2011), 2

Bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease can also be transmitted to humans. Outbreaks in cattle have been described in many European ... [more ▼]

Bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease can also be transmitted to humans. Outbreaks in cattle have been described in many European countries. In Belgium, infections caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in humans and dogs; however this paper details the first report of ehrlichiosis in cattle herds in Belgium. The first case described was in a dairy herd located in east Belgium. Clinical signs included hyperthermia, polypnea and swelling of the limbs. The other case was diagnosed in a second, mixed purpose, herd in west Belgium. Within the second herd all of the affected animals came from the same pasture. All animals in that pasture showed recurrent hyperthermia and some also showed signs of mastitis and late-term abortions. Blood smears and serology revealed the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the majority of animals with pyrexia. Furthermore, the presence of leptospirosis, Neospora caninum and Q fever antibodies was tested by serological analysis but all results were negative. Paired serology for Adenovirus, BHV-4, BHV-1, BVD, PI3 and RSV-B did not show any significant seroconversion. Milk samples from cows affected by mastitis revealed minor pathogens. Fecal testing for the presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus in the first herd was negative. Recurrent pyrexia in pastured cattle is a non-specific sign, and can be related to several different pathogens. Bovine ehrlichiosis is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus which is known to be present throughout Belgium. Belgian practitioners should include ehrlichiosis in their differential diagnosis when confronted with pastured cattle suffering from recurrent pyrexia. [less ▲]

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See detailMyocardial depression as a component of endotoxic shock in horses: preliminary results of an echocardiographic study
Borde, Laura ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Leroux, Aurélia ULg et al

Conference (2010, October 16)

Cardiovascular consequences of septic shock are well described in humans but these hemodynamic disturbances have not yet been studied in endotoxic horses. The endotoxins act directly and indirectly to ... [more ▼]

Cardiovascular consequences of septic shock are well described in humans but these hemodynamic disturbances have not yet been studied in endotoxic horses. The endotoxins act directly and indirectly to cause a myocardial depression associated with a systemic hypotension responsible for a fall of both the cardiac output and the systemic vascular resistance in end-stage endotoxic shock. The hypothesis was that myocardial depression was a component of endotoxic shock in horses. In this way, fifty horses admitted in clinic with signs of endotoxic shock and 17 healthy control horses were submitted to a doppler echocardiographic exam to assess the impact of endotoxic shock on equine cardiac function. A shock score from 1 to 4, based on clinical evaluation, non invasive systolic blood pressure, and blood tests was attributed to each endotoxic horse. Echocardiographic and Doppler parameters were compared between the 5 groups using a multivariable ANOVA analysis. Score 1, 2, 3 and 4 groups included 11, 17, 12 and 10 horses, respectively. Some markers of systolic function included the ejection time (ET), ET corrected for HR and mean velocity of circumferential fibre shortening corrected for HR, the aortic velocity time integral and deceleration time, and the stroke volume were significantly lower, whereas the HR and the peak velocity of the late diastolic filling of the mitral Doppler flow and its velocity time integral were significantly higher in endotoxemic horses than in controls. Thanks to an increase in HR, the cardiac output was not significantly different between groups. Even if the tachycardia, the fall in preload and a probable decrease in afterload doubtless influence the observed changes, the results of this study suggest that a myocardial depression with both an impaired systolic and diastolic left ventricular function could be a component of endotoxic shock in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailProspective study of hemodynamic disorders mesured by echocardiography and associated with endotoxemia in horses
Borde, Laura ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Leroux, Aurélia ULg et al

Conference (2010, September 11)

Endotoxemia is the first mortality cause in intensive care horses. In human, hemodynamic disturbances have been showed to be associated with septic shock whereas in horses, this facet of endotoxemia has ... [more ▼]

Endotoxemia is the first mortality cause in intensive care horses. In human, hemodynamic disturbances have been showed to be associated with septic shock whereas in horses, this facet of endotoxemia has not yet been studied. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of endotoxin shock on equine cardiac function. Fifty horses admitted in clinic with signs of endotoxic shock and 17 healthy control horses were submitted to a doppler echocardiographic exam. The endotoxemic horses were classified in 4 groups according to their shock score based on clinical evaluation (heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate), non invasive systolic blood pressure, and blood tests (Packed cell volume and lactates). Score 1, 2, 3 and 4 groups included 11, 17, 12 and 10 horses, respectively. Left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic and Doppler parameters were compared between the 5 groups using a multivariable ANOVA analysis. The LV internal diameter, ejection time, ejection time corrected for HR and mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening corrected for HR, the aortic velocity time integral and deceleration time, and the stroke volume were significantly lower, whereas the HR and the peak velocity of the late diastolic filling of the mitral Doppler flow and its velocity time integral were significantly higher in grade 2 to 4 endotoxemic horses than in control horses. Because of the tachycardia compensating the lower stroke volume in endotoxemic horses, the cardiac output was not significantly different between groups. Despite the fact that the increase in HR, the fall in preload and a probable decrease in afterload doubtless played a role in the observed changes, the results of this study suggest an impaired systolic and diastolic LV function in horses with moderate to severe endotoxemia. Doppler echocardiographic monitoring of the cardiovascular function could thus be of interest in equine intensive care. [less ▲]

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See detailGene expression profiling from leukocytes of horses affected by osteochondrosis.
Serteyn, Didier ULg; Piquemal, D.; Vander Heyden, Laurent ULg et al

in Journal of Orthopaedic Research (2010)

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease that affects growing horses and that severely affects their ability to perform. The genetic basis of its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the ... [more ▼]

Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease that affects growing horses and that severely affects their ability to perform. The genetic basis of its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to analyze the transcript profile of leukocytes from horses affected with OC. Two transcriptome libraries were constructed from leukocytes of OC-affected and non-OC-affected horses using digital gene expression analysis (DGE) and real-time PCR. Statistical analysis allowed selection of 1,008 tags upregulated in the non-OC-affected group and 1,545 tags upregulated in the OC-affected group. Among these genes, 16 regulated genes and 5 housekeeping genes were selected. Metabolic pathways analysis showed an obvious dysregulation of several signaling pathways related to cartilage formation or cartilage repair, including Wnt, Indian hedgehog, and TGF-beta signaling. Other genes, including ISG, ApoB, MGAT4, and TBC1D9, showed a significantly different expression between groups. These genes may play a role in high carbohydrate diet, abnormal insulin metabolism, or inflammation, mechanisms suspected to be involved in OC. This DGE analysis of the transcript profile of leukocytes from OC-affected horses demonstrated significant differences in comparison to the control library. These results open new perspectives for the understanding of equine OC. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the influence of age on pulmonary arterial pressure by use of right ventricular catheterization, pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography, and pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging in healthy Beagles.
Mercier, Elise ULg; Mathieu, Myrielle; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2010), 71(8), 891-7

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of age on pulmonary hemodynamics and hemorheological properties in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 14 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES: Dogs were placed in 2 age groups as follows ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of age on pulmonary hemodynamics and hemorheological properties in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 14 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES: Dogs were placed in 2 age groups as follows: young dogs (<or= 5 years old; n = 8) and old dogs (>or= 8 years old; 6). Hematologic characteristics, plasma total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, and blood viscosity were measured. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow were recorded by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Early (E') and late (A') diastolic myocardial velocities, isovolumic contraction velocity, and systolic myocardial velocity of the free tricuspid annulus were recorded by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Dogs were anesthetized and pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) and cardiac output were recorded with a pediatric thermodilution Swan-Ganz catheter. RESULTS: Hemorheological measurements were not different between the 2 groups. Systolic, mean, and diastolic PAP were higher in old dogs, compared with values in young dogs; this difference was attributed to a high pulmonary vascular resistance and low arterial compliance in old dogs. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow stayed unchanged. The A' wave of the free tricuspid annulus was increased in old, compared with that young dogs, and the E':A' ratio was decreased. Pulmonary vascular resistance was inversely correlated with compliance. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The age of dogs should be taken into account when interpreting pulmonary hemodynamic results and TDI variables of right ventricular diastolic function. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine neutrophil elastase measurement in blood: Preliminary application to colic cases.
de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Salciccia, Alexandra ULg et al

in Veterinary immunology and immunopathology (2010)

Equine neutrophil elastase (NE) is a protease released in inflammatory diseases and participating in tissue destruction. To measure NE in horse plasma to assess its role in pathological conditions, we ... [more ▼]

Equine neutrophil elastase (NE) is a protease released in inflammatory diseases and participating in tissue destruction. To measure NE in horse plasma to assess its role in pathological conditions, we purified elastase from equine neutrophils by a double step chromatography and obtained a pure protein of 27kDa, 4kDa smaller than the NE 2A previously purified (Scudamore et al., 1993; Dagleish et al., 1999), which was likely to be NE 2B. We developed an ELISA by using two specific polyclonal antibodies obtained from rabbit and guinea pig. The sandwich complex was detected using a secondary antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. The ELISA showed good precision and accuracy, with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation below 10% for equine NE concentrations ranging from 1.875 to 60ng/ml. A stable plasma NE value, unaffected by the delay of centrifugation (over 4h), was obtained with plasma from EDTA anticoagulated blood. The mean value (+/-SEM) measured in 37 healthy horses was 32.53+/-4.6ng/ml. NE level in plasma of horses with colic at the time of admission was significantly higher than in healthy horses. Our results indicate that the ELISA technique we developed to measure plasmatic NE is a powerful tool for studying the role of elastase in equine inflammatory disease. In future, the application will be extended to other equine biological fluids. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the Repeatability of Echocardiographic Measurements from Different Modes and Views in Horses of Various Breeds and Sizes
Al Haidar, Ali; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Deleuze, Stefan ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2010), 30(6), 287-297

The objective of this study was to compare the repeatability of echocardiographic measurements obtained from different echocardiographic modes and views in healthy adult equids of various sizes, breeds ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to compare the repeatability of echocardiographic measurements obtained from different echocardiographic modes and views in healthy adult equids of various sizes, breeds and thorax shapes. Ten, free of cardiac disease, equids (body weight: 120 to 662 kg; age: 1 to 26 years) from various breeds were used in this study. Each animal was submitted to a standardized echocardiographic and Doppler protocol 3 times at 1 day interval. This protocol included the measurements of left and right ventricular, aortic, pulmonary, and left atrial parameters obtained from different views using the bidimensional (2D) or the motion (M) modes, and the measurement of several parameters of blood flow obtained from the pulsed wave Doppler mode. Repeatability of each measurement was estimated on the basis of the residual variance using a linear model and the coefficient of variation of repeated measurements. A two by two comparison of the repeatability of measurements performed in different views was performed using the residual variances in a variance ratio F test. Results showed that repeatability of echocardiographic or Doppler measurements in equids of various sizes, breeds and thorax shapes are comparable to previously reported results in thoroughbred and standardbred horses. Left ventricular morphologic parameters showed a good repeatability in the classic M-mode right parasternal short axis (Sax) view at the level of the chordae tendinae, but the 2D-mode right parasternal long axis (LAx) four- chambers view appeared to offer an interesting alternative to measure them. This latter view also allowed obtaining the mostre repeatable measurement of right ventricular internal diameter. The left atrial diameter was maximal and most repeatable in the 2D-mode left parasternal long axisLAx four- chambers angled view, and the repeatability of the aortic diameter was best in the 2D-mode right parasternal long axisLAx five-chambers view. Finally, aortic systolic time intervals were more repeatable when measured from the Doppler mode as compared to the M-mode. ThusIn conclusion, best repeatability of echocardiographic measurements in horses could be optimized following an echocardiographicthe following protocol in equids: 1-M-mode right parasternal short axis view at the level of chordae tendinae, to measure left ventricular morphologic parameters, and 2D-mode right parasternal long axis four-chamber as an alternative view. 2-2D-mode right parasternal long axis five-chambersre, to measure the aortic diameter. 3-2D-mode left parasternal long axis four-chambersre angled view, to measure the left atrial diameter. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiologie des équidés
Amory, Hélène ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg

Learning material (2010)

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See detailLa microbiopsie musculaire : un nouvel outil pour le suivi sportif et la détection précoce des dysfonctions musculaires
Votion, Dominique ULg; Fraipont, Audrey ULg; Robert, Céline et al

in 36ème Journée de la Recherche Equine (2010)

The objective of this study was to confirm the practical value of high-resolution respirometry (HRR) applied to biopsies to determine, in horses, the level of training, their athletic ability and for the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to confirm the practical value of high-resolution respirometry (HRR) applied to biopsies to determine, in horses, the level of training, their athletic ability and for the early detection of muscular dysfunction. Materials and methods – The muscle mitochondrial respiration was determined by HRR in 20 endurance horses and 10 trotters sampled at the triceps brachii at different stages of their training. Results – Training increases mitochondrial respiration, in addition, the best performers had the highest rate of respiration. A trotter had abnormally low levels of muscle mitochondrial respiration for its level of training. This horse has presented several episodes of rhabdomyolysis during its racing season. Discussion – The biopsy is easily achievable by the attending veterinarian. This study shows that the athletic ability of horses is closely linked to respiratory muscle function, and suggests the value of HRR for performance prediction. In addition, the RHR has the ability to demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction potentially responsible for exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean outbreak of atypical myopathy in the autumn 2009.
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Busschers, Evita et al

in Journal of Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care (2010)

Background: Atypical myopathy (AM) is an acute, severe rhabdomyolysis occurring in grazing horses. Since In the beginning of October 2009, a new outbreak affects started in several European countries ... [more ▼]

Background: Atypical myopathy (AM) is an acute, severe rhabdomyolysis occurring in grazing horses. Since In the beginning of October 2009, a new outbreak affects started in several European countries. Geographic, demographic and clinical data of the reported cases in the month October 2009 are described. Key Findings: The survival rate over the month October 2009 was 25%. The most frequently observed clinical signs were congestedive mucous membranes, dyspnea, tachycardia, depression, weakness, stiffness, recumbency, trembling, transpirationsweating, and myoglobinuria. Non-survivors were significantly more often likely to be recumbent than survivors. Prognostic factors, symptomatic treatment and preventive measures are discussed. Significance: Slight differences were encountered during the described outbreak of AM in October 2009 compared to previous studies. Equine practitioners should be alert aware that previous epidemiological studies have shown that after a high prevalence this autumn, for new cases are likely to occur in the upcoming spring 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of intensive exercise on plasmatic neutrophil elastase level in eventing and endurance horses
Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Votion, Dominique ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2010), 48

Reasons for performing the study – Intensive exercise induces a systemic inflammatory response characterized by an increase of blood neutrophil count and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release. Neutrophil elastase ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing the study – Intensive exercise induces a systemic inflammatory response characterized by an increase of blood neutrophil count and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release. Neutrophil elastase (NE) could also contribute to tissues lesions by their proteinase activities. Objective – To compare plasmatic NE concentrations before and after different forms of intensive exercise. Materials and Methods – EDTA blood samples were taken from 51 eventing horses (EvH) and 32 endurance horses (EndH) were sampled before the race (T0). Blood sampling was performed 2 h (T1) after completing either phase D of a one or two star eventing competition (n=51) or a 120 or 160 km endurance race (n=32). Plasmatic NE and MPO were measured by a specific equine ELISA. Neutrophil counts and creatine kinase (CK) levels were also measured. A Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used to compare mean values of neutrophils, CK, MPO and NE at T0 and T1 in EvH and in EndH. Correlations were calculated between all the 4 parameters in EvH and EndH. Results – At T0, mean NE levels were 14.43 ± 3.63 ng/ml for EvH and 11.7 ± 2.11 ng/ml for EndH. The competition induced a significant increase of NE levels in (58.57 ± 24.06 ng/mL) EvH and (95.74 ± 22.70 ng/mL) EndH (p < 0,05). NE was significantly (p < 0,0001) correlated to MPO in EvH (r = 0.293) and EndH (0.594) and to CK (r = 0.297) in EndH (p<0.0001). Neutrophils, CK and MPO were significantly increased between T0 and T1 in both types of horses. Conclusions – Significant increase of NE was observed after intense exercise with a significant correlation between NE and MPO. The huge variability in MPO and ELT, indicates, that not all horses show the same intensity of systemic inflammatory response. [less ▲]

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See detailA case of a periarticular abscess and suppurative arthritis of the atlanto-occipital joint
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Education (2009), 21(7), 340-343

This case report describes a periarticular abscess and a suppurative arthritis of the atlanto-occipital joint in an adult horse. The horse showed a painful swelling localized on the atlanto-occipital ... [more ▼]

This case report describes a periarticular abscess and a suppurative arthritis of the atlanto-occipital joint in an adult horse. The horse showed a painful swelling localized on the atlanto-occipital region and ataxia in all four limbs. During his hospitalization the horse developed recumbency, dysphagia, facial paralysis and seizures. With the use of ultrasonography of the atlanto-occipital region a tentative diagnosis was made which was later confirmed by autopsy. Culture of the abscess revealed a Staphylococcus aureus. However, the horse had a history of recurrent fever, hypertrophy and abcessation of the submandibular lymph nodes, neck pain and dyspnoea for 2 months, suggestive for strangles. [less ▲]

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See detailA case of persistent hyperammonemia possibly due to a urea cycle enzyme deficiency
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 10th Annual Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA) (2009)

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See detailA comparison between pulse contour analysis and Doppler echocardiographic measurements of cardiac output in awake horses
Guidi, E; Amory, Hélène ULg; Borde, Laura ULg et al

in In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Congress of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine (ECEIM) (2009)

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