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See detailThe need for a consensus in the use of assessment tools for Alzheimer's disease: The Feasibility Study (assessment tools for dementia in Alzheimer Centres across Europe), a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium's (EADC) survey
Diaz, S. P. R.; Gregorio, P. G.; Casado, J. M. R. et al

in International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (2005), 20(8), 744-748

Aims To ensure that all Alzheimer centres across Europe are capable of using a similar method of data collection. Information about the patient assessment tools used by each participating centre was ... [more ▼]

Aims To ensure that all Alzheimer centres across Europe are capable of using a similar method of data collection. Information about the patient assessment tools used by each participating centre was obtained and normal clinical practice in each EADC centre was documented by collecting data from routine new patient consultation. Methods Twenty new consecutive patients with objective memory impairment were recruited in each Alzheimer centre over 6 months. Each patient consultation was carried out according to routine clinical practice. Patient data were recorded using the anonymous patient protocol (demographic, diagnosis, MMSE score, patient assessment scales, and most prominent behavioural problem). Information about neuropsychological assessment tools used in each centre was take to account to harmonise research practice for future multicentre collaboration. Results Seven hundred and four patients from 36 memory clinics in 13 countries across Europe participated in the study. [M:F ratio 0.67. Mean age 75.4 SD 9.3 (51-102) Mean MMSE 21 SD 6 (0-30)] Five hundred and fifty-five patients had a clinical diagnosis of dementia [Alzheimer's disease (68.5%), vascular dementia (10.3%), frontal lobe dementia (5.6%), Lewy body dementia (4.1%), mixed dementia (5.6%)]. Duration of symptoms: 0-6 months 6.5%; 6-12 months 16.1%; 1-2 years 30.5%; 2-5 years 46.9%. Assessment scales used: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 48.9%, Reisberg's Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) 38.6%, ADL/IADL (Lawton and Brody, 1969) 37.5%, Neuropsychological Inventory (NPI) 28.6%, Geriatric Depression Scale 22%, ADL (Katz et al., 1963) 19.2%, ADAS-Cog 14.9%, Cornell Scale for Depression 12.9%, Grober and Bushke Selective Reminding Test 11.5%, ADCS/ADL 7.7%. 64.8% of the patients experienced behavioural symptoms: apathy 13.6%; anxiety 12.8%; dysphoria 9.9%; irritability 7.8%; agitation 5.5%; hallucinations 3.6%; delusions 3.6%, sleep disorder 2.4%; desinhibition 2%. Conclusions The most common type of cognitive decline was Alzheimer's disease followed by mild cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. CDR, GDS Reisberg, and ADL/IADL were used widely (40-50%). The NPI, geriatric depression scale and ADL (Katz, 1963) were only used in 20% of the centres. We verified large differences in the tools use in the EADC centres to evaluate patients with dementia across Europe. There is a need for a consensus in the use of assessment tools for dementia in Alzheimer's centres in Europe. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the unity and diversity of the neural substrates of executive functioning
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2005), 25(4), 409-423

Previous studies exploring the neural substrates of executive functioning used task-specific analyses, which might not be the most appropriate approach due to the difficulty of precisely isolating ... [more ▼]

Previous studies exploring the neural substrates of executive functioning used task-specific analyses, which might not be the most appropriate approach due to the difficulty of precisely isolating executive functions. Consequently, the aim of this study was to use positron emission tomography (PET) to reexamine by conjunction and interaction paradigms the cerebral areas associated with three executive processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition). Three conjunction analyses allowed us to isolate the cerebral areas common to tasks selected to tap into the same executive process. A global conjunction analysis demonstrated that foci of activation common to all tasks were observed in the right intraparietal sulcus, the left superior parietal gyrus, and at a lower statistical threshold, the left lateral prefrontal cortex. These regions thus seem to play a general role in executive functioning. The right intraparietal sulcus seems to play a role in selective attention to relevant stimuli and in suppression of irrelevant information. The left superior parietal region is involved in amodal switching/integration processes. One hypothesis regarding the functional role of the lateral prefrontal cortex is that monitoring and temporal organization of cognitive processes are necessary to carry out ongoing tasks. Finally, interaction analyses showed that specific prefrontal cerebral areas were associated with each executive process. The results of this neuro-imaging study are in agreement with cognitive studies demonstrating that executive functioning is characterized by both unity and diversity of processes. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of both prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex in dual-task performance
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Olivier, L.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Cognitive Brain Research (2005), 24(2), 237-251

This PET study explored the neural substrate of both dual-task management and integration task using single tasks that are known not to evoke any prefrontal activation. The paradigm included two simple ... [more ▼]

This PET study explored the neural substrate of both dual-task management and integration task using single tasks that are known not to evoke any prefrontal activation. The paradigm included two simple (visual and auditory) discrimination tasks, a dual task and an integration task (requiring simultaneous visual and auditory discrimination), and baseline tasks (passive viewing and hearing). Data were analyzed using SPM99. As predicted, the comparison of each single task to the baseline task showed no activity in prefrontal areas. The comparison of the dual task to the single tasks demonstrated left-sided foci of activity in the frontal gyrus (BA 9/46, BA 10/47 and BA 6), inferior parietal gyrus (BA 40), and cerebellum. By reference to previous neuroimaging studies, BA 9/46 was associated with the coordinated manipulation of simultaneously presented information, BA 10/47 with selection processes, BA 6 with articulatory rehearsal, and BA 40 with attentional shifting. Globally similar regions were found for the integration task, except that the inferior parietal gyrus was not recruited. These results confirm the hypothesis that the left prefrontal cortex is implicated in dual-task performance. Moreover, the involvement of a parietal area in the dual task is in keeping with the hypothesis that a parieto-frontal network sustains executive functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther exploration of controlled and automatic memory processes in early Alzheimer's disease
Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Neuropsychology (2005), 19(4), 420-427

The authors' aim in this study was to explore automatic and controlled processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by using a variant of the word-stem completion task that applies the process-dissociation ... [more ▼]

The authors' aim in this study was to explore automatic and controlled processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by using a variant of the word-stem completion task that applies the process-dissociation procedure. Several methodological precautions were taken in order to limit problems observed in previous studies (e.g., poor task sensitivity, ceiling and/or floor effects, no control over comprehension of instructions). Our results (a) confirmed the marked deterioration in controlled processes and (b) showed that when psychometric constraints were limited, automatic memory processes were preserved in AD. These data are in line with those from more global studies in suggesting that AD is characterized by an early deterioration in controlled processes and an initial preservation of automatic processes. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-referential reflective activity and its relationship with rest : a PET study
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2005), 25(2), 616-624

This study used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify the brain substrate of self-referential reflective activity and to investigate its relationship with brain areas that are active during the ... [more ▼]

This study used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify the brain substrate of self-referential reflective activity and to investigate its relationship with brain areas that are active during the resting state. Thirteen healthy volunteers performed reflective tasks pertaining to three different matters (the self, another person, and social issues) while they were scanned. Rest scans were also acquired, in which subjects were asked to simply relax and not think in a systematic way. The mental activity experienced during each scan was assessed with rating scales. The results showed that, although self-referential thoughts were most frequent during the self-referential task, some self-referential reflective activity also occurred during rest. Compared to rest, performing the reflective tasks was associated with increased blood flow in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the left anterior middle temporal gyros, the temporal pole bilaterally, and the right cerebellum; there was a decrease of blood flow in right prefrontal regions,and in medial and right lateral parietal regions. In addition, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) (1) was more active during the self-referential reflective task than during the other two reflective tasks, (2) showed common activation during rest and the self-referential task, and (3) showed a correlation between cerebral metabolism and the amount of self-referential processing. It is suggested that the VMPFC is crucial for representing knowledge pertaining to the self and that this is an important function of the resting state. [less ▲]

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See detailCompensating strategies for impaired episodic memory and time orientation in a patient with Alzheimer's disease
Quittre, Anne ULg; Olivier, Catherine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(1), 30-38

A dedicated training program for teaching a patient with Alzheimer's disease to independently use an agenda is presented. This training capitalises on preserved cognitive abilities and incorporates ... [more ▼]

A dedicated training program for teaching a patient with Alzheimer's disease to independently use an agenda is presented. This training capitalises on preserved cognitive abilities and incorporates principles from learning theories. This case study reports the effective use of a memory book for daily life activities and of a digital clock for time reorientation. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of brain activity during phonological familiarization
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Brain & Language (2005), 92(3), 320-331

We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were ... [more ▼]

We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, in the bilateral temporal pole and middle temporal gyri. At the same time, interaction analysis showed that the magnitude of decrease of activity in bilateral posterior temporal lobe was significantly smaller for LF nonwords, relative to words and HF nonwords. Decrease of activity in this area also correlated with the size of behavioral familiarization effects for LF nonwords. The results show that the posterior superior temporal gyrus plays a fundamental role during phonological learning. Its relationship to sublexical and lexical phonological processing as well as to phonological short-term memory is discussed. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCerebral metabolic correlates of four dementia scales in Alzheimer's disease
Salmon, Eric ULg; Lespagnard, Solange ULg; Marique, Patricia et al

in Journal of Neurology (2005), 252(3), 283-290

Different scales can be used to evaluate dementia severity in Alzheimers disease (AD). They do assess different cognitive or functional abilities, but their global scores are frequently in mutual ... [more ▼]

Different scales can be used to evaluate dementia severity in Alzheimers disease (AD). They do assess different cognitive or functional abilities, but their global scores are frequently in mutual correlation. Functional imaging provides an objective method for the staging of dementia severity. Positron emission tomography was used to assess the relationship between brain metabolism and four dementia scales that reflect a patients global cognitive abilities (mini mental state), caregivers evaluation of cognitive impairment (newly designed scale), daily living functioning (instrumental activities of daily living) and global dementia (clinical dementia rating). We wondered whether different clinical dementia scales would be related to severity of metabolic impairment in the same brain regions, and might reflect impairment of common cognitive processes. 225 patients with probable AD were recruited in a prospective multicentre European study. All clinical scales were related to brain metabolism in associative temporal, parietal or frontal areas. A factorial analysis demonstrated that all scales could be classified in a single factor. That factor was highly correlated to decrease of cerebral activity in bilateral parietal and temporal cortices, precuneus, and left middle frontal gyrus. This finding suggests that global scores for all scales provided similar information on the neural substrate of dementia severity. Capitalizing on the neuroimaging literature, dementia severity reflected by reduced metabolism in posterior and frontal associative areas in AD might be related to a decrease of controlled processes. [less ▲]

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See detailMemory evaluation with a new cued recall test in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease
Ivanoiu, Adrian; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology (2005), 252(1), 47-55

Free delayed recall is considered the memory measure with the greatest sensitivity for the early diagnosis of dementia. However, its specificity for dementia could be lower, as deficits other than those ... [more ▼]

Free delayed recall is considered the memory measure with the greatest sensitivity for the early diagnosis of dementia. However, its specificity for dementia could be lower, as deficits other than those of pure memory might account for poor performance in this difficult and effortful task. Cued recall is supposed to allow a better distinction between poor memory due to concurrent factors and impairments related to the neurodegenerative process. The available cued recall tests suffer from a ceiling effect. This is a prospective, longitudinal study aiming to assess the utility of a new memory test based on cued recall that avoids the ceiling effect in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty-five patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 22 probable AD patients ( NINCDS-ADRDA) at a mild stage, 22 elderly patients with subjective memory complaints (SMC) and 38 normal age-matched controls took part in the study. The patients underwent a thorough cognitive evaluation and the recommended screening procedure for the diagnosis of dementia. All patients were re-examined 12 - 18 months later. A newly devised delayed cued recall test using semantic cues ( The RI48 Test) was compared with three established memory tests: the Ten Word-List Recall from CERAD, the "Doors" and the "Shapes" Tests from "The Doors and People Test Battery". Forty-four % of the MCI patients fulfilled criteria for probable AD at follow-up. The RI48 Test classified correctly 88% of the MCI and SMC participants and was the best predictor of the status of MCI and mild AD as well as the outcome of the MCI patients. Poor visual memory was the second best predictor of those MCI patients who evolved to AD. A cued recall test which avoids the ceiling effect is at least as good as the delayed free recall tests in the early detection of AD. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-of-day modulations of rCBF response in functional brain imaging studies: a meta-analysis
Schmidt, Christina; Dang Vu, Thanh; Orban, Pierre et al

in NeuroImage (2005), 26(Suppl. 1),

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See detailEXploration des processus inhibiteurs dans le vieillissement normal et la maladie d'Alzheimer
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Hogge, Michaël et al

in Revue Neurologique (2005), 161(12), 467

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See detailLe coenzyme Q10: biochimie, physiopathologie de sa carence et interet potentiel d'une augmentation de ses apports.
Malchair, P.; Van Overmeire, Lionel ULg; Boland, André ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(1), 45-51

After a brief reminding of the synthesis and function of coenzyme Q10, this article tries to summarise the current state of knowledge about the consequences of its deficiency and about the potential ... [more ▼]

After a brief reminding of the synthesis and function of coenzyme Q10, this article tries to summarise the current state of knowledge about the consequences of its deficiency and about the potential benefits of an increased intake of this coenzyme. We then describe the arguments in favour of such an increase in cardiac diseases and in Parkinson's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo Aspects of Impaired Consciousness in Alzheimer's Disease
Salmon, Eric ULg; Ruby, Perrine; Perani, Daniela et al

in Progress in Brain Research (2005), 150(Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology), 287-98

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative dementia characterized by different aspects of impaired consciousness. For example, there is a deficit of controlled processes that require conscious processing ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative dementia characterized by different aspects of impaired consciousness. For example, there is a deficit of controlled processes that require conscious processing of information. Such an impairment is indexed by decreased performances at controlled cognitive tasks, and it is related to reduced brain metabolic activity in a network of frontal, posterior associative, and limbic regions. Another aspect of impaired consciousness is that AD patients show variable levels of anosognosia concerning their cognitive deficits. A discrepancy score between patient's and caregiver's assessment of cognitive functions is one of the most frequently used measures of anosognosia. A high discrepancy score has been related to impaired activity in the superior frontal sulcus and the parietal cortex in AD. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits in AD could be partly explained by impaired metabolism in parts of networks subserving self-referential processes (e.g., the superior frontal sulcus) and perspective-taking (e.g., the temporoparietal junction). We hypothesize that these patients are impaired in the ability to see themselves with a third-person perspective (i.e., being able to see themselves as other people see them). [less ▲]

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See detailAnosognosia in very mild Alzheimer's disease but not in mild cognitive impairment
Kalbe, E.; Salmon, Eric ULg; Perani, D. et al

in Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders (2005), 19(5-6), 349-356

Objective: To study awareness of cognitive dysfunction in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A complaint interview covering 13 ... [more ▼]

Objective: To study awareness of cognitive dysfunction in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A complaint interview covering 13 cognitive domains was administered to 82 AD and 79 MCI patients and their caregivers. The patient groups were comparable according to age and education, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were ≥ 24 in all cases. The discrepancy between the patients' and caregivers' estimations of impairments was taken as a measure of anosognosia. Results: Self-reports of cognitive difficulties were comparable for AD and MCI patients. However, while in comparison to caregivers MCI patients reported significantly more cognitive impairment (p < 0.05), AD patients complained significantly less cognitive dysfunctions (p < 0.001). Conclusions: While most MCI patients tend to overestimate cognitive deficits when compared to their caregiver's assessment, AD patients in early stages of disease underestimate cognitive dysfunctions. Anosognosia can thus be regarded as a characteristic symptom at a stage of very mild AD (MMSE ≥ 24) but not MCI. Accordingly, medical history even in mildly affected patients should always include information from both patient and caregiver. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailMCI conversion to dementia and the APOE genotype : A prediction study with FDG-PET
Mosconi, L.; Perani, D.; Sorbi, S. et al

in Neurology (2004), 63(12), 2332-2340

Objectives: To investigate whether the combination of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET measures with the APOE genotype would improve prediction of the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To investigate whether the combination of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET measures with the APOE genotype would improve prediction of the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease ( AD). Method: After 1 year, 8 of 37 patients with MCI converted to AD (22%). Differences in baseline regional glucose metabolic rate (rCMRglc) across groups were assessed on a voxel-based basis using a two-factor analysis of variance with outcome (converters [n = 8] vs nonconverters [n = 29]) and APOE genotype (E4 carriers [E4+] [n = 16] vs noncarriers [E4-] [n = 21]) as grouping factors. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Results: All converters showed reduced rCMRglc in the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) as compared with the nonconverters. Hypometabolism in AD-typical regions, that is, temporoparietal and posterior cingulate cortex, was found for the E4+ as compared with the E4- patients, with the E4+/converters (n = 5) having additional rCMRglc reductions within frontal areas, such as the anterior cingulate (ACC) and inferior frontal (IFC) cortex. For the whole MCI sample, IPC rCMRglc predicted conversion to AD with 84% overall diagnostic accuracy (p = 0.003). Moreover, ACC and IFC rCMRglc improved prediction for the E4+ group, yielding 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 94% accuracy (p < 0.0005), thus leading to an excellent discrimination. Conclusion: Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET measures may improve prediction of the conversion to Alzheimer disease, especially in combination with the APOE genotype. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging a cognitive model of apraxia: The neural substrate of gesture-specific cognitive processes
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2004), 21(3), 119-142

The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology Press]. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in healthy volunteers using (H2O)-O-15 PET during performance of four tasks commonly used for testing upper limb apraxia, i.e., pantomime of familiar gestures on verbal command, imitation of familiar gestures, imitation of novel gestures, and an action-semantic task that consisted in matching objects for functional use. We also re-analysed data from a previous PET study in which we investigated the neural basis. of the visual analysis of gestures. First; we found that two sets of discrete brain areas are predominantly engaged in the imitation of familiar and novel gestures, respectively. Segregated brain activation for novel gesture mutation concur with neuropsychological reports to support the hypothesis that knowledge about the organization of the human body mediates the transition from visual perception to motor execution when imitating novel gestures [Goldenberg Neuropsychologia 1995;35.63-72]. Second, conjunction analyses revealed distinctive neural bases for most of the gesture-specific cognitive processes proposed in this cognitive model of upper limb apraxia. However, a functional analysis of brain imaging data suggested that one single memory store may be used for "to be-perceived" and "to-be-produced" gestural representations, departing from Rothi et al.'s proposal. Based on the above considerations, we suggest and discuss a revised model for upper limb apraxia that might best account for both brain imaging findings and neuropsychological dissociations reported in the apraxia literature. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessus inhibiteurs dans la maladie d’Alzheimer et la démence fronto-temporale
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Amieva, Hélène; Hogge, Michaël et al

Poster (2003, December 03)

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See detailDoes sustained ERP activity in posterior lexico-semantic processing areas during short-term memory tasks only reflect activated long-term memory?
Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2003), 26(6), 746-747

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of ... [more ▼]

We challenge Ruchkin et al.'s claim in reducing short-term memory (STM) to the active part of long-term memory (LTM), by showing that their data cannot rule out the possibility that activation of posterior brain regions could also reflect the contribution of a verbal STM buffer. [less ▲]

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