The intra-nasal administration of insulin induces significant hypoglycaemia and classical counterregulatory hormonal responses in normal man.
Paquot, Nicolas ; Scheen, André ; et al
in Diabète & Métabolisme (1988), 14(1), 31-6
The present study aimed at investigating the metabolic and hormonal consequences of intra-nasal administration of insulin in normal man. Lyophylisated regular porcine insulin (Insuline Ordinaire Organon ... [more ▼]
The present study aimed at investigating the metabolic and hormonal consequences of intra-nasal administration of insulin in normal man. Lyophylisated regular porcine insulin (Insuline Ordinaire Organon) diluted with a non ionic detergent (Laureth-9 0,25%) was administered intra-nasally in 8 overnight fasted healthy volunteers using a calibrated aerosol delivery device (90 microliters = 9 U of insulin/spray) up to a total insulin dose close to 1 U/kg body weight. After intra-nasal insulin administration, plasma insulin levels rose from 5 +/- 1 to 38 +/- 10 mU/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 15, blood glucose concentrations decreased from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 45, plasma C-peptide levels diminished from 327 +/- 31 to 174 +/- 28 mumol/l (2p less than 0.01) at min 60 and plasma free fatty acids concentrations fell from 336 +/- 109 to 130 +/- 31 mumol/l (2p less than 0.05) at min 30. The fall in blood glucose resulted in a prompt increase in plasma glucagon levels (from 78 +/- 28 to 150 +/- 24 ng/l at min 45; 2p less than 0.05) and in later rises in plasma growth hormone and cortisol concentrations. There was a close relationship between the individual maximal decreases in blood glucose levels and the individual maximal increases in plasma insulin (r = 0.81), glucagon (r = 0.88), cortisol (r = 0.87) and growth hormone (r = 0.76) concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Dose-response curve for torasemide in healthy volunteers.
in Arzneimittel Forschung (1988), 38(1A), 156-9
The safety and diuretic activity of torasemide (1-isopropyl-3- ([4-(3-methyl-phenylamino)pyridine]-3-sulfonyl)urea) were investigated in a phase I single-blind clinical study. After a pretreatment control ... [more ▼]
The safety and diuretic activity of torasemide (1-isopropyl-3- ([4-(3-methyl-phenylamino)pyridine]-3-sulfonyl)urea) were investigated in a phase I single-blind clinical study. After a pretreatment control day on placebo, a single dose of torasemide was administered orally according to an escalating dosage of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively, in 4 groups of 3 healthy young male volunteers, after an overnight fast and 1 h before breakfast. The peak stimulatory effect on urinary volume was observed within 1 to 2 h and was followed by a gradual decline at the 3rd or 4th h back to or even slightly below the corresponding control values. Thus, the duration of action averaged 3-4 h and only moderate rebound effects were detected. This time-related diuretic activity perfectly fitted with the pharmacokinetics data since torasemide plasma levels peaked at the 1st h after drug administration and thereafter rapidly fell to less than 10% of the maximal plasma concentrations after the 4th h. While 2.5 mg torasemide showed only minor diuretic action, urinary volume and urinary excretion of sodium, chloride and calcium increased linearly with the logarithm of the dose during the first 4 h as well as during the whole 24 h period with 5, 10 and 20 mg torasemide. Conversely, the urinary density and osmolality fell progressively as the dose of torasemide increased. There was a trend towards a moderate decrease in urinary excretion of uric acid which seemed independent of the dose given. Finally, only minimal potassium urinary losses were observed without clear tendency towards an increase with increasing drug doses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
Pulsatile insulin delivery is more efficient than continuous infusion in modulating islet cell function in normal subjects and patients with type 1 diabetes.
; ; et al
in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1988), 66(6), 1220-6
The respective modulating effects of continuous and intermittent insulin delivery on pancreatic islet cell function were studied in seven normal men and nine insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetic patients ... [more ▼]
The respective modulating effects of continuous and intermittent insulin delivery on pancreatic islet cell function were studied in seven normal men and nine insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetic patients. In the normal men, saline or continuous (0.8 mU kg-1 min-1) or pulsatile (5.2 mU kg-1 min-1, with a switching on/off length of 2/11 min) human insulin were delivered on different days and in random order. Despite hyperinsulinemia, blood glucose was kept close to its basal value by the glucose clamp technique. The diabetic patients also were infused in random order and on different days with either saline or a smaller amount of insulin delivered continuously (0.15 mU kg-1 min-1) or in a pulsatile manner (0.97 mU kg-1 min-1 for 2 min, followed by 11 min during which no insulin was infused). In all experiments, 5 g arginine were given iv as a bolus dose 30 min before the end of the study, and plasma C-peptide and glucagon levels were determined to assess islet cell function. In the normal men, insulin administration resulted in a significant decline of basal plasma glucagon and C-peptide levels and in a clear-cut decrease in the arginine-induced glucagon response. These effects of insulin were significantly more marked when insulin was delivered in a pulsatile rather than a continuous manner. In the insulin-dependent diabetic patients, the lower dose of insulin infused continuously did not alter the basal or arginine-stimulated glucagon response. In contrast, when the same amount of insulin was delivered intermittently, arginine-induced glucagon release was greatly reduced. Thus, these data support the concept that insulin per se is a potent physiological modulator of islet A- and B-cell function. Furthermore, they suggest that these effects of insulin are reinforced when the hormone is administered in an intermittent manner in an attempt to reproduce the pulsatile physiological release of insulin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Impaired insulin-induced erythrocyte magnesium accumulation is correlated to impaired insulin-mediated glucose disposal in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients.
; ; et al
in Diabetologia (1988), 31(12), 910-5
Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 12 healthy subjects and 12 moderately obese patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Basal ... [more ▼]
Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 12 healthy subjects and 12 moderately obese patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Basal plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in control subjects. In vitro incubation in the presence of 100 mU/l insulin significantly increased magnesium erythrocyte levels in both control subjects (p less than 0.001) and patients with diabetes (p less than 0.001). However, even in the presence of 100 mU/l insulin, the erythrocyte magnesium content of patients with Type 2 diabetes was lower than that of control subjects. The in vitro dose-response curve of the effect of insulin on magnesium erythrocyte accumulation was shifted to the right when red cells of diabetic patients were used, with a highly significant reduction of the maximal effect. Such reduction of the maximal effect of insulin suggests that the impairment of insulin-induced erythrocyte magnesium accumulation observed in Type 2 diabetic patients results essentially from a post-receptor defect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Insulin sensitivity in anorexia nervosa: a mirror image of obesity?
Scheen, André ; ; Lefebvre, Pierre
in Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews (1988), 4(7), 681-90
Although, in many respects and from a metabolic point of view, obesity and AN are clearly two opposite pathological conditions, the available data concerning insulin sensitivity in these two syndromes are ... [more ▼]
Although, in many respects and from a metabolic point of view, obesity and AN are clearly two opposite pathological conditions, the available data concerning insulin sensitivity in these two syndromes are not so obviously opposite. Indeed, whereas everybody is convinced that obesity is characterized by an increased insulin resistance, the papers reporting insulin sensitivity parameters in AN contain some apparently contradictory results. The observations of simultaneously low fasting blood glucose and plasma-insulin levels in anorectic patients could suggest increased insulin sensitivity in AN. However, if this is the case, it would be present despite other metabolic and hormonal changes (increased plasma concentrations of free fatty acids, cortisol, and growth hormone) which are known factors of insulin resistance. During an oral glucose-tolerance test, an impaired glucose-tolerance occurring despite sustained insulin response to glucose is usually found in anorectic patients before treatment; these abnormalities are, at least partially, reversed after successful refeeding. From these results, such conclusive, if indirect, evidence exists for relative insulin insensitivity in untreated AN. Similar results were initially reported with the intravenous glucose-tolerance test. Typically, the coefficient of glucose assimilation K was reduced in anorectic patients before treatment and increased after realimentation. This seemed to occur despite a relative increase in insulin response to glucose, which again may be related to insulin resistance in these undernourished subjects. However, more recent data demonstrated that the early insulin response is significantly lower in anorectic patients than in controls and that more than half of these patients have normal glucose-tolerance despite decreased peripheral plasma insulin levels. These latter observations, on the contrary, suggest an increased insulin sensitivity, at least in some patients with AN. Only the recently developed minimal model method allows us to discriminate between changes in insulin secretion and action after intravenous glucose injection and thus to infer accurately the sensitivity of the tissues to insulin. Unfortunately, this technique has not been applied to anorectic patients, until now, to solve the controversy. The simplest way to assess the action in vivo of insulin is to perform an intravenous insulin-tolerance test. However, the initial findings with this test, which showed exaggerated fall in plasma-glucose values and delayed return to basal levels after intravenous injection of insulin in AN, do not necessarily mean increased insulin sensitivity in these self-starved patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (1 ULg)
Adaptations au sport du diabetique traite par insuline.
Jandrain, Bernard ; Pirnay, Freddy ; Scheen, André et al
in Diabète & Métabolisme (1988), 14(2), 127-35
Performing muscular exercise regularly is generally recommended to diabetics; indeed, exercise increases muscle insulin sensitivity, helps fighting overweight and, at least partly, tends to correct plasma ... [more ▼]
Performing muscular exercise regularly is generally recommended to diabetics; indeed, exercise increases muscle insulin sensitivity, helps fighting overweight and, at least partly, tends to correct plasma lipids abnormalities, thus contributing to limit the development of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the practice of sport is beneficial from a psychological point of view, because, thanks to it, diabetic patients can match, even surpass, "the others" and overcome what they often consider as a disability. However, diabetes--especially type 1, insulin dependent, diabetes--deeply modifies the metabolic adaptations to muscular exercise; consequently, exercise must be performed only in good metabolic control conditions, for avoiding a worsening of ketonaemia. In adequately controlled diabetics, muscular exercise can be beneficial by reducing blood glucose levels; it can also lead to hypoglycaemia occurring during or after the exercise bout. In order to reduce the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycaemia, diabetics have to know how to modify three essential parameters of their treatment: (1) increase carbohydrate intake before, during or after exercise; (2) reduce the dose of the insulin acting during exercise, and this in relation to the usual doses and to exercise intensity; (3) under some circumstances, modify the site of insulin injection according to the type of exercise performed. Taking into account these parameters, some general rules can be assessed, which are to be adapted to every particular situation; the use of home blood glucose monitoring before and after exercise is not only useful but sometimes mandatory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 119 (8 ULg)
Prostaglandines, secretion d'insuline et diabete sucre.
; ; Scheen, André et al
in Diabète & Métabolisme (1988), 14(6), 721-7
The islets of Langerhans have the enzymatic equipment permitting the synthesis of the metabolites of arachidonic acid: cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. Numerous studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase ... [more ▼]
The islets of Langerhans have the enzymatic equipment permitting the synthesis of the metabolites of arachidonic acid: cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. Numerous studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly PGE2, reduce the insulin response to glucose whereas lipo-oxygenase derivatives, mainly 15-HPETE, stimulate insulin secretion. So, for instance, drugs that increase prostaglandins synthesis as colchicine or furosemide inhibit insulin secretion while non steroid anti-inflammator drugs, mainly salicylates, which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase, enhance the insulin response to various stimuli. In type-2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes, an increased sensitivity to endogenous prostaglandins has been proposed as a possible cause for the insulin secretion defect which characterizes this disease. Play in favor of this hypothesis the fact that the administration of PGE inhibits the insulin response to arginine in type-2 diabetics but not in normal subject and the fact that the administration of salicylates could improve the insulin response to glucose in some of these patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (0 ULg)
Metabolic and hormonal effects of intra-nasal administation of insulin in normal man
PAQUOT, Nicolas ; SCHEEN, André ; et al
Poster (1987, November 20)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Changes in plasma and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations during protein- sparing modified fast (PSMF) in obese subjects: comparison Alburone versus Nutroclin VLC.
PAQUOT, Nicolas ; ; Scheen, André et al
Poster (1987, April 03)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Effets métaboliques et hormonaux d'un spray nasal d'insuline chez le sujet normal
PAQUOT, Nicolas ; SCHEEN, André ; Lefèbvre, Pierre
in Acta Clinica Belgica (1987, April), 42(5),Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Greater efficacy of pulsatile insulin in type I diabetics critically depends on plasma glucagon levels.
; ; et al
in Diabetes (1987), 36(5), 566-70
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of plasma glucagon levels on the blood glucose response to intravenous insulin administered continuously or in a pulsatile manner. Six type I diabetic ... [more ▼]
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of plasma glucagon levels on the blood glucose response to intravenous insulin administered continuously or in a pulsatile manner. Six type I diabetic patients proven to have no residual insulin secretion were investigated. Endogenous glucagon secretion was inhibited by a continuous intravenous infusion of somatostatin (100 micrograms/h) and replaced by exogenous infusions of the hormone at three different rates (7.5, 4.5, and 2.5 micrograms/h), resulting in three different plasma glucagon steady-state levels (i.e., approximately equal to 200, approximately equal to 130, and approximately equal to 75 pg/ml, respectively). Each subject, in random order and on different days, was infused intravenously with regular human insulin either continuously (0.17 mU X kg-1 X min-1) or with the same amount of insulin infused in a pulsatile manner (0.85 mU X kg-1 X min-1 during 2 min followed by 8 min during which no insulin was infused). At plasma glucagon levels approximately equal to 200 pg/ml, blood glucose rose from approximately 10 to approximately 13 mM without any difference between the two modalities of insulin infusion. For plasma glucagon levels approximately equal to 130 pg/ml, plasma glucose remained steady throughout the experiments, but during the last 40 min, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower when insulin was administered intermittently. This greater blood glucose-lowering effect of pulsatile insulin occurred earlier and was more pronounced for plasma glucagon levels averaging 75 pg/ml. We conclude that the greater hypoglycemic effect of insulin administered intravenously in a pulsatile manner in type I diabetics critically depends on plasma glucagon circulating levels. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Prevention of metabolic alterations by insulin supplements administered either before or after 2-h nocturnal interruption of CSII.
Scheen, André ; ; Jandrain, Bernard et al
in Diabetes Care (1987), 10(5), 567-72
To evaluate the efficacy of a bolus insulin injection to prevent the metabolic alterations induced by a 2-h nocturnal interruption of a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), nine type I ... [more ▼]
To evaluate the efficacy of a bolus insulin injection to prevent the metabolic alterations induced by a 2-h nocturnal interruption of a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), nine type I (insulin-dependent) C-peptide-negative diabetic patients were studied from 2200 to 0800 h during two randomized tests. An insulin bolus (2.1 +/- 0.2 U) was administered via the pump either at 2300 h, just before CSII interruption, or at 0100 h, after reactivating the pump at its usual basal rate (1.05 +/- 0.11 U/h). The insulin bolus at 2300 h induced a significant rise in plasma free-insulin levels at 2400 h (+6.9 +/- 1.8 mU/L, P less than .01), resulting in an early and marked fall in blood glucose concentrations between 2300 and 0100 h (-2.7 +/- 0.5 mM, P less than .001), with hypoglycemic values in five patients. The insulin bolus at 0100 h counteracted the fall in plasma free-insulin levels observed between 2300 and 0100 h and significantly increased plasma insulin at 0200 h (+3.2 +/- 0.8 mU/L, P less than .01). Blood glucose concentrations that remained stable during the 2-h arrest of the pump fell significantly between 0100 and 0400 h (-2.1 +/- 0.5 mM, P less than .005). This fall rate was significantly lower than that measured within the 3 h after the insulin bolus given before CSII interruption but significantly higher than that observed in a reference control group of patients whose pump was functioning normally throughout the night.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
U-100 insulin gives some protection against metabolic deterioration due to CSII interruption.
Scheen, André ; ; Jandrain, Bernard et al
in Diabetes Care (1987), 10(6), 707-11
We investigated the influence of insulin concentration within the insulin pump on the metabolic and plasma free-insulin changes induced by a 6-h nocturnal interruption of continuous subcutaneous insulin ... [more ▼]
We investigated the influence of insulin concentration within the insulin pump on the metabolic and plasma free-insulin changes induced by a 6-h nocturnal interruption of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in five C-peptide-negative insulin-dependent diabetic patients with low circulating levels of anti-insulin antibodies. We compared the changes in blood glucose, plasma free fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and free insulin during the interruption from 2300 to 0500 h of the Nordisk Infuser loaded with either U-100 or U-20 regular insulin. The decrease in plasma free-insulin levels was slower, resulting in a significantly delayed and smaller increase in blood glucose levels (2.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 7.6 +/- 2.9 mM, P less than .025) when the pump contained U-100 instead of U-20 insulin. Although the increases in levels of plasma free fatty acids were similar in both tests, the rise in plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate levels tended to be reduced with U-100 insulin (414 +/- 139 vs. 639 +/- 67 microM, P less than .10). Thus, our observations indicate that U-100 insulin gives some protection against the metabolic deterioration due to the interruption of CSII so that diabetic patients may be able to remain without the pump for longer periods with concentrated rather than diluted insulin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Pulsatile hyperglucagonemia fails to increase hepatic glucose production in normal man.
; Scheen, André ; et al
in American Journal of Physiology (1987), 252(1 Pt 1), 1-7
To study the metabolic effects of pulsatile glucagon administration, six male volunteers were submitted to a 260-min glucose-controlled glucose intravenous infusion using the Biostator. The endogenous ... [more ▼]
To study the metabolic effects of pulsatile glucagon administration, six male volunteers were submitted to a 260-min glucose-controlled glucose intravenous infusion using the Biostator. The endogenous secretion of the pancreatic hormones was inhibited by somatostatin (100 micrograms X h-1), basal insulin secretion was replaced by a continuous insulin infusion (0.2 mU X kg-1 X min-1), and glucagon was infused intravenously in two conditions at random: either continuously (125 ng X min-1) or intermittently (812.5 ng X min-1, with a switching on/off length of 2/11 min). Blood glucose levels and glucose infusion rate were monitored continuously by the Biostator, and classical methodology using a D-[3-3H]glucose infusion allowed us to study glucose turnover. While basal plasma glucagon levels were similar in both conditions (122 +/- 31 vs. 115 +/- 18 pg X ml-1), they plateaued at 189 +/- 38 pg X ml-1 during continuous infusion and varied between 95 and 501 pg X ml-1 during pulsatile infusion. When compared with continuous administration, pulsatile glucagon infusion initially induced a similar increase in endogenous (hepatic) glucose production and blood glucose, did not prevent the so-called "evanescent" effect of glucagon on blood glucose, and after 3 h tended to reduce rather than increase hepatic glucose production. In conclusion, in vivo pulsatile hyperglucagonemia in normal man fails to increase hepatic glucose production. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacological properties of two galenical preparations of glibenclamide, HB419 and HB420, in non insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.
Scheen, André ; ; et al
in International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy, and Toxicology (1987), 25(2), 70-6
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacological properties of a new micronized preparation of glibenclamide (HB420, 3.5 mg/tablet) were compared to those of the classical formulation (HB419, 5 mg/tablet) in non ... [more ▼]
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacological properties of a new micronized preparation of glibenclamide (HB420, 3.5 mg/tablet) were compared to those of the classical formulation (HB419, 5 mg/tablet) in non insulin-dependent diabetics. In a double-blind cross-over randomized acute study, blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and glibenclamide levels were determined in 10 patients after a standardized breakfast taken 15 min following the ingestion of 1.1 +/- 0.2 tablets of HB419 or HB420. Plasma glibenclamide levels rose faster, the peak value was higher (637 +/- 154 versus 411 +/- 76 nmol/l, p less than 0.05) and the area under the curve from 0 to 240 min was 35% greater (p less than 0.05) on HB420 than on HB419. Nevertheless, the post-breakfast hormonal and metabolic changes were similar with both preparations. In a single-blind cross-over chronic study, 12 patients were treated during 3 successive 6 to 8-week periods--HB419, HB420, HB419--with glibenclamide at a dose of 1.8 +/- 0.3 tablets/day. While fasting blood glucose concentrations remained unchanged throughout the study, postprandial levels decreased from 10.9 +/- 0.8 mmol/l during the HB419 pre-period to 9.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l during HB420 (p less than 0.02) and rose again up to 10.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l during the last HB419 period (p less than 0.05). Similarly HbA1c decreased slightly from 7.4 +/- 0.3 to 7.2 +/- 0.4% (NS) and increased again up to 7.8 +/- 0.4% (p less than 0.025).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 ULg)
Primary role of glucagon release in the effect of beta-endorphin on glucose homeostasis in normal man.
; ; Scheen, André et al
in Acta Endocrinologica (1987), 115(2), 161-9
The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of human beta-endorphin on pancreatic hormone levels and on glucose metabolism in normal subjects. Infusion of 143 nmol/h beta-endorphin in 7 subjects ... [more ▼]
The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of human beta-endorphin on pancreatic hormone levels and on glucose metabolism in normal subjects. Infusion of 143 nmol/h beta-endorphin in 7 subjects caused a significant rise in plasma glucose concentrations (+ 1.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) which was preceded by a significant increase in peripheral plasma glucagon levels (+ 44 +/- 13 ng/l). No changes occurred in the plasma concentrations of insulin and catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline). The influence of beta-endorphin per se on glucose homeostasis was studied in 7 other subjects using the euglycaemic clamp technique in which the endocrine pancreatic function was fixed at its basal level with somatostatin together with replacement of basal insulin and glucagon by the exogenous infusion of these hormones. In this new metabolic conditions, beta-endorphin failed to have significant influences on the various parameters of tracer-estimated glucose metabolism (production, utilization, and clearance) and on the plasma levels of the gluconeogenic precursors (glycerol and alanine). Moreover, the levels of pancreatic and counterregulatory hormones (cortisol and catecholamines) were not different between beta-endorphin and control studies. We conclude that the naturally occurring opioid peptide beta-endorphin produced an hyperglycaemic effect in man which appears to be mediated by glucagon. The opioid seems to have no direct effect on glucose metabolism. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of beta-endorphin in normal man are secondary to its impact on pancreatic hormone secretion and not a consequence of a direct modulation of glucose metabolism. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
The addition of glipizide to insulin therapy in type-II diabetic patients with secondary failure to sulfonylureas is useful only in the presence of a significant residual insulin secretion.
; Scheen, André ; et al
in Acta Endocrinologica (1987), 116(3), 364-72
The present study aimed at 1) investigating the effect of a combined insulin + glipizide treatment on the metabolic control (HbA1c levels) and insulin requirements (Biostator assessment) in ten non-obese ... [more ▼]
The present study aimed at 1) investigating the effect of a combined insulin + glipizide treatment on the metabolic control (HbA1c levels) and insulin requirements (Biostator assessment) in ten non-obese Type-II diabetic patients with recent secondary failure to sulfonylureas; and 2) characterizing the relative contributions of changes in endogenous insulin secretion (C-peptide response) and insulin sensitivity (insulin-induced glucose disposal in clamped conditions) to this effect. The patients were treated in a randomized cross-over order with either insulin alone or insulin + glipizide (3 X 10 mg/day) during two periods averaging 6 weeks each. Mean HbA1c levels were similar in both experimental conditions (8.2 +/- 0.6 vs 7.9 +/- 0.6%, NS). In fact, during the combined therapy, HbA1c levels decreased in five subjects (from 8.6 +/- 0.7 to 7.1 +/- 0.5%; 'responder'), but not in the five others ('non-responders'); the 20-h Biostator insulin infusion was significantly decreased in the responders (29%; P less than 0.05), but not in the non-responders. Basal (0.271 +/- 0.086 vs 0.086 +/- 0.017 nmol/l; P less than 0.05) and post-glucagon (0.468 +/- 0.121 vs 0.180 +/- 0.060 nmol/l; P less than 0.05) C-peptide plasma levels were significantly higher in the responders than in the non-responders; in addition, glipizide significantly increased basal C-peptide concentrations in the responders only (+68%; P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Greffe combinée rein-pancréas dans la néphropathie diabétique terminale. Rapport de la première transplantation à l'ULg.Revue
Meurisse, Michel ; ; Honoré, Pierre et al
in Revue Médicale de Liège (1986), XLI(21), 855-863Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULg)
Diuretic activity of torasemide and furosemide in chronic heart failure: a comparative double blind cross-over study.
Scheen, André ; ; et al
in European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (1986), 31 Suppl
The diuretic effects of torasemide and of furosemide were compared in a double blind cross-over study in 13 patients with stable chronic heart failure. Single doses of 10 mg and 20 mg of torasemide and of ... [more ▼]
The diuretic effects of torasemide and of furosemide were compared in a double blind cross-over study in 13 patients with stable chronic heart failure. Single doses of 10 mg and 20 mg of torasemide and of 40 mg of furosemide were given orally, in a randomized order on 3 consecutive days. In addition, a placebo was administered on the day preceding the 3 active drug treatment days to obtain control data. Each experimental day was divided into three urine collection periods - 0 to 4 h, 4 to 12 h and 12 to 24 h. Urine output, ion excretion and clearance were measured during each of the 3 periods as well as for the 24-h period. Torasemide 20 mg was distinctly more active in each of the 3 collection periods and in the 24-h period than furosemide 40 mg, whereas no significant difference was found between furosemide 40 mg and torasemide 10 mg for most of the experimental data. From 0 to 4 h, both torasemide and furosemide significantly increased the urinary flow rate and the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride and calcium, while they decreased the urinary osmolality when compared to placebo. All the effects persisted in the 4 to 12 h period after torasemide 20 mg in contrast to furosemide, whose effects were limited to the 0 to 4 h period. In the third period (12-24 h), the urine volume fell below the placebo value after furosemide but not torasemide, and only torasemide 20 mg was followed by a persistent decrease in the urine osmolality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 ULg)
Insulin oscillations per se do not affect glucose turnover parameters in normal man.
; Scheen, André ; Verdin, Emeline et al
in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1986), 63(2), 520-5
To compare the metabolic effects of pulsatile vs. continuous iv insulin infusion, normal men had two glucose-controlled iv glucose infusions using the Biostator for 260 min, during which endogenous ... [more ▼]
To compare the metabolic effects of pulsatile vs. continuous iv insulin infusion, normal men had two glucose-controlled iv glucose infusions using the Biostator for 260 min, during which endogenous pancreatic hormone secretion was inhibited by a somatostatin infusion and glucagon was replaced by continuous glucagon infusion. The two tests were performed at 1-week intervals, during which human insulin was infused either continuously at a constant rate of 0.2 mU kg-1 min-1 or in a pulsatile manner at a rate of 1.3 mU kg-1 min-1 with a switching on/off length of 2/11 min. Blood glucose levels and glucose infusion rates (GIR) were continuously monitored, and glucose turnover was estimated using a [3H]glucose infusion. In both tests, plasma C-peptide dropped markedly, whereas plasma glucagon levels were about twice basal values. Plasma insulin averaged 7 mU liter-1 during continuous infusion and oscillated between 1.5 and 35 mU liter-1 during pulsatile delivery. During the first 30-60 min of both tests, the glucose appearance rate and endogenous glucose production (EGP) increased, resulting in moderate hyperglycemia, which completely suppressed GIR. During the last 65 min, EGP declined, while the glucose disappearance rate and the glucose MCR increased, so that GIR increased progressively to maintain the blood glucose clamped at about 5 mmol liter-1. During this period, no significant differences were found between the two modes of insulin administration for any of the parameters studied. Thus, continuous and pulsatile insulin iv infusion, resulting in physiological peripheral plasma insulin levels, altered the glucose turnover parameters equally, in particular inhibiting EGP, which was stimulated by glucagon during the first part of the study, and stimulating peripheral glucose uptake at the end of the study period. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)