References of "Roisin, Christian"
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See detailImplantation des cultures
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Roisin, Christian; Monfort, Bruno et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2013, September 12)

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See detailHow can long-term experimental plots can help us to understand the sustainability of different phosphorus inputs ?
Renneson, Malorie ULg; Dufey, Joseph; Roisin, Christian et al

Poster (2013, September)

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See detailFifty years of contrasted residue management of an agricultural crop: impacts on the soil carbon budget and on heterotrophic respiration.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2013), 167

Crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study investigated a long-term experiment initiated in 1959 at a site in the Hesbaye region of Belgium and focused on three ... [more ▼]

Crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study investigated a long-term experiment initiated in 1959 at a site in the Hesbaye region of Belgium and focused on three contrasted treatments: residue export (RE), farmyard manure (FYM) addition and residue restitution (RR) after harvest. The objectives were to quantify the components of the C budget of croplands from a 50-year perspective and to identify the impact of the treatments on this budget and soil C sequestration, given the relatively low levels of esidue application. The soil C budget was calculated for each treatment on the basis of total soil organic C (SOC) content measurements and C input data collected since the experiment had begun and drawn from the literature. To evaluate the robustness of this approach, the budget-based output estimates were compared with annual heterotrophic respiration (HR) averages extrapolated from seasonal field HR measurements carried out at the same experimental site in 2010. The soil C budgetbased output estimates accorded well with field-based HR measurements and with most HR estimates in the literature, suggesting that, despite the many uncertainties affecting the soil C budget, these results were robust. The three treatments investigated in this study had different impacts on SOC stocks, mainly during the first 20 years of the experiment. RE and FYM caused significant SOC decreases (on average, −7 ± 5 g C m−2 year−1 over the 50 years) and increases (10 ± 5 g C m−2 year−1), espectively, whereas RR had no significant impact on the SOC stocks. The study also showed (i) the very large part (about twothirds of the total input) that represented the below-ground input, weeds and other left-over residues in the C budget, (ii) the important role probably played by residue quality in C sequestration and (iii) the large proportion of C lost annually rom the soil (which represents 93–98, 100 and 102–107% of the amounts of fresh residue rought to the soil each year in the FYM, RR and RE treatments, respectively). [less ▲]

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See detail3. Contrôle des populations de mauvaises herbes
Jaunard, Delphine ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detail4. La fumure azotée
Meza Morales, Walter; Monfort, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detail2. Implantation des cultures
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Pierreux, Jérome ULg; Dufranne, Delphine et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detailImpact of the depth on bacterial diversity in an agricultural soil
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Lambert, Christophe et al

Poster (2013, February 08)

Bacteria are the most abundant and diverse microorganisms in soils. They play an important role in soil formation, contribute to plant nutrition and are involved in various processes in agroecosystems ... [more ▼]

Bacteria are the most abundant and diverse microorganisms in soils. They play an important role in soil formation, contribute to plant nutrition and are involved in various processes in agroecosystems such as nutrient cycling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the depth on bacterial diversity and quantity in an agricultural soil. Samples was collected on May 2011 and May 2012 at three different depths : 10, 25 and 45 centimeters. The quantity of total bacteria was measured by real time PCR and the analysis of the diversity was performed by the high throughput sequencing technology. Results obtained by these methods show that the biomass and the bacterial quantity and diversity (Shannon index) decrease with the depth, particularly at 45 centimeters. The biomass is, in average, 6.5 fold less important at 45 cm than at 10 cm and the quantity is 17 fold lower at 45 cm than at 10 cm. Our results also indicate that many taxa, such as Betaprotebacteria, Deltaproterobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Burkholderiales are influenced by the depth. The results will be presented in more details on the poster. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of tillage effects on the spatial variation of soil properties using ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction
Jonard, François; Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad; Roisin, Christian et al

in Geoderma (2013), 207

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See detailIMPACT OF DEPTH AND SOIL COMPACTION ON BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SOIL
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Degrune, Florine; Olivier, Claire et al

Poster (2012, August 19)

Bacteria are the most abundant and diverse microorganisms in soils. The amount of bacteria in soils can reach 10^10 cells per gram of soil. These organisms are involved in various processes in ... [more ▼]

Bacteria are the most abundant and diverse microorganisms in soils. The amount of bacteria in soils can reach 10^10 cells per gram of soil. These organisms are involved in various processes in agroecosystems such as nutrient cycling, contributing to plant nutrition, plant health and soil structure. The knowledge about this diversity is limited because only one percent of these organisms can be cultured by laboratory methods. During the last decades, many molecular-based techniques have been developed to assess the diversity of bacterial communities. The aim of this study was to determine the quantity and diversity of bacteria in two agricultural soils with differents soil management practices (tillage and no tillage) at different depths (10, 30 and 45 centimeters) and different compaction levels (high and low). Quantity was evaluated by real time PCR and diversity was analysed by the DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) technique. The results show that soil management has an impact on bacterial quantity at 45 centimeters and quantity is higher in till soil. Compaction level affects the bacterial quantity in till soil, quantity is higher in low compaction. And finally, depth influences the bacterial quantity in till and no till soil. In both soils, quantity decreases with the depth. The results will be presented and discussed on the poster. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil carbon budget of a 50-year residue management experiment in a Belgian cropland.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in ... [more ▼]

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in different residue management treatments through the establishment of their soil C budgets and (2) to compare these estimations with field SHR measurements. Three contrasted treatments were considered: Residue Export (RE), Farm Yard Manure addition (FYM) and Residue Restitution after harvest (RR). They were established in 1959 and continuously applied since then at an experimental field located in the Hesbaye region in Belgium. The soil C budget was calculated for each treatment on the basis of total soil organic C content measurements and C input data compiled since the beginning of the experiment. This allowed estimating the C loss by SHR in the different treatments. SHR measurements were performed in 2010 and 2011 to compare them with the budget-based estimations and to assess SHR sensitivity to temperature in the different treatments. The soil C budgets showed that the soil under the RR treatment was likely to undergo the biggest C loss by SHR since the beginning of the experiment. The SHR field measurements, performed 50 years after the experiment had begun, did however not show any significant difference between the SHR rates in the three treatments. Laboratory investigations (microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic diversity and soil fractionation) will be performed to better understand the effects of long-term residue management on soil C dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the traffic induced soil compaction risk
Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Verswijvel, Johan; Abroughui, Khaoula et al

Scientific conference (2012, May 15)

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See detail4. La fumure azotée
Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Seutin, Benoit ULg; Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Livre Blanc - Céréales - Gembloux (2012, February 29)

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See detail50 Years of contrasted residue management in an agricultural crop: impacts on the soil carbon budget and on heterotrophic respiration.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

Poster (2012, February 10)

This study aims to estimate the carbon (C) loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in three contrasted residue management treatments (Residue Export, Farm Yard Manure addition and Residue Restitution ... [more ▼]

This study aims to estimate the carbon (C) loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in three contrasted residue management treatments (Residue Export, Farm Yard Manure addition and Residue Restitution after harvest) through the establishment of soil C budgets, and to compare these estimations with field SHR measurements. The soil C budgets were calculated in each case on the basis of total soil organic C content and C input data compiled since the beginning of the experiment in Belgium, 50 years ago. SHR fluxes were measured in 2010 and 2011 to compare them with the budget-based estimates and to assess SHR sensitivity to temperature. The comparison suggested that the treatment receiving the largest C input does not necessarily sequestrate the most C or produce the largest CO2 fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detail50 Years of contrasted residue management in an agricultural crop: Impacts on the soil carbon budget and on soil heterotrophic respiration.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, February 08)

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in ... [more ▼]

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in different residue management treatments through the establishment of their soil C budgets and (2) to compare these estimations with field SHR measurements. Three contrasted treatments were considered: Residue Export (RE), Farm Yard Manure addition (FYM) and Residue Restitution after harvest (RR). They were established in 1959 and continuously applied since then at an experimental field located in the Hesbaye region in Belgium. The soil C budget was calculated for each treatment on the basis of total soil organic C content measurements and C input data compiled since the beginning of the experiment. This allowed estimating the C loss by SHR in the different treatments. SHR measurements were performed in 2010 and 2011 to compare them with the budget-based estimations and to assess SHR sensitivity to temperature in the different treatments. The soil C budgets showed that the soil under the RR treatment was likely to undergo the largest C loss by SHR since the beginning of the experiment. The comparison between the results from the C budget and the SHR field measurements, performed 50 years after the experiment had begun, did however show that the treatment that received the largest amount of crop residues (RR) did not necessarily sequestrate the most C or produce the largest CO2 fluxes (FYM). Besides, no significant difference between treatments was observed in the field measurements in terms of SHR sensitivity to temperature. Laboratory investigations (microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic diversity and soil fractionation) will later be performed to better understand the effects of long-term residue management on soil C dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detail1. Implantation des cultures
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Roisin, Christian; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Livre Blanc - Céréales - Gembloux (2012, February 06)

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See detail1. Implantation des cultures
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Roisin, Christian; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg et al

in Livre Blanc - Céréales-Gembloux - Informations avant les semis (2011, September 08)

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See detailEffects of long term soil organic matter restitution mode on soil heterotrophic respiration and soil biological properties.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg; Malchair, Sandrine ULg et al

Poster (2011, July)

Soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) is the process by which CO2 is released during organic matter decomposition. It is generally expected that SHR can act as a positive feedback to global warming ... [more ▼]

Soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) is the process by which CO2 is released during organic matter decomposition. It is generally expected that SHR can act as a positive feedback to global warming, therefore leading to more CO2 release into the atmosphere. It is thus important to better understand this process. Particularly, agricultural soils may behave as important CO2 sources that are strongly influenced by soil and crop management (e.g. organic matter restitution modes, hereafter “OM-RM”). The present study aimed at determining if, after more than 50 years of application of different OM-RM, (1) significant differences of SHR fluxes can be observed between treatments, (2) SHR responses to temperature and soil moisture content can be affected by the OM-RM and (3) the experimental design is suitable to assess potential differences between treatments. The experimental field is situated in Liroux, near Gembloux in Belgium. At that site, a long term experiment with different OM-RM runs from 1959 onwards. For the present study, three contrasted treatments were considered: (1) exportation of all residues after harvest, (2) addition of manure once every three to four years and (3) restitution of residues after harvest. SHR flux measurements were carried out manually on fourteen occasions from 2 April to 30 July 2010, using a dynamic closed chamber system. Temperature and soil moisture content at 5 cm depth were also measured manually. Results showed that after more than 50 years of OM-RM application, no significant differences could be observed between the three treatments in terms of SHR fluxes and SHR responses to temperature or soil moisture, while the soil organic carbon content did vary significantly between them. The sensitivity to temperature was quite low in all treatments, with a mean Q10 value of 1,36. Besides, SHR fluxes were seen to be more responsive to increases in soil water content than to absolute soil moisture content values. Indeed, when soil moisture content increased between two consecutive measurement dates, the ratio of the corresponding SHR fluxes was larger than 1. Particularly dry conditions in 2010 may actually have caused the fluxes to be very low, making the assessment of differences between treatments more difficult. Moreover, soil dryness is likely to be responsible for the SHR flux increases after rain events, as caused by re-solubilization of organic compounds. Also, an important spatial variability was observed, which may have obscured the assessment of potential differences between treatments. Further investigations will consist in performing a new flux measurement campaign in 2011 that will take the spatial variability issue into account, and in monitoring microbial and soil properties in the different treatments, such as microbial biomass, metabolic activity and labile carbon. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of long term soil organic matter restitution mode on soil heterotrophic respiration and soil biological properties.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg; Malchair, Sandrine ULg et al

Conference (2011, May 12)

For more than 50 years, an agricultural site divided in several plots is submitted to different organic matter restitution mode to the soil (crop residues, manure,...). The objectives of this study were ... [more ▼]

For more than 50 years, an agricultural site divided in several plots is submitted to different organic matter restitution mode to the soil (crop residues, manure,...). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether these different treatments may cause differences between treatments in terms of soil heterotrophic respiration, that would be of the same order of magnitude than differences in total soil organic carbon, (2) how temperature and soil moisture content affect soil heterotrophic respiration in the different treatments, and (3) how different soil biological properties (microbial biomass, metabolic diversity, labile carbon content) are affected in the different treatments. The results from a first measurement campaign carried out in 2010 are presented, together with the remaining questions at this stage of the study. [less ▲]

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See detailANALYSING THE SOIL STRUCTURE UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS USING X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY AND PF CURVES
Beekkerk van Ruth, Jöran ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2011, February 23)

Assessing soil structure is primordial when comparing tillage systems. Whilst most conventional techniques characterize global parameters, X-ray microtomography allows a characterization of the poral ... [more ▼]

Assessing soil structure is primordial when comparing tillage systems. Whilst most conventional techniques characterize global parameters, X-ray microtomography allows a characterization of the poral space at a µm-scale. These results, combined with data from pF curves, can form a solid basis in order to quantify soil physical fertility. Soil samples were taken from the organic topsoil on two Belgian experimental sites implementing both conventional tillage (CT, ploughing) and simplified tillage (ST, superficial works), without straw restitution: Gentinnes, Brabant Wallon (March 2010), and Gembloux, Namur (November 2010). On the Gentinnes site (Aba(b)1), CT and ST have been implemented since October 2005, with a beet/winter wheat rotation. On the Gembloux site (Aba(b)), CT and ST have been implemented since September 2008, with a winter wheat cultivation since end 2009. Tomography (10 samples for Gentinnes, 8 for Gembloux) and pF curves (10 samples for Gentinnes, 14 for Gembloux) were used for analysis. Pressure pans were used in order to obtain the pF curves on 100 cm³ undisturbed samples. Soil cores (3 cm diameter, 5 cm height) were scanned using a Skyscan-1172 µ-CT device. The conical beam, operating at 100 kV, produced images having a 17µm pixel size, using a 16-bit 1048×2000 pixels camera equipped with an aluminium filter. The raw images were then treated under Matlab® for binarization, using a thresholding loop to fit the measured and the calculated porosity of each sample (Beckers et al, 2011). The 2D binary images were then analyzed under Matlab® and Skyscan™ CT-analyzer. On the site of Gentinnes, pF analysis showed a greater available water content (between pF 4.2 and 2.5) for ST, and a greater efficient porosity (between saturation and pF 2.5) for CT. The differences in available water content, although not significant, were confirmed by site observation. Tomography analysis yielded the following: under ST, the pores are smaller and the anisotropy less developed. As for the poral connectivity, it was found greater in CT. On the site of Gembloux, however, no significant differences were found between the tillage systems concerning the pF curves. Tomography analysis showed smaller pores for simplified tillage, but the differences deduced by the tomographic analysis of the Gentinnes samples concerning connectivity and anisotropy were not found in this case. To conclude, from the results, the soil structure is found to differ between CT and ST. The pores tend to be smaller and less oriented in ST, whilst in CT pores are more connected. Soils undergoing a CT show a greater efficient porosity, whilst soils under ST display a greater available water content. However, these differences were mostly spotted on the Gentinnes site: in Gembloux, the differences between the samples were less marked. This could be due to the fact that the soil did not have time to differentiate yet (less than 3 years of tillage differentiation). More sampling is needed in any case before inferring general conclusions from these observations. A further analysis of the soil images, especially concerning pore orientation, will be done in order to fully exploit the tomography results. [less ▲]

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