References of "Romain, Anne-Claude"
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See detailConvention de sous-traitance "FIDOR-Action" Etude de faisabilité du FIDOR dans le milieu récepteur de différents sites industriels et de sa capacité à agir sur la réduction de l'odeur.
Cerisier, Christophe; Collard, Laurent ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

Report (2011)

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and is the continuation of a former study which was aiming at designing the e-nose network named FIDOR. The ... [more ▼]

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and is the continuation of a former study which was aiming at designing the e-nose network named FIDOR. The present study concerns the ability of the FIDOR concept to forecast the odour annoyance in the surroundings and to control an odour abatement technique. An important part of the report concerns the validation of the predicted odour plume with resident observations. The report is the property of the company Odometric which commissioned the study. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of the different sources responsible for olfactory annoyance, using an e-nose
clarke, Kevin; Redon, Nathalie; Locoge, Nadine et al

in Perena, Gouma, (Ed.) OLFACTION AND ELECTRONIC NOSE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON OLFACTION AND ELECTRONIC NOSE (2011, May)

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See detailAnaerobic digestion process monitoring: focus on the gas phase using electronic nose technology
Adam, Gilles ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in GERBIO (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Congress Progress in Biogas 2011 - part 1 (2011, March 31)

Gas phase of four pilot-scale anaerobic reactors was monitored with a gas sensors array, also called electronic nose (e-nose) over three weeks. CH4, CO2, H2S, H2 concentration in the gas phase and biogas ... [more ▼]

Gas phase of four pilot-scale anaerobic reactors was monitored with a gas sensors array, also called electronic nose (e-nose) over three weeks. CH4, CO2, H2S, H2 concentration in the gas phase and biogas production rate were also measured. Reactors were exposed to process disturbances by doubling the organic loading rate and by decreasing the temperature from 38 to 32°C for 24 hours. During these tests, sludge pH and alkalinity were also measured. When organic loading was doubled, no changes were observed in pH and alkalinity, while hydrogen content in gas phase increased by 20% and took 8 hours to recover stable values of 130 ppm. Hydrogen sulphide also increased proportionally to organic loading of the reactors and took two days to return to stable values. Methane and carbon dioxide ratio changed from 1.2 to 0.95. No changes were observed during the temperature drop of the digesters apart from hydrogen concentration which increased sharply several hours. Electronic nose was able to detect variations in organic loading rates for the four anaerobic reactors, with increased signals for higher organic loadings of the pilots. Sensing of gas phase of anaerobic reactors was able to discriminate disorders of operating conditions of anaerobic reactors, especially organic loading. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le centre de compostage de Farciennes. Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Thomas, Jean-François et al

Report (2011)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, which was extended to all biowaste treatment facility. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia, which was extended to all biowaste treatment facility. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a first campaign on the composting site of Farciennes. The report firstly introduces the composting process itself so as the potential odour sources on a compost site. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has applied a dynamic olfactometry on the basis of samples collected through an flux chamber placed on the compost windrows. [less ▲]

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See detailQuatrième campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET "Cour-au-Bois" à Braine-le-Château Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Thomas, Jean-François et al

Report (2010)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a fourth campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a fourth campaign on the site of "Cour au Bois" at Braine-le-Château. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has conducted a survey in the neighbouring to assess the global odour annoyance generated by the landfill site. [less ▲]

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See detailE-nose development to predict odour annoyance in a receptor site
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, November 05)

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See detailExpertise of the Research Unit"Environmental Monitoring"
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

Conference (2010, November 04)

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See detailPotential of the Electronic Nose as a Tool for the Detection of Disturbances in Anaerobic Digestion Processes
Adam, Gilles ULg; Neyrinck, Roland ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien et al

in IWWG (Ed.) Venice 2010 Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste (2010, November)

Most of agricultural biogas plants do not operate at optimum loading rate to avoid overload and process failure. This study aims at the development of an electronic nose technology to serve as a specific ... [more ▼]

Most of agricultural biogas plants do not operate at optimum loading rate to avoid overload and process failure. This study aims at the development of an electronic nose technology to serve as a specific monitoring tool for anaerobic digestion processes. Twelve semi-continuous anaerobic mini-digesters (1.6 L useful capacity) were fed with three different substrates: sucrose, maize oil and a mix 1:1 of sucrose and maize oil. Two feeding strategies were followed (i) a cautious organic load (1.3 gVS.L-1.day-1) and (ii) an increasing load strategy (1.3 to 5.33 gVS.L-1.day-1). Digesters were monitored during two months by analysing the biogas composition and collecting electronic nose measurements. The electronic nose was able to detect the impact of organic load variations. Overload situations were distinguished by the e-nose apparatus and the different feeding substrates induced distinct responses from the e-nose system. [less ▲]

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See detailRelevance of the resident diary method to map odour sources.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cors, Marie; Delva, Julien et al

in Chemical Engineering Transactions (2010, September), 23

A methodology based on the social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The ... [more ▼]

A methodology based on the social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The studied area covers about 8 km2 and includes13 potential odour emitting facilities. A network of 44 residents was implied in the survey, from which 19 were particularly considered for a detailed analysis. The questionnaire aimed at providing twice-daily an odour strength rating on a 6-level scale together with an odour qualifier. The fact that the response rate corresponding to "no-odour" was high (79%) is particularly discussed. Some tests are proposed to check the plausibility of the responses, the consistency within clusters of residents and the individual performance of respondents to discriminate among odour ratings. The odour rose is presented as an attractive and visual tool, particularly suited in the case of multi-source areas, to map the different odour emissions, to point out the more worrying ones, some others creating less annoyance and possible new unpredicted ones. The resident diary method proves to be very interesting, especially in the case of an industrial area, provided that validation checks are performed to insure the data reliability. [less ▲]

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See detailLong term stability of metal oxide-based gas sensors for e-nose environmental applications : an overview
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2010), 146

The e-nose technology has enormous potentialities for in site monitoring of off-odours. However a number of limitations are associated with the properties of chemical sensors, the signal processing ... [more ▼]

The e-nose technology has enormous potentialities for in site monitoring of off-odours. However a number of limitations are associated with the properties of chemical sensors, the signal processing performances and the real operating conditions of the environmental field. The field experience of the research group included testing of a large amount of sensors in different sensor technologies and among those the metal oxide-based gas sensors (Figaro type) are the best gas sensors for long term application, as stated during more than 1 year of field testing. To be usable for the off-odours field measurement, the e-nose has to deal with the lack of long term stability of these sensors. The drift and the sensors replacement have to be considered. In order to appraise the time evolution of the sensors and the effect on the results of an electronic nose, experimentation has been performed during more than 3 years on two identical sensor arrays. The two arrays contain the same six Figaro sensors and are in the same sensor chamber of the e-nose system. Both arrays have worked continuously, without break. This paper presents the drift of some TGS sensors for 7 years as well as the difference in the temporal behaviour of identical sensors and the consequence on the e-nose results after the sensor replacement in the sensors array. A correction of the drift and of the replacement effect is applied and the classification results are exposed, with and without correction. [less ▲]

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See detailConvention de sous-traitance "FIDOR" Etude de faisabilité d'un réseau de nez électroniques pour estimer la nuisance olfactive autour d'un centre de compostage.
Cerisier, Christophe; Collard, Laurent ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

Report (2010)

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and concerning an e-nose network named FIDOR, providing in real time the five components of the odour ... [more ▼]

The report presents the results of a study conducted in the waste treatment facility of Habay and concerning an e-nose network named FIDOR, providing in real time the five components of the odour annoyance, the Frequency, the Intensity, the Duration, the Offensiveness and the impact on the Receptor. The report is a complete description of the system and is the property of the company Odometric which commissioned the study. [less ▲]

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See detailRelation between emission and olfactory tests
Degrave, Christophe; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, January 21)

At present, sensory evaluation is not yet integrated in all labels and standards. After comparison and interpretation of the weaknesses and the strengths of the several existing methods, a methodology has ... [more ▼]

At present, sensory evaluation is not yet integrated in all labels and standards. After comparison and interpretation of the weaknesses and the strengths of the several existing methods, a methodology has been elaborated. Previous experience in off-odour measurements for environmental field investigations help us to propose a methodology based on the assessment of odour intensity and hedonic tone. Various floor covering materials were tested in the lab with a self-made instrument. The sampling procedure is based on a "Field and Laboratory Emission Cell" (FLEC). The odour of the material is compared to a 8-level butanol intensity scale generated through a vaporization chamber and 8 stainless steel capillaries distributing the diluted n-butanol to 8 sniffing ports. First results shows generally a correlation between bad hedonic tone and odour intensity. On the contrary, there are no systematic relations between VOC levels and odour perception. The less odorous materials (PVC) are also the ones with the higher level of total VOC and the linoleum had a strong odour with a low level of total VOC. The explanation lies in the chemical family composition of the emission. The PVC emission contains mainly alkanes compounds (non odorous family) whereas the linoleum contains also odorous chemical families like carboxylic acids and aldehydes. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical analysis of chamber VOCs emission data
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Degrave, Christophe; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, January 21)

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See detailHORIZONTAL EVALUATION METHOD FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS DIRECTIVE HEMICPD
Lor, Marc; Vause, Kevin; Dinne, Karla et al

Report (2010)

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials ... [more ▼]

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials. Construction products could emit or contain dangerous substances that have been defined as dangerous substances under Commission directives and national regulations. In the future construction products may only be placed on the market in the European Union if they accord with the (second generation) harmonized technical specifications including health aspects and bear the CE mark. B. Objectives The goal of this research project is to improve the flow of knowledge and information vis-à-vis normalisation activities in the domain of indoor air measurements, indoor product emission testing, labeling and certification by proposing an evaluation method and standardized assessment methods for a harmonized approach relating to emissions from building materials into indoor air for implementation in Belgium. This approach will comply with current European harmonizing efforts ongoing on European level. C. Conclusions  International tendencies as well as national developments indicate the growing importance of building material emission testing  Harmonisation of governmental schemes to assess volatile organic emissions in the context of the CPD is necessary to obtain transparency  The topic of different limit values in different countries is a difficult problem to solve  It was demonstrated that it is possible with alternative methods (µ-chamber and FLEC) to achieve a qualitative and quantitative correlation with the reference method. However there is a need to extend this comparative study to more materials  The important influence of the quantification procedure on the emission results was demonstrated  The possiblity to investigate microbial resistance of building materials with the so called µ-chamber technique was demonstrated  A twofold methodology for the odour determination of building materials was developed: a quantitative method based on intensity and a qualitative method based on hedonic scale. Furthermore the basis for the development of an electronic nose specific for evaluation of building materials was laid down  A possible evaluation scheme for Belgium on the basis of AFSSET/AgBB/prEN15052 was proposed with two modifications: - Time path modification (7 or 10 days) - Prescreening with alternative method (< 20 L) D. Contribution of the project in a context of scientific support to transfer of knowledge and innovation This research project for implementation of the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and the environment” of the Construction Products Directive has besides its informative and sensitizing role also performed a supporting role in the development of new innovative low emission construction products. The research project has also ensured a Belgian input in the validation work of the draft standard "Emissions into indoor air" - WI 351009 - Construction products - Assessment of emissions of regulated dangerous substances from construction products - Determination of emissions into indoor air” in development in working group 2 of CEN/TC 351. Furthermore this research project has lead to the development of new innovative test methods tailored to the specific needs of construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of odour sources in an industrial park from resident diaries statistics
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cors, M.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2010), 44

A methodology based on social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The ... [more ▼]

A methodology based on social participation through the use of resident diaries was applied to evaluate the odour annoyance in the surroundings of an industrial park in Belgium during one year. The studied area covers about 8 km2 and includes13 potential odour emitting facilities. The network involved 44 residents in the survey, among whom 19 were particularly considered for a detailed analysis. The questionnaire aimed at providing an odour rating twice-daily on a 6-level scale together with an odour type. The fact that the response rate corresponding to “no-odour” was high (79%) is particularly discussed. Some tests are proposed to check the plausibility of the answers, the coherence within clusters of residents and the individual performance of respondents to discriminate among odour ratings. The odour rose is presented as an attractive and visual tool, particularly suited in the case of multi-source areas, to map the different odour emissions, to point out the most worrying ones, to identify others creating less annoyance and possibly new unpredicted ones. The resident diary method has proven to be particularly useful, conjointly to other ones, to the case of multi-sources facilities in large areas, when the purpose is the assessment of the long-term evolution of odour annoyance. [less ▲]

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See detailTroisième campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET de Mont-Saint- Guibert Estimation des nuisances olfactives Influence de la topographie locale.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Delva, Julien et al

Report (2009)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a third campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a third campaign on the site of Mont-saint-Guibert. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has applied a 3D analysis to study the influence of the local topography on the shape and the size of the odour plume. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mesure des émissions gazeuses, et plus particulièrement des odeurs, comme outil de caractérisation de matériaux et de processus
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Degrave, Christophe et al

Conference (2009, September)

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le ... [more ▼]

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le marché des matériaux (dont les "bio-matériaux") dont les émissions atmosphériques demeurent dans des limites acceptables. Plusieurs initiatives, essentiellement volontaires, existent au niveau européen pour évaluer ces émissions. Un des objectifs de la directive européenne des produits de construction (CPD) est d'harmoniser les méthodes d'évaluation. La comparaison de 4 chambres d'émission, de tailles différentes, l'usage de méthodes d'évaluation physico-chimiques couplées à des méthodes sensitives de mesure des odeurs et l'utilisation de la technique des nez électroniques constituent l'originalité de la démarche du projet mené par l'université de Liège en collaboration avec deux autres institutions belges. Plus généralement, le nez électronique représente un outil particulièrement bien adapté au suivi d'ambiances gazeuses au cours du temps. L'odeur émise peut ainsi servir comme "variable de process" pour suivre en continu, voire contrôler, des processus utilisant la bio dégradation de produits, comme le compostage, la bio méthanisation ou le bio séchage. [less ▲]

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See detailHorizontal evaluation method for the implementation of the construction products directive - emissions from construction products into indoor air
Lor, Marc; Vause, Kevin; Dinne, Karla et al

in 9th International Conference and Exhibition on Healthy Buildings 2009 (2009, September)

Worldwide different (mostly voluntary) approaches exist to evaluate emissions from construction products. The importance of the relation between construction products and health & environment is ... [more ▼]

Worldwide different (mostly voluntary) approaches exist to evaluate emissions from construction products. The importance of the relation between construction products and health & environment is highlighted in the mandatory European Construction Products Directive (CPD). One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials as stated in the Essential Requirement N°3 “Hygiene, health and the environment” (ER3). The Belgian Building Research Institute (BBRI) is involved in the implementation of ER3 by participation in standardisation work on CEN (CEN/TC 351) and EOTA (EOTA PT9) level. This paper presents first results of ongoing BBRI research activities in collaboration with VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) and ULg (Université de Liège) concerning “horizontal evaluation method for implementation of the CPD (HEMICPD)”: http://www.bbri.be/go/hemicpd. [less ▲]

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See detailDeuxième campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le site de traitement des déchets de Habay Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Waczek, Cédric; Delva, Julien et al

Report (2009)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on the site of Habay, which is more than a simple landfill area, as it includes also other waste treatment facilities, such as composting and biodrying. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has applied the electronic nose methodology to monitor the odour in the vicinity of the sources and a survey in the surroundings to try to validate the different results. [less ▲]

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