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See detailThe commonality of neural networks for verbal and visual short-term memory.
Majerus, Steve ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Martinez Perez, Trecy ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2010), 22(11), 2570-2593

Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared ... [more ▼]

Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared neural correlates supporting verbal and visual STM. We hypothesized that networks involved in attentional and executive processes, as well as networks involved in serial order processing, underlie STM for both verbal and visual list information, with neural specificity restricted to sensory areas involved in processing the specific items to be retained. Participants were presented sequences of nonwords or unfamiliar faces, and were instructed to maintain and recognize order or item information. For encoding and retrieval phases, null conjunction analysis revealed an identical fronto-parieto-cerebellar network comprising the left intraparietal sulcus, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the bilateral cerebellum, irrespective of information type and modality. A network centered around the right intraparietal sulcus supported STM for order information, in both verbal and visual modalities. Modality-specific effects were observed in left superior temporal and mid-fusiform areas associated with phonological and orthographic processing during the verbal STM tasks, and in right hippocampal and fusiform face processing areas during the visual STM tasks, wherein these modality effects were most pronounced when storing item information. The present results suggest that STM emerges from the deployment of modality-independent attentional and serial ordering processes toward sensory networks underlying the processing and storage of modality-specific item information. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural substrates of recollection and familiarity in Alzheimer’s disease
Genon, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (2010)

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See detailLes corrélats cérébraux de le recollection et de la familiarité dans la maladie d’Alzheimer
Genon, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Proceedings du XIeme colloque international sur le vieillissement cognitif (2010)

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See detailVerbal Learning in Alzheimer’s disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: neuroanatomic correlates of acquisition and consolidation performances
Genon, Sarah ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Moulin, Christopher et al

in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (2010)

The aim of this study was to examine correlations between impaired memory acquisition/consolidation and brain metabolism at rest in Alzheimer’s disease. 44 confirmed Alzheimer patients (AD), 16 patients ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to examine correlations between impaired memory acquisition/consolidation and brain metabolism at rest in Alzheimer’s disease. 44 confirmed Alzheimer patients (AD), 16 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD (MCI-C) (4-8 years of follow-up), 15 MCI patients who remained stable and 12 healthy elderly controls were administered the California Verbal Learning Task (CVLT) at entry. Acquisition and consolidation memory scores were calculated respectively as mean gained and total lost access across the 5 study-test trials (p = 0.05). Brain metabolism was measured by 18FDG-PET. Cognitive-metabolic correlations were performed with SPM8 (p<0.05 uncorrected). Mean gained access was significantly lower in the AD group than in the control and MCI-S group and was significantly lower in the MCI-C group than in the control group. Mean gained access was significantly correlated to metabolism in the left precentral gyrus and IPS fondus in the control group, in the left and right inferior parietal lobules in the MCI-S group and in the left hippocampus in the AD group. Total lost access was greater in AD patients compared to control participants. No significant correlation between total lost access and brain metabolism was found. The acquisition process is impaired in AD patients at a very early stage of the disease (MCI-C). This deficit is linked to metabolic changes in a frontoparieto-hippocampal learning network. In addition, consolidation process is specifically impaired in confirmed AD patients, while this deficit was not significantly correlated to brain metabolism in our participant groups. [less ▲]

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See detailRecollection and familiarity memory processes in probable Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study
Genon, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

Scientific conference (2010)

Cerebral activity associated with recollection and familiarity in 28 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 17 healthy controls was directly measured in an event-related fMRI experiment during ... [more ▼]

Cerebral activity associated with recollection and familiarity in 28 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 17 healthy controls was directly measured in an event-related fMRI experiment during performance of a recognition memory task with the process dissociation procedure. Brain regions associated to recollection were evidenced by contrasting activations for inclusion and exclusion conditions whereas brain regions related to familiarity were explored with the mean effect of the two conditions (at P < .05 corrected). Twelve patients had null recollection estimates (AD-), whereas 16 patients did experience some recollection although significantly less than controls (AD+). In AD+ and controls, recollection activated the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). In contrast, familiarity estimates were equivalent in the 3 groups and were associated with brain activations around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Thus, in AD, impaired recollection is related to damage of the PCC whereas preserved familiarity is supported by the IPS. [less ▲]

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See detailL’anosognosie dans la maladie d’Alzheimer est-elle observée pour les modifications de comportement et de personnalité?
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Jaspar, Mathieu ULg et al

in Proceedings du XIème Colloque International sur le Vieillissement Cognitif (2010)

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See detailMémoire prospective et métacognition dans le vieillissement normal
Bastin, Christine ULg; Smith, Sarah; D'Ydewalle, Géry et al

in Proceedings du XIème Colloque International sur le Vieillissement Cognitif (2010)

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See detailConscience du fonctionnement de la mémoire dans la maladie d’Alzheimer
Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg et al

in Proceedings du XIeme colloque international sur le vieillissement cognitif (2010)

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See detailAutomatic brain image reading for the differential diagnosis between atypical parkinsonian syndromes & Parkinson's disease
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg et al

in Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society (2010), 25(7), 379-379

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See detailNeural networks involved in self-judgement in young and elderly adults
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2010)

Recent studies have shown that both young and elderly subjects activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) when they make self-referential judgements. However, the VMPFC might interact with ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that both young and elderly subjects activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) when they make self-referential judgements. However, the VMPFC might interact with different brain regions during self-referencing in the two groups. In this study, based on data from Ruby et al (2009), we have explored this issue using psychophysiological interaction analyses. Young and elderly participants had to judge adjectives describing personality traits in reference to the self versus a close friend or relative (the other), taking either a first-person or a third-person perspective. The physiological factor was the VMPFC activity observed in all participants during self judgement, and the psychological factor was the self versus other referential process. The main effect of first-person perspective in both groups revealed that the VMPFC was coactivated with the left parahippocampal gyrus and the precuneus for self versus other judgments. The main effect of age showed a stronger correlation between activity in the VMPFC and the lingual gyrus in young compared to elderly subjects. Finally, in the interaction, the VMPFC was specifically co-activated with the orbitofrontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus when elderly subjects took a first-person perspective for self judgements. No significant result was observed for the interaction in young subjects. These findings show that, although the VMPFC is engaged by both young and older adults when making self-referential judgements, this brain structure interacts differently with other brain regions as a function of age and perspective. These differences might reflect a tendency by older people to engage in more emotional/social processing than younger adults when making self-referential judgements with a first-person perspective [less ▲]

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See detailTwo Italian Families with ITPR1 Gene Deletion Presenting a Broader Phenotype of SCA15
Di Gregorio E.; Orsi L; Godani M et al

in Cerebellum (2010)

Spinocerebellar ataxia type15 (SCA15) is a pure ataxia characterized by very slow progression. Only seven families have been identified worldwide, in which partial deletions and a missense mutation of the ... [more ▼]

Spinocerebellar ataxia type15 (SCA15) is a pure ataxia characterized by very slow progression. Only seven families have been identified worldwide, in which partial deletions and a missense mutation of the inositol triphosphate receptor type I gene (ITPR1) have been reported. We examined a four-generation Italian family segregating an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, in which linkage analysis was positive for the SCA15 locus. We performed a genomic real-time polymerase chain reaction to search for ITPR1 gene deletions in this family and in 60 SCA index cases negative for mutations in the SCA1-3, 6-8, 10, 12, and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy genes. The deleted segments were characterized using a custom array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. We have identified two families with an ITPR1 gene deletion: in one, the deletion involved ITPR1 only, while in the other both sulfatase-modifying factor 1 and ITPR1. Clinical data of ten patients and brain MRI (available for six) showed that the phenotype substantially overlapped known SCA15 cases, but we also noted buccolingual dyskinesias, facial myokymias, and pyramidal signs never reported in SCA15. ITPR1 expression analysis of two deleted cases showed a half dose. Our results further support ITPR1 gene as causative of SCA15. The families reported show that SCA15 is present in Italy and has a greater variability in the age at onset and clinical features than previously reported. We propose that the search for ITPR1 deletions is mandatory in the clinical hypothesis of SCA15 and that ITPR1-reduced expression in blood may be a useful marker to identify SCA15 patients harboring genomic deletions and possibly point mutations causing reduction of mRNA level. [less ▲]

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See detail18F-flutemetamol amyloid imaging in Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment: a phase 2 trial.
Vandenberghe, R.; Van Laere, K.; Ivanoiu, A. et al

in Annals of Neurology (2010), 68(3), 319-329

Objective: The most widely studied positron emission tomography ligand for in vivo -amyloid imaging is 11CPittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB). Its availability, however, is limited by the need for an on-site ... [more ▼]

Objective: The most widely studied positron emission tomography ligand for in vivo -amyloid imaging is 11CPittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB). Its availability, however, is limited by the need for an on-site cyclotron. Validation of the 18F-labeled PIB derivative 18F-flutemetamol could significantly enhance access to this novel technology. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with early-stage clinically probable Alzheimer disease (AD), 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 15 cognitively intact healthy volunteers (HVs) above and 10 HVs below 55 years of age participated. The primary endpoint was the efficacy of blinded visual assessments of 18F-flutemetamol scans in assigning subjects to a raised versus normal uptake category, with clinical diagnosis as the standard of truth (SOT). As secondary objectives, we determined the correlation between the regional standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) for 18F-flutemetamol and its parent molecule 11C-PIB in 20 of the AD subjects and 20 of the MCI patients. We also determined test-retest variability of 18F-flutemetamol SUVRs in 5 of the AD subjects. Results: Blinded visual assessments of 18F-flutemetamol scans assigned 25 of 27 scans from AD subjects and 1 of 15 scans from the elderly HVs to the raised category, corresponding to a sensitivity of 93.1% and a specificity of 93.3% against the SOT. Correlation coefficients between cortical 18F-flutemetamol SUVRs and 11C-PIB SUVRs ranged from 0.89 to 0.92. Test-retest variabilities of regional SUVRs were 1 to 4%. Interpretation: 18F-Flutemetamol performs similarly to the 11C-PIB parent molecule within the same subjects and provides high test-retest replicability and potentially much wider accessibility for clinical and research use. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of medial prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices when thinking about past, present, and future selves.
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Social Neuroscience (2010), 5

Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that reflecting on representations of the present self versus temporally distant selves is associated with higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex ... [more ▼]

Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that reflecting on representations of the present self versus temporally distant selves is associated with higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). In the current fMRI study, we investigated whether this effect of temporal perspective is symmetrical between the past and future. The main results revealed that the MPFC showed higher activity when reflecting on the present self than when reflecting on past and future selves, with no difference between past and future selves. Temporal perspective also modulated activity in the right inferior parietal cortex but in the opposite direction, activity in this brain region being higher when reflecting on past and future selves relative to the present self (with again no difference between past and future selves). These findings show that differences in brain activity when thinking about current versus temporally distant selves are symmetrical between the past and the future. It is suggested that by processing degrees of self-relatedness, the MPFC might sustain the process of identifying oneself with current representations of the self, whereas the right inferior parietal cortex might be involved in distinguishing the present self from temporally distant selves. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural basis of personal goal processing when envisioning future events
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2010), 22

Abstract Episodic future thinking allows humans to mentally simulate virtually infinite future possibilities, yet this device is fundamentally goal-directed and should not be equated with fantasizing or ... [more ▼]

Abstract Episodic future thinking allows humans to mentally simulate virtually infinite future possibilities, yet this device is fundamentally goal-directed and should not be equated with fantasizing or wishful thinking. The purpose of this functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to investigate the neural basis of such goal-directed processing during future-event simulation. Participants were scanned while they imagined future events that were related to their personal goals (personal future events) and future events that were plausible but unrelated to their personal goals (nonpersonal future events). Results showed that imaging personal future events elicited stronger activation in ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) compared to imaging nonpersonal future events. Moreover, these brain activations overlapped with activations elicited by a second task that assessed semantic self-knowledge (i.e., making judgments on one's own personality traits), suggesting that ventral MPFC and PCC mediate self-referential processing across different functional domains. It is suggested that these brain regions may support a collection of processes that evaluate, code, and contextualize the relevance of mental representations with regard to personal goals. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the function instantiated by the default network of the brain are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMémoire épisodique et métamémoire dans la variante comportementale de la démence fronto-temporale
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

Conference (2009, September 28)

Impaired memory performance does not constitute the prominent deficit in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that some specific aspects of memory may be disrupted in FTD ... [more ▼]

Impaired memory performance does not constitute the prominent deficit in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that some specific aspects of memory may be disrupted in FTD patients, in particular, the ability to consciously recollect the context in which information has been learned (Simons et al., 2002). The aims of the current study was to investigate the states of awareness accompanying recognition memory by asking participants to make Remember/Know/Guess judgments. Concretely, 12 FDT patients and 12 matched healthy participants studied 20 word pairs. During cued recall, each trial consisted of one word from a pair and participants had to try to recall the associated word. Finally, a 5-alternative forced-choice recognition task was given and participants had to say whether they chose a word because they recollected the study context (Remember), they knew they saw the word, without recalling anything else (Know) or they guessed (Guess). Results from the cued recall and recognition parts indicated that FTD recalled less word pairs than the controls, but had similar levels of recognition performance. Nevertheless, FTD patients gave less Remember responses than the controls, and tended to give more Guess responses. To conclude, episodic memory performance in FTD was characterised by impaired self-initiated memory retrieval processes. Although global recognition memory performance was preserved, FTD patients’ memories lacked of autonoetic consciousness and were mainly based on familiarity judgments and guessing. This pattern of results is similar to that found in patients with focal frontal lobe lesions (e.g., Wheeler et al., 1995; Wheeler & Stuss, 2003) and is consistent with the idea that the memory dysfunctions observed in FTD may stem from damage to the prefrontal cortex. [less ▲]

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See detailRI48 in very early AD
Adam, Stéphane ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

Conference (2009, July 06)

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See detailIs there an interest to determine the gait’s profile of MCI subjects to predict the risk of Alzheimer disease?
Gillain, Sophie ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Wojtasik, Vinciane ULg et al

in Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging (The) (2009, June), 13(Supp 1),

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See detailInterest of Locometrix to assess gait’s profile in specific old populations
Gillain, Sophie ULg; Warzee, Emmanuelle ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging (The) (2009, June), 13(Supp 1),

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