References of "Salmon, Eric"
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See detailAnosognosia in very mild Alzheimer's disease but not in mild cognitive impairment
Kalbe, E.; Salmon, Eric ULg; Perani, D. et al

in Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders (2005), 19(5-6), 349-356

Objective: To study awareness of cognitive dysfunction in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A complaint interview covering 13 ... [more ▼]

Objective: To study awareness of cognitive dysfunction in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A complaint interview covering 13 cognitive domains was administered to 82 AD and 79 MCI patients and their caregivers. The patient groups were comparable according to age and education, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were ≥ 24 in all cases. The discrepancy between the patients' and caregivers' estimations of impairments was taken as a measure of anosognosia. Results: Self-reports of cognitive difficulties were comparable for AD and MCI patients. However, while in comparison to caregivers MCI patients reported significantly more cognitive impairment (p < 0.05), AD patients complained significantly less cognitive dysfunctions (p < 0.001). Conclusions: While most MCI patients tend to overestimate cognitive deficits when compared to their caregiver's assessment, AD patients in early stages of disease underestimate cognitive dysfunctions. Anosognosia can thus be regarded as a characteristic symptom at a stage of very mild AD (MMSE ≥ 24) but not MCI. Accordingly, medical history even in mildly affected patients should always include information from both patient and caregiver. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailMCI conversion to dementia and the APOE genotype : A prediction study with FDG-PET
Mosconi, L.; Perani, D.; Sorbi, S. et al

in Neurology (2004), 63(12), 2332-2340

Objectives: To investigate whether the combination of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET measures with the APOE genotype would improve prediction of the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To investigate whether the combination of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET measures with the APOE genotype would improve prediction of the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease ( AD). Method: After 1 year, 8 of 37 patients with MCI converted to AD (22%). Differences in baseline regional glucose metabolic rate (rCMRglc) across groups were assessed on a voxel-based basis using a two-factor analysis of variance with outcome (converters [n = 8] vs nonconverters [n = 29]) and APOE genotype (E4 carriers [E4+] [n = 16] vs noncarriers [E4-] [n = 21]) as grouping factors. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Results: All converters showed reduced rCMRglc in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) as compared with the nonconverters. Hypometabolism in AD-typical regions, that is, temporoparietal and posterior cingulate cortex, was found for the E4+ as compared with the E4- patients, with the E4+/converters (n = 5) having additional rCMRglc reductions within frontal areas, such as the anterior cingulate (ACC) and inferior frontal (IFC) cortex. For the whole MCI sample, IPC rCMRglc predicted conversion to AD with 84% overall diagnostic accuracy (p = 0.003). Moreover, ACC and IFC rCMRglc improved prediction for the E4+ group, yielding 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 94% accuracy (p < 0.0005), thus leading to an excellent discrimination. Conclusion: Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET measures may improve prediction of the conversion to Alzheimer disease, especially in combination with the APOE genotype. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging a cognitive model of apraxia: The neural substrate of gesture-specific cognitive processes
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2004), 21(3), 119-142

The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology Press]. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in healthy volunteers using (H2O)-O-15 PET during performance of four tasks commonly used for testing upper limb apraxia, i.e., pantomime of familiar gestures on verbal command, imitation of familiar gestures, imitation of novel gestures, and an action-semantic task that consisted in matching objects for functional use. We also re-analysed data from a previous PET study in which we investigated the neural basis. of the visual analysis of gestures. First; we found that two sets of discrete brain areas are predominantly engaged in the imitation of familiar and novel gestures, respectively. Segregated brain activation for novel gesture mutation concur with neuropsychological reports to support the hypothesis that knowledge about the organization of the human body mediates the transition from visual perception to motor execution when imitating novel gestures [Goldenberg Neuropsychologia 1995;35.63-72]. Second, conjunction analyses revealed distinctive neural bases for most of the gesture-specific cognitive processes proposed in this cognitive model of upper limb apraxia. However, a functional analysis of brain imaging data suggested that one single memory store may be used for "to be-perceived" and "to-be-produced" gestural representations, departing from Rothi et al.'s proposal. Based on the above considerations, we suggest and discuss a revised model for upper limb apraxia that might best account for both brain imaging findings and neuropsychological dissociations reported in the apraxia literature. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessus inhibiteurs dans la maladie d’Alzheimer et la démence fronto-temporale
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Amieva, Hélène; Hogge, Michaël et al

Poster (2003, December 03)

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See detailDoes sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2003), 26(6), 746-747

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of ... [more ▼]

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration des processus intentionnels et automatiques d’inhibition dans la maladie d’Alzheimer
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Scherrer, Christine; Adam, Stéphane ULg et al

in Revue Neurologique (2003, October 09), 159

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See detailNeuroimaging tools to rate regional atrophy, subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism: consensus paper of the EADC
Frisoni, G. B.; Scheltens, P. H.; Galluzzi, S. et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2003), 74(10), 1371-1381

Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive impairment, and the subtle brain changes mean that neuroimaging techniques are of potentially great incremental diagnostic value. A number of methods, ranging from very simple subjective visual ratings to highly sophisticated computerised tools, have been developed, which allow rating of structural and functional brain changes. The choice of the method is not obvious, and current guidelines provide no indications on which tools should be preferred. In this paper, we give indications for tools with demonstrated accuracy for detecting regional atrophy, cerebrovascular disease, and regional brain function, and discuss these according to increasing technological complexity, ranging from those with high feasibility that can be used at the patient's bedside to highly technological ones that require trained personnel and specific hardware and software. [less ▲]

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See detailPredominant ventromedial frontopolar metabolic impairment in frontotemporal dementia
Salmon, Eric ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Delbeuck, Xavier et al

in NeuroImage (2003), 20(1), 435-440

In a multicenter study, FDG-PET images in a population of 29 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were compared to controls with similar age from each center. A conjunction analysis led to ... [more ▼]

In a multicenter study, FDG-PET images in a population of 29 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were compared to controls with similar age from each center. A conjunction analysis led to identification of the ventromedial frontopolar cortex as the single region affected in each and every FTD patients. This precise regional metabolic impairment should be integrated with recent neuropsychological researches, such as those showing that the ventromedial frontal cortex is critically involved in decision-making processes based on personal experience, feelings of rightness or social knowledge, processes that are characteristically impaired in FTD. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural correlates of "hot" and "cold" emotional processing : a multilevel approach to the functional anatomy of emotion
Schaefer, Alexandre; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Neuroimage (2003), 18(4), 938-949

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional ... [more ▼]

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional mental imagery task while mentally repeating sentences linked to the meaning of the imagery script. In the schematic conditions, participants repeated metaphoric sentences, whereas in the propositional conditions, the sentences were explicit questions about specific emotional appraisals of the imagery scenario. Five types of emotional scripts were proposed to the subjects (happiness, anger, affection, sadness, and a neutral scenario). The results supported the hypothesized distinction between schematic and propositional emotional processing modes. Specifically, schematic mode was associated with increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex whereas propositional mode was associated with activation of the anterolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, interaction analyses showed that schematic versus propositional processing of happiness (compared with the neutral scenario) was associated with increased activity in the ventral striatum whereas "schematic anger" was tentatively associated with activation of the ventral pallidum. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Alzheimer's disease on the recognition of novel versus familiar words : Neuropsychological and clinico-metabolic data
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Neuropsychology (2003), 17(1), 143-154

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995 ... [more ▼]

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995) procedure. Results showed that both groups exhibited more hits and more false alarms for familiar than for novel words. The groups did not differ in the recognition of familiar words, reflecting preserved familiarity processes in AD. However, AD patients made more false alarms than NCs in the recognition of novel words, reflecting impairment of recollection processes in AD. A positron emission tomography analysis of clinico-metabolic correlations in AD patients showed a correlation between recognition of novel words and right hippocampal activity, whereas recognition of familiar words was more related to metabolic activity in the left posterior orbitofrontal cortex. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain correlates of performance in a free/cued recall task with semantic encoding in Alzheimer disease
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Chicherio, C. et al

in Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders (2003), 17(1), 35-45

The goal of this study was to explore in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) the brain correlates of free and cued recall performance using an adaptation of the procedure developed by Grober and ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study was to explore in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) the brain correlates of free and cued recall performance using an adaptation of the procedure developed by Grober and Buschke (1987). This procedure, which ensures semantic processing and coordinates encoding and retrieval, has been shown to be very sensitive to an early diagnosis of AD. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) was used to establish clinicometabolic correlations between performance at free and cued verbal recall and resting brain metabolism in 31 patients with AD. Results showed that patient's score on free recall correlated with metabolic activity in right frontal regions (BA 10 and BA 45), suggesting that performance reflected a strategic retrieval attempt. Poor retrieval performance was tentatively attributed to a loss of functional correlation between frontal and medial temporal regions in patients with AD compared with elderly controls. Performance on cued recall was correlated to residual metabolic activity in bilateral parahippocampal regions (BA 36), suggesting that performance reflected retrieval of semantic associations, without recollection in AD. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the diagnostic sensitivity for Alzheimer's disease of the cued recall performance in the Grober and Buschke procedure (1987) depends on the activity of parahippocampal regions, one of the earliest targets of the disease. Moreover, the results suggest that the poor performance of patients with AD during free and cued recall is related to a decreased connectivity between parahippocampal regions and frontal areas. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of auditory processing
Laureys, Steven ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Goldman, Serge et al

in Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica Belgica (2003), 57(4), 267-273

There is a complex functional organization of the central auditory system from the brainstem to primary and associative auditory cortices. Functional neuroimaging has been used to visualize and confirm ... [more ▼]

There is a complex functional organization of the central auditory system from the brainstem to primary and associative auditory cortices. Functional neuroimaging has been used to visualize and confirm the spatial distribution of brain activation in temporal areas for the processing of simple acoustic stimuli. Brain activity is much more complex for words, and different networks can be recruited when phonological, lexical and semantic levels of processing are engaged. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural substrates of the central executive: Exploration of the updating and shifting processes
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Delchambre, Marie et al

Conference (2002, December)

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See detailExploring the effect of action familiarity on SPTs recall performance in Alzheimer's disease
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology (2002), 24(8), 1057-1069

This study examined the performance of normal controls (NC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on free recall, semantic cued recall and object cued recall of both subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and ... [more ▼]

This study examined the performance of normal controls (NC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on free recall, semantic cued recall and object cued recall of both subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and verbal descriptions of actions, by controlling familiarity of actions associated to objects. The results showed that both groups performed better after SPT encoding than after verbal encoding. in all three types of recall. In addition, this SPT advantage was greater for AD patients than for NC in the object cued recall test, emphasizing AD patients' sensibility to the congruence of cues between encoding and retrieval conditions. Following verbal encoding. NC showed a better recall for less familiar actions than for highly familiar actions, whereas AD patients exhibited the opposite pattern. These results reflect that AD patients did not benefit from a distinctiveness effect at encoding for improving subsequent retrieval of verbal information, probably due to a reduced level of elaboration during encoding. However, there was no effect of action familiarity on recall performance by both groups following SPT encoding. These results suggest that memory for verbal actions and SPTs is governed by different principles. In addition. they demonstrate the robustness of the SPT effect in AD patients, who were able to improve memory performance in the SPT condition not only with highly familiar actions but also with less familiar actions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural substrates of the central executive: Exploration of the updating and shifting processes
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Delchambre, Marie et al

Conference (2002, September)

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See detailTraining early Alzheimer patients to use a mobile phone
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Wojtasik, Vinciane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(3), 114-121

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two ... [more ▼]

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (CI and ML) how to use their own mobile phone. Each training session was divided into two parts. In the first part, the spaced-retrieval technique was used to promote the consultation of a card pasted on the back of the phone. The card detailed each stage of phone utilization and which keys had to be pressed to call somebody. In the second part, the patients received repetitive exercises of calling based upon the errorless learning principle. At the end of three-months rehabilitation, the results showed different learning patterns for the patients. ML needed more spaced-retrieval sessions to spontaneously consult the card and to correctly use the phone, compared to CI However, by the repetition of calling exercises, both patients showed a decrease of instruction card consultation, whereas they were still able to correctly call somebody. This learning ability is hypothesized to be a consequence of a relatively preserved procedural memory in both patients. In conclusion, this study highlights the effectiveness of combined specific learning techniques for improving AD patient's autonomy in daily life activities. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrimination between Alzheimer dementia and controls by automated analysis of multicenter FDG PET
Herholz, K.; Salmon, Eric ULg; Perani, D. et al

in Neuroimage (2002), 17(1), 302-316

A new diagnostic indicator of FDG PET scan abnormality, based on age-adjusted t statistics and an automated voxel-based procedure, is presented and validated in a large data set comprising 110 normal ... [more ▼]

A new diagnostic indicator of FDG PET scan abnormality, based on age-adjusted t statistics and an automated voxel-based procedure, is presented and validated in a large data set comprising 110 normal controls and 395 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) that were studied in eight participating centers. The effect of differences in spatial resolution of PET scanners was minimized effectively by filtering and masking. In controls FDG uptake declined significantly with age in anterior cingulate and frontolateral perisylvian cortex. In patients with probable AD decline of FDG uptake in posterior cingulate, temporoparietal, and prefrontal association cortex was related to dementia severity. These effects were clearly distinct from age effects in controls, suggesting that the disease process of AD is not related to normal aging. Women with probable AD had significantly more frontal metabolic impairment than men. The new indicator of metabolic abnormality in AD-related regions provided 93% sensitivity and specificity for distinction of mild to moderate probable AD from normals, and 84% sensitivity at 93% specificity for detection of very mild probable AD (defined by Mini Mental Score 24 or better). All regions related to AD severity were already affected in very mild AD, suggesting that all vulnerable areas are affected to a similar degree already at disease onset. Ventromedial frontal cortex was also abnormal. In conclusion, automated analysis of multicenter FDG PET is feasible, provides insights into AD pathophysiology, and can be used potentially as a sensitive biomarker for early AD diagnosis. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

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