References of "SALMON, Eric"
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See detailImagerie cérébrale de la réflexion sur soi
Salmon, Eric ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

Precise brain regions are activated when a subject gives a judgment on himself. Those are the medial parietal cortex, essentially related to episodic memory processing, and the ventromedial prefrontal ... [more ▼]

Precise brain regions are activated when a subject gives a judgment on himself. Those are the medial parietal cortex, essentially related to episodic memory processing, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, recruited for evaluating the personal valence of an information. These regions are not activated in Alzheimer's disease. The decrease of awareness for own deficits in a patient with Alzheimer's disease would depend on a reduction of episodic memory capacities and a worsening of judgment for self significance. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic correlates of clinical heterogeneity in questionable Alzheimer’s disease
Salmon, Eric ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2008), 29

Thirty-four subjects with questionable Alzheimer's disease (QAD) were included in a 3-year prospective study and underwent neuropsychological testing and measurement of brain metabolism using FDG-PET at ... [more ▼]

Thirty-four subjects with questionable Alzheimer's disease (QAD) were included in a 3-year prospective study and underwent neuropsychological testing and measurement of brain metabolism using FDG-PET at entry. Seventeen patients (50%) did not convert to AD during the follow-up period. Compared to elderly controls of similar age, the cerebral activity of non-converters was reduced in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the variability of metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex was related to their visuospatial memory performance, while disparity in parietal activity was related to their verbal memory performance. These results demonstrate the cerebral metabolic heterogeneity of patients with QAD. Initial functional images of converters showed that activity was already impaired in the posterior cingulate, lateral temporal cortex, anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex. This metabolic pattern is consistent with a pre-dementia stage of AD, and highlights the fact that significant frontal metabolic involvement may be associated with impaired activity in posterior associative cortices in very early AD. [less ▲]

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See detailDifférentes facettes de la maladie de type Alzheimer
Salmon, Eric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

Les maladies de type Alzheimer sont fréquentes. Les efforts réalisés en recherche clinique pour en améliorer le diagnostic précoce sont justifiés par les espoirs de traitements étiologiques. Dès à présent ... [more ▼]

Les maladies de type Alzheimer sont fréquentes. Les efforts réalisés en recherche clinique pour en améliorer le diagnostic précoce sont justifiés par les espoirs de traitements étiologiques. Dès à présent cependant, un diagnostic précoce est justifié par la possibilité de ralentir les conséquences symptomatiques de la maladie. Bien que l’évolution extrêmement variable soit fort préoccupante pour le patient et son entourage, l’objectif thérapeutique est d’adapter les conditions de vie aux capacités du patient (et de ses proches) et de maintenir une qualité de vie optimale. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of Unawareness in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease
Salmon, Eric ULg; Perani, Daniela; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2008), 79(2), 176-9

BACKGROUND: Loss of insight is a core diagnostic feature of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and anosognosia is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AIM: To compare unawareness (anosognosia) for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Loss of insight is a core diagnostic feature of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and anosognosia is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AIM: To compare unawareness (anosognosia) for different symptoms, measured with a discrepancy score between patient's and caregiver's assessment, in AD and FTD. METHOD: In a prospective, multi-centre study, 123 patients with probable AD, selected according to the NINCDS-ADRDA procedure, were matched for age, sex, education, disease duration and dementia severity to patients with FTD (n = 41), selected according to international consensus criteria. A research complaint questionnaire was used to obtained patient's and caregiver's assessment concerning neuropsychological and behavioural symptoms. Data were compared in each group and between groups. Unawareness (measured by discrepancy scores) was compared between patients with AD and FTD. RESULTS: The caregivers generally assessed symptoms more severely than did patients, but both patient groups reported changes in affect (depressive mood or irritability) as their caregivers did. Unawareness was greater in patients with FTD than in patients with AD for language and executive difficulties, and for changes in behaviour and daily activities. CONCLUSION: The main finding is that unawareness was observed in both patients with FTD and patients with AD for most clinical domains. However, qualitative and quantitative differences showed that lack of awareness was greater in patients with FTD. [less ▲]

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See detailConsistency of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes across Dementias: Results from the European Alzheimer Disease Consortium
Aalten, Pauline; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Boziki, Marina et al

in Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders (2008), 25(1), 1-8

Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the consistency of neuropsychiatric subsyndromes of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory across several clinical and demographic subgroups ( e. g ... [more ▼]

Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the consistency of neuropsychiatric subsyndromes of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory across several clinical and demographic subgroups ( e. g. dementia subtypes, dementia severity, medication use, age and gender) in a large sample of outpatients with dementia. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 2,808 patients with dementia from 12 centres from the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium were collected. Principal component analysis was used for factor analysis. Subanalyses were performed for dementia subtypes, dementia severity, medication use, age and gender. Results: The results showed the relatively consistent presence of the 4 neuropsychiatric subsyndromes `hyperactivity', `psychosis', `affective symptoms' and `apathy' across the subanalyses. The factor structure was not dependent on dementia subtypes, age and gender but was dependent on dementia severity and cholinesterase use. The factors hyperactivity and affective symptoms were present in all subanalyses, but the presence of the factors apathy and psychosis was dependent on use of cholinesterase inhibitors and dementia severity, respectively. Conclusion: The present study provided evidence of the relative consistency of neuropsychiatric subsyndromes across dementia subtypes, age and gender, thereby stressing the importance of thinking about neuropsychiatric subsyndromes instead of separate symptoms. However, the subsyndromes apathy and psychosis were dependent on use of cholinesterase inhibitors and dementia severity. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit/explicit memory dissociation in Alzheimer's disease: the consequence of inappropriate processing?
Willems, Sylvie ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Neuropsychology (2008), 22(6), 710-7

Dual-process theories of recognition posit that perceptual fluency contributes to both familiarity-based explicit recognition and perceptual priming. However, the priming-without-recognition dissociation ... [more ▼]

Dual-process theories of recognition posit that perceptual fluency contributes to both familiarity-based explicit recognition and perceptual priming. However, the priming-without-recognition dissociation, as observed through the intact mere exposure effect and impaired recognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), might indicate that familiarity and perceptual priming are functionally distinct. This study investigated whether the AD patients' processing strategies at testing may explain this priming-without-recognition dissociation. First, we replicated the priming-without-recognition effect in 16 patients who exhibited intact exposure effects despite null recognition. Second, we showed that, under identical conditions, inducing a holistic processing strategy during recognition testing increased AD patients' recognition--performance was similar for AD patients and healthy control participants. Furthermore, prompting analytic processing during both priming and recognition tasks decreased AD patients' performance in both tasks. These findings suggest that the extent to which AD patients use perceptual fluency in priming and recognition tasks is contingent on their processing approach. The choice of processing strategy may depend on how difficult patients perceive the task to be. [less ▲]

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See detailMesurer la douleur chez le patient non communicant.
Chatelle, Camille ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Mergam, Anne-Nora ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 429-37

Pain is a subjective experience. Its assessment is based on the subject's direct verbal report. This method of assessment is, however, impossible in patients who cannot communicate their feelings. In this ... [more ▼]

Pain is a subjective experience. Its assessment is based on the subject's direct verbal report. This method of assessment is, however, impossible in patients who cannot communicate their feelings. In this context, indirect measurements such as behavioral observations or physiological measurements are needed. To facilitate the assessment of pain in non-communicative patients, numerous standardized behavioral scales have been developed. The aim of this review is to discuss the main validated pain scales employed in end-stage dementia, newborn and preverbal children, and severely brain damaged patients with a disorder of consciousness such as coma, the vegetative state or the minimally conscious state. [less ▲]

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See detailQue mesure la neuro-imagerie fonctionnelle: IRMf, TEP & MEG?
Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg; Noirhomme, Quentin ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 231-7

Functional cerebral imaging techniques allow the in vivo study of human cognitive and sensorimotor functions in physiological or pathological conditions. In this paper, we review the advantages and ... [more ▼]

Functional cerebral imaging techniques allow the in vivo study of human cognitive and sensorimotor functions in physiological or pathological conditions. In this paper, we review the advantages and limitations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). fMRI and PET measure haemodynamic changes induced by regional changes in neuronal activity. These techniques have a high spatial resolution (a few millimeters), but a poor temporal resolution (a few seconds to several minutes). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and MEG measure the neuronal electrical or magnetic activity with a high temporal resolution (i.e., milliseconds) albeit with a poorer spatial resolution (i.e., a few millimeters to one centimeter). The combination of these different neuroimaging techniques allows studying different components of the brain's activity (e.g., neurovascular coupling, electromagnetic activity) with both a high temporal and spatial resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-reflection across time: cortical midline structures differentiate between present and past selves
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2008), 3(3), 244-252

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

The processing of personal changes across time and the ability to differentiate between representations of present and past selves are crucial for developing a mature sense of identity. In this study, we explored the neural correlates of self-reflection across time using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). College undergraduates were asked to reflect on their own psychological characteristics and those of an intimate other, for both the present time period (i.e. at college) and a past time period (i.e. high school years) that involved significant personal changes. Cortical midline structures (CMS) were commonly recruited by the four reflective tasks (reflecting on the present self, past self, present other and past other), relative to a control condition (making valence judgments). More importantly, however, the degree of activity in CMS also varied significantly according to the target of reflection, with the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex being more recruited when reflecting on the present self than when reflecting on the past self or when reflecting on the other person. These findings suggest that CMS may contribute to differentiate between representations of present and past selves. [less ▲]

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See detailInterference and negative priming in normal aging and in mild Alzheimer’s disease
Hogge, Michaël; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2008), 48(1), 1-23

Most studies that have administered interference and negative priming tasks to patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy elderly subjects have demonstrated inhibitory dysfunction in AD patients ... [more ▼]

Most studies that have administered interference and negative priming tasks to patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy elderly subjects have demonstrated inhibitory dysfunction in AD patients, and mixed results in the elderly. In the present study, we re-explored these two effects in these populations by administering two tasks that allow assessing interference and negative priming effects. Results on both tasks showed (1) the presence of an interference effect in AD and elderly adults, that can be explained by cognitive slowing in the case of elderly controls; (2) the preservation of negative priming abilities in the two groups. These surprising results for AD patients were interpreted by proposing that AD patients have a preserved ability to suppress the representation of a distracter, but specific inhibitory deficits when they have to resolve a selection conflict at the stage of response production (i.e. when competing stimuli have been fully processed). [less ▲]

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See detailLes corrélats métaboliques des processus contrôlés en mémoire dans la maladie d'Alzheimer très débutante
Bastin, Christine ULg; Kerrouche, Nacer; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Ergis, Anne-Marie; Fiori, N.; Chaby, L. (Eds.) et al Xème colloque international sur le vieillissement cognitif (2008)

Les processus contrôlés et automatiques de récupération mnésique ont été évalués au moyen de la Procédure de Dissociation des Processus appliquée à une tâche de complètement de trigrammes chez 59 patients ... [more ▼]

Les processus contrôlés et automatiques de récupération mnésique ont été évalués au moyen de la Procédure de Dissociation des Processus appliquée à une tâche de complètement de trigrammes chez 59 patients diagnostiqués comme « questionable Alzheimer’s disease » (QAD ou Mild Cognitive Impairment). Par ailleurs, le métabolisme cérébral du glucose des patients a été mesuré par FDG-PET. Comparativement à des volontaires âgés sains appariés, le profil mnésique des patients QAD était caractérisé par un déficit des processus contrôlés, mais une préservation des processus automatiques. Après un suivi de 30 mois, 27 des patients ont développé une maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que 23 patients restèrent des QAD stables (9 sujets n’ont pas complété le suivi ou ont reçu un autre diagnostic au terme de celui-ci). Les deux sous-groupes présentaient le même degré de déclin des processus de mémoire contrôlés. Des corrélations cognitivo-métaboliques, ainsi qu’une analyse en composantes principales, ont permis de montrer que les corrélats métaboliques des processus contrôlés (à l’entrée dans l’étude) n’étaient les mêmes chez les patients qui allaient développer la maladie d’Alzheimer et chez les patients qui allaient rester stables. Chez les patients qui développaient ultérieurement une maladie d’Alzheimer, l’utilisation correcte des processus contrôlés était positivement corrélée à l’activité du cortex préfrontal dorsomédian, qui pourrait jouer un rôle dans les processus réflexifs de monitoring agissant sur les produits de la récupération. L’activité du cortex préfrontal dorsomédian était corrélée à l’activité métabolique des régions frontales bilatérales et du cortex cingulaire postérieur. Par contraste, chez les patients QAD stables, nous avons trouvé une corrélation avec la formation hippocampique antérieure, une région qui intervient dans la réactivation de l’épisode d’encodage des événements. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilité de 3 tests de marche différents pour isoler 3 populations de sujets âgés : intérêt de la double tâche
Warzee, Emmanuelle ULg; Gillain, Sophie ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Abstract Book des 10èmes Journées d’Automne de la Société Belge de Gérontologie et de Gériatrie (2007, October)

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See detailComparison of inhibitory functioning in mild Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Amieva, Hélène; Adam, Stéphane ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2007), 43(7), 866-874

Executive dysfunction is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More specifically, inhibitory dysfunction is observed early in AD and ... [more ▼]

Executive dysfunction is frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). More specifically, inhibitory dysfunction is observed early in AD and inhibitory deficits are also prominent in patients with FTD. However, few studies have simultaneously explored and compared inhibitory abilities in both degenerative diseases. Consequently, the aim of this study was to compare verbal and motor inhibitory processes in the initial stages of AD and the frontal variant of FTD. Stroop and Go/No-go tasks were administered. The results demonstrate that, on the Go/No-go task, AD and FTD patients do not produce more errors than control subjects. However, both groups are impaired on the Stroop task (mainly with regard to the error score) but do not differ from each other. These results indicate that AD and FTD patients do not present a general impairment of their inhibitory abilities. Moreover, these two kinds of dementia present similar quantitative and qualitative inhibitory impairments on the two tasks, although their patterns of structural and functional cerebral impairments are known to be different. The presence of similar inhibitory deficits despite very different patterns of brain damage is in agreement with the hypothesis that inhibitory dysfunction in the two groups of patients depends on a disconnection process between anterior and posterior cerebral areas, rather than on the presence of focal metabolism decreases in different regions. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Locometrix : outil de dépistage des troubles de la marche chez la personne âgée ?
Gillain, Sophie ULg; Warzee, Emmanuelle ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg et al

in Abstract Book des 10èmes Journées d’Automne de la Société Belge de Gérontologie et de Gériatrie (2007, October)

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See detailA review of the literature on neuroimaging of serotoninergic function in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders
Salmon, Eric ULg

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2007), 114(9), 1179-1185

Behavioural and psychological disorders are frequent not only in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are related to serotoninergic dysfunction. In vitro ... [more ▼]

Behavioural and psychological disorders are frequent not only in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are related to serotoninergic dysfunction. In vitro biochemical measurements on brain samples show both pre- and post-synaptic impaired brain serotoninergic function in degenerative dementia, sometimes related to hyperactivity or aggressive behaviour. To date, few studies have explored in vivo 5HT2A and 5HT1A brain receptors in AD and FTD. They suggest that brain cells are lost in the associative cortices (5HT2A) and hippocampus (5HT1A) of AD patients, and in the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices of FTD subjects (5HT2A). Apart from reflecting a loss of local neurons, the meaning of the decrease in 5HT receptors is not yet clear and larger populations are required to establish relationships with clinical symptoms such as dementia severity and search for possible consequences for patients' behavioural and affective status. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of encoding specificity for the diagnosis of early AD: The RI-48 task
Adam, Stéphane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Ivanoiu, A. et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2007), 29(5), 477-487

The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of the RI-48 test, a shorter French version of the Category Cued Recall portion of the Double Memory Test developed initially by Buschke and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of the RI-48 test, a shorter French version of the Category Cued Recall portion of the Double Memory Test developed initially by Buschke and colleagues (1997), in the diagnosis of mild and very mild Alzheimer disease (AD). The distinctive feature of the RI-48 task is that encoding specificity was increased by adding an immediate cued recall stage at the encoding phase. The results show that the RI-48 task seems to be well adapted to the clinical context and to have good psychometric properties, in particular a lack of a ceiling effect. Moreover, this task appears to be especially well suited for the diagnosis of both mild and very mild AD (sensitivity of 93% and 83.8%). From a more theoretical point of view, this study confirms the importance of optimizing the encoding specificity for the diagnosis of very mild AD, since the more encoding specificity is accentuated, the more discriminating power is increased for the diagnosis of very mild AD. [less ▲]

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