References of "SALMON, Eric"
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See detailLes corrélats métaboliques des processus contrôlés en mémoire dans la maladie d'Alzheimer très débutante
Bastin, Christine ULg; Kerrouche, Nacer; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Ergis, Anne-Marie; Fiori, N.; Chaby, L. (Eds.) et al Xème colloque international sur le vieillissement cognitif (2008)

Les processus contrôlés et automatiques de récupération mnésique ont été évalués au moyen de la Procédure de Dissociation des Processus appliquée à une tâche de complètement de trigrammes chez 59 patients ... [more ▼]

Les processus contrôlés et automatiques de récupération mnésique ont été évalués au moyen de la Procédure de Dissociation des Processus appliquée à une tâche de complètement de trigrammes chez 59 patients diagnostiqués comme « questionable Alzheimer’s disease » (QAD ou Mild Cognitive Impairment). Par ailleurs, le métabolisme cérébral du glucose des patients a été mesuré par FDG-PET. Comparativement à des volontaires âgés sains appariés, le profil mnésique des patients QAD était caractérisé par un déficit des processus contrôlés, mais une préservation des processus automatiques. Après un suivi de 30 mois, 27 des patients ont développé une maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que 23 patients restèrent des QAD stables (9 sujets n’ont pas complété le suivi ou ont reçu un autre diagnostic au terme de celui-ci). Les deux sous-groupes présentaient le même degré de déclin des processus de mémoire contrôlés. Des corrélations cognitivo-métaboliques, ainsi qu’une analyse en composantes principales, ont permis de montrer que les corrélats métaboliques des processus contrôlés (à l’entrée dans l’étude) n’étaient les mêmes chez les patients qui allaient développer la maladie d’Alzheimer et chez les patients qui allaient rester stables. Chez les patients qui développaient ultérieurement une maladie d’Alzheimer, l’utilisation correcte des processus contrôlés était positivement corrélée à l’activité du cortex préfrontal dorsomédian, qui pourrait jouer un rôle dans les processus réflexifs de monitoring agissant sur les produits de la récupération. L’activité du cortex préfrontal dorsomédian était corrélée à l’activité métabolique des régions frontales bilatérales et du cortex cingulaire postérieur. Par contraste, chez les patients QAD stables, nous avons trouvé une corrélation avec la formation hippocampique antérieure, une région qui intervient dans la réactivation de l’épisode d’encodage des événements. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilité de 3 tests de marche différents pour isoler 3 populations de sujets âgés : intérêt de la double tâche
Warzee, Emmanuelle ULg; Gillain, Sophie ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Abstract Book des 10èmes Journées d’Automne de la Société Belge de Gérontologie et de Gériatrie (2007, October)

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See detailComparison of inhibitory functioning in mild Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Amieva, Hélène; Adam, Stéphane ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2007), 43(7), 866-874

Executive dysfunction is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More specifically, inhibitory dysfunction is observed early in AD and ... [more ▼]

Executive dysfunction is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More specifically, inhibitory dysfunction is observed early in AD and inhibitory deficits are also prominent in patients with FTD. However, few studies have simultaneously explored and compared inhibitory abilities in both degenerative diseases. Consequently, the aim of this study was to compare verbal and motor inhibitory processes in the initial stages of AD and the frontal variant of FTD. Stroop and Go/No-go tasks were administered. The results demonstrate that, on the Go/No-go task, AD and FTD patients do not produce more errors than control subjects. However, both groups are impaired on the Stroop task (mainly with regard to the error score) but do not differ from each other. These results indicate that AD and FTD patients do not present a general impairment of their inhibitory abilities. Moreover, these two kinds of dementia present similar quantitative and qualitative inhibitory impairments on the two tasks, although their patterns of structural and functional cerebral impairments are known to be different. The presence of similar inhibitory deficits despite very different patterns of brain damage is in agreement with the hypothesis that inhibitory dysfunction in the two groups of patients depends on a disconnection process between anterior and posterior cerebral areas, rather than on the presence of focal metabolism decreases in different regions. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Locometrix : outil de dépistage des troubles de la marche chez la personne âgée ?
Gillain, Sophie ULg; Warzee, Emmanuelle ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Abstract Book des 10èmes Journées d’Automne de la Société Belge de Gérontologie et de Gériatrie (2007, October)

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See detailA review of the literature on neuroimaging of serotoninergic function in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders
Salmon, Eric ULg

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2007), 114(9), 1179-1185

Behavioural and psychological disorders are frequent not only in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are related to serotoninergic dysfunction. In vitro ... [more ▼]

Behavioural and psychological disorders are frequent not only in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are related to serotoninergic dysfunction. In vitro biochemical measurements on brain samples show both pre- and post-synaptic impaired brain serotoninergic function in degenerative dementia, sometimes related to hyperactivity or aggressive behaviour. To date, few studies have explored in vivo 5HT2A and 5HT1A brain receptors in AD and FTD. They suggest that brain cells are lost in the associative cortices (5HT2A) and hippocampus (5HT1A) of AD patients, and in the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices of FTD subjects (5HT2A). Apart from reflecting a loss of local neurons, the meaning of the decrease in 5HT receptors is not yet clear and larger populations are required to establish relationships with clinical symptoms such as dementia severity and search for possible consequences for patients' behavioural and affective status. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of encoding specificity for the diagnosis of early AD: The RI-48 task
Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Ivanoiu, A. et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2007), 29(5), 477-487

The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of the RI-48 test, a shorter French version of the Category Cued Recall portion of the Double Memory Test developed initially by Buschke and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of the RI-48 test, a shorter French version of the Category Cued Recall portion of the Double Memory Test developed initially by Buschke and colleagues (1997), in the diagnosis of mild and very mild Alzheimer disease (AD). The distinctive feature of the RI-48 task is that encoding specificity was increased by adding an immediate cued recall stage at the encoding phase. The results show that the RI-48 task seems to be well adapted to the clinical context and to have good psychometric properties, in particular a lack of a ceiling effect. Moreover, this task appears to be especially well suited for the diagnosis of both mild and very mild AD (sensitivity of 93% and 83.8%). From a more theoretical point of view, this study confirms the importance of optimizing the encoding specificity for the diagnosis of very mild AD, since the more encoding specificity is accentuated, the more discriminating power is increased for the diagnosis of very mild AD. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration of the neuronal substrates of Directed Forgetting with fMRI.
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Hogge, Michaël; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Conference (2007, June 26)

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See detailExploration of the neuronal substrates of Directed Forgetting with fMRI
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Hogge, Michaël; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Conference (2007, June 01)

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See detailDistinct regions of the medial prefrontal cortex are associated with self-referential processing and perspective taking
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Ruby, Perinne; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2007), 19(6), 935-944

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) appears to play a prominent role in two fundamental aspects of social cognition, that is, self-referential processing and perspective taking. However, it is currently ... [more ▼]

The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) appears to play a prominent role in two fundamental aspects of social cognition, that is, self-referential processing and perspective taking. However, it is currently unclear whether the same or different regions of the MPFC mediate these two interdependent processes. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study sought to clarify the issue by manipulating both dimensions in a factorial design. Participants judged the extent to which trait adjectives described their own personality (e.g., 'Are you sociable?') or the personality of a close friend (e.g., 'Is Caroline sociable?') and were also asked to put themselves in the place of their friend (i.e., to take a third-person perspective) and estimate how this person would judge the adjectives, with the target of the judgments again being either the self (e.g., 'According to Caroline, are you sociable?') or the other person (e.g., 'According to Caroline, is she sociable?'). We found that self-referential processing (i.e., judgments targeting the self vs. the other person) yielded activation in the ventral and dorsal anterior MPFC, whereas perspective taking (i.e., adopting the other person's perspective, rather than one's own, when making judgments) resulted in activation in the posterior dorsal MPFC; the interaction between the two dimensions yielded activation in the left dorsal MPFC. These findings show that self-referential processing and perspective taking recruit distinct regions of the MPFC and suggest that the left dorsal MPFC may be involved in decoupling one's own from other people's perspectives on the self. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of dementia severity and age on posterior cingulate cortex metabolism in Alzheimer's disease
Withofs, Nadia ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Hallet, Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology (2007, May), 254(Suppl. 3), 146

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See detailVoxel-based analysis of posterior cingulated cortex metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease : effect of dementia severity and age.
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg; LAUREYS, Steven ULg et al

in PROCEEDINGS OF XIIIth SYMPOSIUM OF THE BELGIAN SOCIETY OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE (2007, May)

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See detailSocial mind representation: Where does it fail in frontotemporal dementia?
Ruby, P.; Schmidt, Christina ULg; Hogge, Michaël et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2007), 19(4), 671-683

We aimed at investigating social disability and its cerebral correlates in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). To do so, we contrasted answers of patients with early-stage FTD and of their relatives on ... [more ▼]

We aimed at investigating social disability and its cerebral correlates in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). To do so, we contrasted answers of patients with early-stage FTD and of their relatives on personality trait judgment and on behavior prediction in social and emotional situations. Such contrasts were compared to control contrasts calculated with answers of matched controls tested with their relatives. in addition, brain metabolism was measured in patients with positron emission tomography and the [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose method. Patients turned out to be as accurate as controls in describing their relative's personality, but they failed to predict their relative's behavior in social and emotional circumstances. Concerning the self, patients were impaired both in Current personality assessment and in prediction of their own behavior. Those two self-evaluation measures did not correlate. Only patients' anosognosia for social behavioral disability was found to be related to decreased metabolic activity in the left temporal pole. Such results suggest that anosognosia for social disability in FTD originates in impaired processing of emotional autobiographical information, leading to a self-representation that does not match current behavior. Moreover, we propose that perspective-taking disability participates in anosognosia, preventing patients from correcting their inaccurate self-representation based on their relative's perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term memory and the left intraparietal sulcus: Focus of attention? Further evidence from a face short-term memory paradigm
Majerus, Steve ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2007), 35(1), 353-367

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an ... [more ▼]

This study explored the validity of an attentional account for the involvement of the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual STM tasks. This account considers that during STM tasks, the IPS acts as an attentional modulator, maintaining activation in long-term memory networks that underlie the initial perception and processing of the specific information to be retained. In a recognition STM paradigm, we presented sequences of unfamiliar faces and instructed the participants to remember different types of information: either the identity of the faces or their order of presentation. We hypothesized that, if the left IPS acts as an attentional modulator, it should be active in both conditions, but connected to different neural networks specialized in serial order or face identity processing. Our results showed that the left IPS was activated during both order and identity encoding conditions, but for different reasons. During order encoding, the left IPS showed functional connectivity with order processing areas in the right IPS, bilateral premotor and cerebellar cortices, reproducing earlier results obtained in a verbal STM experiment. During identity encoding, the left IPS showed preferential functional connectivity with right temporal, inferior parietal and medial frontal areas involved in detailed face processing. These results not only support an attentional account of left IPS involvement in visual STM, but given their similarity with previous results obtained for a verbal STM task, they further highlight the importance of the left IPS as an attentional modulator in a variety of STM tasks. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the updating process: common and specific brain activations across different versions of the running span task
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2007), 43(1), 146-158

Neuroimaging studies exploring the neural substrates of executive functioning have only rarely investigated whether the non-executive characteristics of the experimental executive tasks could contribute ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging studies exploring the neural substrates of executive functioning have only rarely investigated whether the non-executive characteristics of the experimental executive tasks could contribute to the observed brain activations. The aim of this study was to determine cerebral activity in three different tasks involving the updating executive function. The experimental updating tasks required subjects to process strings of items (respectively letters, words, and sounds) of unknown lengths, and then to recall or identify a specific number of presented items. Conjunction and functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that the cerebral areas activated by all three experimental tasks are the left frontopolar cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and premotor cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulcus, right inferior parietal lobule and cerebellum. Some regions of this network appear to be more specific to each updating task. These results clearly indicate that the neural substrates underlying a specific executive process (in this case, updating) are modulated by the exact requirements of the task (such as the material to process or the kind of response) and the specific cognitive processes associated with updating. [less ▲]

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See detailA multicomponent exploration of verbal short-term storage deficits in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease
Peters, Frédéric; Majerus, Steve ULg; Olivier, Laurence et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2007), 29(4), 405-417

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term ... [more ▼]

Although many studies have shown diminished performance in verbal short-term memory tasks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cognitive processes responsible for this verbal short-term storage (STS) impairment are still unclear for both populations. We explored verbal STS functioning in patients with AD, elderly participants, and young participants, by investigating a series of processes that could underlie STS impairments in normal elderly and AD populations. The processes we investigated were (a) the influence of lexical and sublexical language knowledge on short-term storage performance, (b) functioning of the phonological loop component via word length and phonological similarity effects, and (c) executive control processes (coordination and integration). For the AD and elderly groups, the influence of language knowledge on verbal STS performance and the functioning of the phonological loop were preserved. In contrast, the AD group showed deficits for coordination and integration processes. Our results suggest that the verbal STS deficit observed in AD patients is related to impaired executive control processes. On the other hand, language-related processes underlying passive storage capacity seem to be preserved. [less ▲]

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See detailVoxel-based analysis of dementia severity versus age on cerebral metabolic dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease.
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg; LAUREYS, Steven ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (2007), 48(SUPPL), 172

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See detailTherapeutic armamentarium in neurology: the birth of a new era
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Magis, Delphine ULg; Lievens, Isabelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(5-6), 432-448

The field of neurology was long infamous for a lack of therapeutic options. How many of you have once thought: "Neurologists don't cure the disease, they admire it". But those days have passed into ... [more ▼]

The field of neurology was long infamous for a lack of therapeutic options. How many of you have once thought: "Neurologists don't cure the disease, they admire it". But those days have passed into history, and the field is now vibrant with new treatments and hope even for patients with the worst neurodegenerative diseases. We summarized in the present review the latest major advances in therapeutic principles and practice for some of the most frequent chronic neurological disorders such as headaches, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, dementias, Parkinson's disease, sleep/wake disturbances and peripheral neuropathies. We cannot cure or prevent, but we can now halt or control symptoms and disease progression to provide physical and psychological relief, and a better quality of life for patients who suffer from these otherwise devastating neurological conditions. [less ▲]

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