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See detailPopulation-level retrospective study of neurologically expressed disorders in ruminants before the onset of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Belgium, a BSE risk III country.
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Berkvens, D.; Claes, L. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2005), 43(2), 862-9

A retrospective epidemiological study (n = 7,875) of neurologically expressed disorders (NED) in ruminants before the onset of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic (years studied, 1980 to 1997 ... [more ▼]

A retrospective epidemiological study (n = 7,875) of neurologically expressed disorders (NED) in ruminants before the onset of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic (years studied, 1980 to 1997) was carried out in Belgium. The archives of all veterinary laboratories and rabies and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) epidemiosurveillance networks were consulted. For all species, a significantly higher number of NED with virological causes (rabies) was reported south of the Sambre-Meuse Valley. During the period 1992 to 1997, for which the data were complete, (i) the predicted annual incidence of NED varied significantly as a function of species and area (higher numbers in areas where rabies was present) but was always above 100 cases per million, and (ii) the mean incidence of suspected TSE cases and, among them, those investigated by histopathological examination varied significantly as a function of species and area. The positive predictive value of a presumptive clinical diagnosis of NED ranged from 0.13 (game) to 0.63 (sheep). Knowledge of the positive predictive value permits the definition of a reference point before certain actions (e.g., awareness and training campaigns) are undertaken. It also shows the usefulness of a systematic necropsy or complementary laboratory tests to establish an etiological diagnosis. TSE analysis of a small, targeted historical sampling (n = 48) permitted the confirmation of one case and uncovered another case of scrapie. The results of the present study help to develop and maintain the quality of the worldwide clinical epidemiological networks for TSE, especially in countries that in the past imported live animals, animal products, and feedstuffs from countries with TSE cases. [less ▲]

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See detailSalmonella dans la viande et dans les oeufs : un danger pour le consommateur qui demande la mise en place d’un programme de lutte efficace
Van Immerseel, F.; De Buck, J.; Boyen, F. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(1), 34-48

L’émergence de Salmonella Enteritidis dans l’industrie avicole a eu lieu dans tous les pays occidentaux entre 1965 et 1980. Depuis lors, ce sérotype est devenu le plus commun chez la volaille. Comme il se ... [more ▼]

L’émergence de Salmonella Enteritidis dans l’industrie avicole a eu lieu dans tous les pays occidentaux entre 1965 et 1980. Depuis lors, ce sérotype est devenu le plus commun chez la volaille. Comme il se transmet verticalement dans les oeufs, il constitue la cause principale de la pandémie de salmonellose non-typhoïde qui est observée chez l’homme. En outre, la bactérie se transmet aussi horizontalement dans les exploitations de volaille. Une fois qu’un bâtiment a hébergé des poules contaminées, il est très difficile d’éliminer cette contamination par les mesures hygiéniques classiques. Le mécanisme de transmission dans les oeufs n’est toujours pas complètement élucidé, ce qui constitue un obstacle majeur pour le développement de nouvelles mesures de prévention et de traitement. Les produits et mesures actuellement disponibles pour lutter contre Salmonella chez la volaille ont été largement développés sur base de méthodes empiriques. Néanmoins, la situation actuelle impose de prendre des mesures. Au niveau européen, de nouvelles dispositions législatives prévoient une série de mesures visant à réduire les taux de contamination de Salmonella tout au long de la chaîne de production, de transformation et de distribution des oeufs et de la viande de volaille. Il est évident que les contaminations des oeufs et de la viande sont fortement influencées respectivement par les conditions hygiéniques de l’abattage et par la réfrigération des oeufs. Au niveau belge, l’Agence fédérale pour la Sécurité de la chaîne alimentaire (AFSCA) va mettre en place un nouveau programme de lutte dans le secteur avicole. Cet article passe en revue les aspects les plus importants de l’épidémiologie, de la pathogenèse et décrit les mesures de prévention et de lutte qui sont disponibles à l’heure actuelle. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine (ESB) : un indicateur utile du stade de la courbe épidémique d’un pays
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Speybroeck, N.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2005), 47

En Belgique, 118 cas d’ESB ont été recensés avant le 1erjanvier 2004. L’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’ESB a été analysée. Ce paramètre a été utilisé entant qu’outil ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, 118 cas d’ESB ont été recensés avant le 1erjanvier 2004. L’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’ESB a été analysée. Ce paramètre a été utilisé entant qu’outil de prédiction du stade épidémique de l’ESB dans un pays. Les variables indicatricessuivantes ont été considérées : la date de naissance, la race, la date de détection, le mode dedétection, le nombre mensuel et l’âge des bovins abattus et destinés au clos d’équarrissage. L’évolution de l’âge des bovins au moment de la détection en fonction de la date de naissance deceux-ci est un très pauvre indicateur épidémiologique. L’augmentation de l’âge moyen lors de ladétection des bovins atteints d’ESB est due à la diminution du nombre de cas d’ESB qui sont plus âgés. Il s’agit d’un indicateur épidémiologique qui signe le début du déclin de la courbe épidémique enBelgique. A l’aide de simulations réalisées sur des jeux de données fictives puis sur un jeu dedonnées réelles issu de la Grande-Bretagne, une relation entre l’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’ESB et le stade de la courbe épidémique a été mise en évidence.L’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection peut être utilisée dans des situations où le nombreabsolu de cas d’ESB ne peut pas être déterminé avec exactitude ; c’est ce qui constitue l’originalité de cet indicateur épidémiologique. [less ▲]

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See detailSalmonella in pluimveevlees en eieren: een gevaar voor de consument die om efficiënte bestrijdingsprogramma's vraagt
Van Immerseel, F.; De Buck, J.; Boyen, F. et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2005), 74

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See detailTerminologie en matière d’analyse des dangers et des risques selon le codex alimentarius
Huyghebaert, A.; Debevere, J.; Saegerman, Claude ULg

Book published by Comité scientifique de l’Agence fédérale belge pour la Sécurité de la chaîne alimentaire - Agence fédérale belge pour la Sécurité de la chaîne alimentaire (2005)

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See detailEstimation de la prévalence réelle de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique en 2002 et 2003
Penders, Julie; Praet, Nicolas; Berckvens, D. et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2005), 47

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See detailHerd-level seroprevalence and risk-mapping of bovine hypodermosis in Belgian cattle herds
Haine, D.; Boelaert, F.; Pfeiffer, D. U. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2004), 65(1-2), 93-104

Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Hypoderma spp. and to develop a spatial model describing the risk surface of warble-fly infection in Belgian cattle herds (adjusting for herd size ... [more ▼]

Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Hypoderma spp. and to develop a spatial model describing the risk surface of warble-fly infection in Belgian cattle herds (adjusting for herd size, herd type, local temperature, rainfall, relative air humidity and land-cover). This survey was carried out in 390 selected herds of all types (dairy, mixed and beef) from December 1997 to March 1998, which were included in a national infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and paratuberculosis (Johne's-disease) survey. All animals >24 months old were blood sampled and an ELISA was used on pooled serum samples (10 animals per pool). The herd seroprevalence was 48.7% (95% confidence interval: 43.6-53.8); positive herds were mainly in the south of the country and along the North Sea coast. The logistic multiple-regression model of herd-level seropositivity indicated that mixed-type and beef-cattle herds have more than four-fold and two-fold increases in the odds of being Hypoderma-positive, respectively, compared with dairy herds. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent status of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in ruminants
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Xambeu, Laurence et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2004), 8

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See detailCaseuse lymfadenitis bij kleine herkauwers
Imberechts, H.; Decostere, A.; Dierickx, K. et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2004), 73

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See detailDecision support tools for clinical diagnosis of disease in cows with suspected bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Speybroeck, N.; Roels, S. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2004), 42(1), 172-8

Reporting of clinically suspected cattle is currently the most common method for detecting cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Improvement of clinical diagnosis and decision-making remains ... [more ▼]

Reporting of clinically suspected cattle is currently the most common method for detecting cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Improvement of clinical diagnosis and decision-making remains crucial. A comparison of clinical patterns, consisting of 25 signs, was made between all 30 BSE cases, confirmed in Belgium before October 2002, and 272 suspected cases that were subsequently determined to be histologically, immunohistochemically, and scrapie-associated-fiber negative. Seasonality in reporting suspected cases was observed, with more cases being reported during wintertime when animals were kept indoors. The median duration of illness was 30 days. The 10 most relevant signs of BSE were kicking in the milking parlor, hypersensitivity to touch and/or sound, head shyness, panic-stricken response, reluctance to enter in the milking parlor, abnormal ear movement or carriage, increased alertness behavior, reduced milk yield, teeth grinding, and temperament change. Ataxia did not appear to be a specific sign of BSE. A classification and regression tree was constructed by using the following four features: age of the animal, year of birth, number of relevant BSE signs noted, and number of clinical signs, typical for listeriosis, noted. The model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85%. This approach allows the use of an interactive decision-support tool, based entirely on odds ratios, a statistic independent of disease prevalence. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of three serum i-ELISA's using monoclonal antibodies and protein G as peroxidase conjugate for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis
Saegerman, Claude ULg; De Waele, L.; Gilson, D. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2004), 100

Three i-ELISAs using LPS, the immunodominant component of Brucella abortus, were developed with three different conjugates: monoclonal antibodies 1C8 (anti-bovine IgG(1)) and 3H3 (mainly specific for ... [more ▼]

Three i-ELISAs using LPS, the immunodominant component of Brucella abortus, were developed with three different conjugates: monoclonal antibodies 1C8 (anti-bovine IgG(1)) and 3H3 (mainly specific for bovine IgG(2) but also reacting with IgG(1)) and protein G (reacts with both bovine IgG subclasses). Using a cut-off value of 2.5U/ml, the i-ELISA with 3H3 as conjugate had a specificity (95% CI: 98.32-99.63%) that was significantly higher than the same assay with 1C8 (95% CI: 96.08-98.26%) or PG (95% CI: 95.83-98.09%). In areas where false positive serological reactions (FPSR) were common, the specificity of the i-ELISAs decreased significantly. The specificity of the i-ELISAs increased with the age of the animals tested, irrespective of the conjugate. The specificity of the i-ELISAs and traditional tests was also examined using sera from animals infected per os with bacteria bearing LPS similar to the Brucella LPS. It appeared that Yersinia enterocolitica O:9, Xanthomonas maltophilia and Salmonella urbana infections induced FPSR both in the i-ELISAs and in the traditional tests, but the 3H3 assay was significantly less prone to produce false positive reactions than the 1C8 and PG assays. The i-ELISAs were more sensitive, allowed earlier detection, and were more persistent than the traditional serological tests both in experimentally and naturally Brucella-infected animals. Weekly i-ELISA monitoring of experimentally infected pregnant heifers (previously vaccinated or not) allowed a prediction of abortion. Furthermore, the 1C8 assay showed significantly higher titres irrespective of day post-infection and vaccination status. The accuracy of the assay could be improved by making use of additional information (e.g. animal age or conjugate) and by selecting appropriate cut-off points on the basis of the prevailing epidemiological situation. The i-ELISAs appear an appropriate choice in order to maintain an official brucellosis-free status because of their sensitivity, early detection and long persistence and, for the same reasons, seem especially valuable for the detection of latent carriers (i.e. animals classified negative by classical serological tests) among imported [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance des événements rares chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg

Doctoral thesis (2004)

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See detailRisk evaluation of the transmission of the avian influenza virus to humans
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Meulemans, G.; Van Reeth, K. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 65-77

Since mid-december 2003, an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (type A, sub-type H5N1) occurs in eastern and south-eastern Asia. This epizootic is historically unprecedented in its virulence ... [more ▼]

Since mid-december 2003, an epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (type A, sub-type H5N1) occurs in eastern and south-eastern Asia. This epizootic is historically unprecedented in its virulence, geographical spread, and economic consequences for the agricultural sector. Implications for human health were registered in Vietnam and in Thailand. This paper summarizes the current knowledge about the risk evaluation of the transmission of avian influenza virus to humans. The current asian epizootic has highlighted the key role of global health information systems and also the need for exhaustive notification of human and animal cases. It reinforces the concept of veterinary public health. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential diagnosis of neurologically expressed disorders in Western European cattle
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, Albert et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 83-102

A classification of neurological or neurologically expressed disorders that occur in Western European cattle aged 12 month and over has been established on the basis of aetiology, frequency and conditions ... [more ▼]

A classification of neurological or neurologically expressed disorders that occur in Western European cattle aged 12 month and over has been established on the basis of aetiology, frequency and conditions of appearance, age and type of animals concerned and the main clinical signs observed. Neurologically expressed disorders have been classified according to different groups of causes: biological, non-biological and non-specific or unknown. Differential diagnosis of neurologically expressed disorders is an essential element in the clinical epidemiological surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A growing number of aetiologies are described in the scientific literature. The identification and centralised management of neurological disorders will make it possible, one the one hand, to take account of the inherent variability in the clinical forms encountered and in the diagnostic approaches of the observers and, on the other hand, to identify new risk factors in order to control them. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic différentiel des troubles à expression nerveuse dans l’espèce bovine en Europe occidentale
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, A. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 61-82

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See detailComments on Pouillot, R., Gerbier, G. & Gadner, I.A. “TAGS”, a program for the evaluation of test accuracy in the absence of a gold standard
Berkvens, D. L.; Speybroeck, N.; Lesaffre, E. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2003), 59

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See detailAmélioration de la détection d’une maladie émergente : exemple de l’ encépahlopathie spongiforme bovine
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Berkvens, D.; Speybroeck, N. et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2003), 44

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See detailMycobacterium bovis meningitis in a cow with clinical signs of BSE.
Roels, S.; Walravens, K.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2003), 152(26), 807-8

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See detailLa vaccination contre la fièvre aphteuse : perspectives
Thiry, Etienne ULg; De Clercq, K.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Bulletin des Groupements Techniques Vétérinaires (2002), 14

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See detailAdvantages and disadvantages of a control programme against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Belgium
Limbourg, B.; Kerkhofs, P.; Massard, C. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(2, APR-MAY), 57-69

A working party of the "Association d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Animale" assessed the strategy for a control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in Belgium and studied its feasability and the ... [more ▼]

A working party of the "Association d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Animale" assessed the strategy for a control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in Belgium and studied its feasability and the different programmes to be applied. Epidemiology of IBR in Belgium, vaccination, diagnostic methods, economic aspects of IBR control, Belgian laws regarding IBR and the motivation of people in the field were described. The advantages and disadvantages of three programmes were analysed: to maintain the current situation, to protect cattle against clinical disease and to control and eradicate IBR. [less ▲]

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