References of "Robe, Pierre"
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See detailActualites neurochirurgicales dans le traitement des tumeurs cerebrales
Robe, Pierre ULg; Martin, Didier ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(5-6, May-Jun), 405-409

Neuronavigation is a tool for image guidance surgery. Based on the principle of the GPS, it is notably used for the ablation of brain tumors. Because of their millimetre precision, neuronavigation devices ... [more ▼]

Neuronavigation is a tool for image guidance surgery. Based on the principle of the GPS, it is notably used for the ablation of brain tumors. Because of their millimetre precision, neuronavigation devices bring more safety and effectiveness due to the ever increasing performances of medical imaging. However, neuronavigation presents a major pitfall as it uses a static support (the images acquired preoperatively) to perform a dynamic process (the surgical ablation). To preserve the performance of neuronavigation, it is mandatory to update the images during surgery. This is now achievable by interventional MRI, intra-operative ultrasound and the incorporation of fluorescent tracers by the tumor cells. These major tools, now available at Sart Tilman University Hospital of combined with state-of-the-art chemotherapy, radiotherapy and experimental protocols (including gene therapy) will undoubtedly improve the prognosis of brain tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiation enhances the invasive potential of primary glioblastoma cells via activation of the Rho signaling pathway.
Zhai, Gary G; Malhotra, Rajeev; Delaney, Meaghan et al

in Journal of neuro-oncology (2006), 76(3), 227-37

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most treatment-refractory of all human tumors. Radiation is effective at prolonging survival of GBM patients; however, the vast majority of GBM patients ... [more ▼]

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most treatment-refractory of all human tumors. Radiation is effective at prolonging survival of GBM patients; however, the vast majority of GBM patients demonstrate progression at or near the site of original treatment. We have identified primary GBM cell lines that demonstrate increased invasive potential upon radiation exposure. As this represents a novel mechanism by which radiation-treated GBMs can fail therapy, we further investigated the identity of downstream signaling molecules that enhance the invasive phenotype of irradiated GBMs. Matrigel matrices were used to compare the extent of invasion of irradiated vs. non-irradiated GBM cell lines UN3 and GM2. The in vitro invasive potential of these irradiated cells were characterized in the presence of both pharmacologic and dominant negative inhibitors of extracellular matrix and cell signaling molecules including MMP, uPA, IGFR, EGFR, PI-3K, AKT, and Rho kinase. The effect of radiation on the expression of these signaling molecules was determined with Western blot assays. Ultimately, the in vitro tumor invasion results were confirmed using an in vivo 9L GBM model in rats. Using the primary GBM cell lines UN3 and GM2, we found that radiation enhances the invasive potential of these cells via activation of EGFR and IGFR1. Our findings suggest that activation of Rho signaling via PI-3K is required for radiation-induced invasion, although not required for invasion under physiologic conditions. This report clearly demonstrates that radiation-mediated invasion is fundamentally distinct from invasion under normal cellular physiology and identifies potential therapeutic targets to overcome this phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detailCan NF-kappaB be a target for novel and efficient anti-cancer agents?
Olivier, Sabine ULg; Robe, Pierre ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2006), 72(9), 1054-1068

Since the discovery of the NF-kappaB transcription factor in 1986 and the cloning of the genes coding for NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins, many studies demonstrated that this transcription factor can, in ... [more ▼]

Since the discovery of the NF-kappaB transcription factor in 1986 and the cloning of the genes coding for NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins, many studies demonstrated that this transcription factor can, in most cases, protect transformed cells from apoptosis and therefore participate in the onset or progression of many human cancers. Molecular studies demonstrated that ancient widely used drugs, known for their chemopreventive or therapeutic activities against human cancers, inhibit NF-kappaB, usually among other biological effects. It is therefore considered that the anti-cancer activities of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) or glucocorticoids are probably partially related to the inhibition of NF-kappaB and new clinical trials are being initiated with old compounds such as sulfasalazine. In parallel, many companies have developed novel agents acting on the NF-kappaB pathway: some of these agents are supposed to be NF-kappaB specific (i.e. IKK inhibitors) while others have wide-range biological activities (i.e. proteasome inhibitors). Today, the most significant clinical data have been obtained with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, for the treatment of multiple myeloma. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical data obtained with these various drugs and their putative future developments. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved PRESS sequence for lactate detection in the human vitreous body
Balteau, Evelyne ULg; COLLIGNON, Nathalie ULg; Robe, Pierre ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2006), 14

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See detailA phase 1-2, prospective, double blind, randomized study of the safety and efficacy of Sulfasalazine for the treatment of progressing malignant gliomas: study protocol of [ISRCTN45828668].
Robe, Pierre ULg; Martin, Didier ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in BMC Cancer (2006), 6

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients suffering from WHO grade 3 and 4 astrocytic glioma remains poor despite surgery, radiation therapy and the use of current chemotherapy regimen. Indeed, the median ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients suffering from WHO grade 3 and 4 astrocytic glioma remains poor despite surgery, radiation therapy and the use of current chemotherapy regimen. Indeed, the median survival of glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade 4) patients is at best 14.6 month with only 26.5 percent of the patients still alive after 2 years and the median survival of anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade 3) is 19.2 month. Recent evidence suggests that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is constitutively expressed in malignant gliomas and that its inhibition by drugs like Sulfasalazine may block the growth of astrocytic tumors in vitro and in experimental models of malignant gliomas. DESIGN: ULg_GBM_04/1 is a prospective, randomized, double blind single-center phase 1-2 study. A total of twenty patients with progressive malignant glioma despite surgery, radiation therapy and a first line of chemotherapy will be recruited and assigned to four dosage regimen of Sulfasalazine. This medication will be taken orally t.i.d. at a daily dose of 1.5-3-4 or 6 g, continuously until complete remission, evidence of progression or drug intolerance. Primary endpoints are drug safety in the setting of malignant gliomas and tumor response as measured according to MacDonald's criteria. An interim analysis of drug safety will be conducted after the inclusion of ten patients. The complete evaluation of primary endpoints will be conducted two years after the enrollment of the last patient or after the death of the last patient should this occur prematurely. DISCUSSION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Sulfasalazine as a treatment for recurring malignant gliomas. The safety and efficacy of this drug are analyzed as primary endpoints. Overall survival and progression-free survival are secondary endpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand cytotoxicity unrelated to PBR expression
Hans, Grégory ULg; Wislet, Sabine ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2005), 69(5), 819-830

Some synthetic ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), an 18 kDa protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane, are cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and arise as promising ... [more ▼]

Some synthetic ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), an 18 kDa protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane, are cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and arise as promising chemotherapeutic candidates. However, conflicting results were reported regarding the actual effect of these drugs on cellular survival ranging from protection to toxicity. Moreover, the concentrations needed to observe such a toxicity were usually high, far above the affinity range for their receptor, hence questioning its specificity. In the present study, we have shown that micromolar concentrations of FGIN-1-27 And Ro 5-4864, two chemically unrelated PBR ligands are toxic for both PBR-expressing SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells and PBR-deficient Jurkat lymphoma cells. We have thereby demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of these drugs is unrelated to their PBR-binding activity. Moreover, Ro 54864-induced cell death differed strikingly between both cell types, being apoptotic in Jurkat cells while necrotic in SK-N-BE cells. Again, this did not seem to be related to PBR expression since Ro 5-4864-induced death of PBR-transfected Jurkat cells remained apoptotic. Taken together, our results show that PBR is unlikely to mediate all the effects of these PBR ligands. They however confirm that some of these ligands are very effective cytotoxic drugs towards various cancer cells, even for reputed chemoresistant tumors such as neuroblastoma, and, surprisingly, also for PBR-lacking tumor cells. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo stages total vertebrectomy : about a series of 16 patients.
Lenelle, Jacques ULg; Collignon, F.; Dubuisson, Annie ULg et al

Conference (2005, March)

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See detailSymptomatic pituitary metastasis
Scholsem, M.; Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Robe, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2005, March)

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See detailbeta-carbolines induce apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons via the mitochondrial pathway
Hans, Grégory ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Neuropharmacology (2005), 48(1), 105-117

N-Butyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (betaCCB) is, together with 2-methyl-norharmanium and 2,9-dimethylnorharmanium ions, an endogenously occurring beta-carboline. Due to their structural similarities ... [more ▼]

N-Butyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (betaCCB) is, together with 2-methyl-norharmanium and 2,9-dimethylnorharmanium ions, an endogenously occurring beta-carboline. Due to their structural similarities with the synthetic neurotoxin 1-methy14-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), harman and norharman compounds have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. While also structurally related, betaCCB has received much less interest in that respect although we had previously demonstrated that it induces the apoptotic cell death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Herein, we have investigated the molecular events leading to CGN apoptosis upon betaCCB treatment. We first demonstrated that betaCCB-induced apoptosis occurs in neurons only, most likely as a consequence of a specific neuronal uptake as shown using binding/uptake experiments. Then we observed that, in betaCCB-treated CGNs, caspases 9, 3 and 8 were successively activated, suegesing an activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Consistently, betaCCB also induced the release from the mitochondrial intermembrane space of two pro-apoptotic factors. i.e. cytochrome c and apotptosis inducing factor (AIF). Interestingly, no mitochondrial membrane depolarisation was associated with this release. suggesting a mitochondrial permeability transition pore-independent mechanism. The absence of any neuroprotective effect provided by two mPTP inhibitors. i.e. cyclosporine A and bongkrekic acid. further supported this hypothesis. Together. these results show that betaCCB is specifically taken up by neuronal cells where it triggers a specific permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane and a subsequent apoptotic cell death. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDexamethasone inhibits the HSV-tk/ ganciclovir bystander effect in malignant glioma cells.
Robe, Pierre ULg; Nguyen-Khac, Minh-Tuan ULg; Jolois, Olivier ULg et al

in BMC Cancer (2005), 5

BACKGROUND: HSV-tk/ ganciclovir (GCV) gene therapy has been extensively studied in the setting of brain tumors and largely relies on the bystander effect. Large studies have however failed to demonstrate ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: HSV-tk/ ganciclovir (GCV) gene therapy has been extensively studied in the setting of brain tumors and largely relies on the bystander effect. Large studies have however failed to demonstrate any significant benefit of this strategy in the treatment of human brain tumors. Since dexamethasone is a frequently used symptomatic treatment for malignant gliomas, its interaction with the bystander effect and the overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy ought to be assessed. METHODS: Stable clones of TK-expressing U87, C6 and LN18 cells were generated and their bystander effect on wild type cells was assessed. The effects of dexamethasone on cell proliferation and sensitivity to ganciclovir were assessed with a thymidine incorporation assay and a MTT test. Gap junction mediated intercellular communication was assessed with microinjections and FACS analysis of calcein transfer. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on the sensitivity of TK-expressing to FAS-dependent apoptosis in the presence or absence of ganciclovir was assessed with an MTT test. Western blot was used to evidence the effect of dexamethasone on the expression of Cx43, CD95, CIAP2 and BclXL. RESULTS: Dexamethasone significantly reduced the bystander effect in TK-expressing C6, LN18 and U87 cells. This inhibition results from a reduction of the gap junction mediated intercellular communication of these cells (GJIC), from an inhibition of their growth and thymidine incorporation and from a modulation of the apoptotic cascade. CONCLUSION: The overall efficacy of HSV-TK gene therapy is adversely affected by dexamethasone co-treatment in vitro. Future HSV-tk/ GCV gene therapy clinical protocols for gliomas should address this interference of corticosteroid treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvivin enhances radiation resistance in primary human glioblastoma cells via caspase-independent mechanisms.
Chakravarti, Arnab; Zhai, Gary G; Zhang, Min et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(45), 7494-506

The observed radioresistance of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) poses a major challenge, which, if overcome, may lead to significant advances in the management of this patient population. There is ... [more ▼]

The observed radioresistance of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) poses a major challenge, which, if overcome, may lead to significant advances in the management of this patient population. There is accumulating evidence from correlative studies that Survivin expression is associated with increased malignant potential of human gliomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Survivin plays a direct role in mediating radiation resistance in primary human glioma cell lines, and, if so, investigating the underlying mechanisms. Our panel of GBM cell lines included two that were relatively radiation resistant (GM20 and GM21) and two that were more radiation sensitive (GM22 and GM23), which demonstrated differential levels of Survivin expression between the two groups. Through the use of adenoviral vectors containing either dominant-negative (pAd-S(T34A)) or wild-type Suvrivin (pAd-S(WT)), we were able to inactivate or overexpress Survivin, respectively. Our findings suggest that Survivin plays a critical role in mediating radiation resistance in primary GBM cells, in part through suppression of apoptotic cell death via a caspase-independent manner. We have identified novel mechanisms by which Survivin may enhance tumor cell survival upon radiation exposure such as regulation of double-strand DNA break repair and tumor cell metabolism, which were most evident in the radiation-resistant cell lines. These differences in Survivin function both in radiation-resistant vs radiation-sensitive cell lines and in the presence vs absence of radiation exposure warrant further investigation and highlight potentially important mechanisms of radiation resistance in these tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailSodium bromide encephalopathy with decreased serum Cl- level and increased anion gap: report of one case.
Robe, Pierre ULg; Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Frank, Georges

in European Neurology (2004), 51(4), 246-7

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See detailPrimary central nervous system lymphoma - Report of 32 cases and review of the literature
Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Kaschten, Bruno ULg; Lenelle, Jacques ULg et al

in Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery (2004), 107(1), 55-63

We retrospectively analyzed 32 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Five cases were diagnosed in the period 1987-1994, for 27 cases in the period 1995-2002. There were 17 men and 15 ... [more ▼]

We retrospectively analyzed 32 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Five cases were diagnosed in the period 1987-1994, for 27 cases in the period 1995-2002. There were 17 men and 15 women whose median age was 69 years. Three patients were immunodeficient. The commonest symptoms were focal deficit (16 patients) and cognitive/behaviour disturbances (14 patients). Radiologically, a total of 47 contrast-enhancing lesions were observed in 32 patients; 18 patients had deep-seated lesions. All but two patients underwent histological diagnosis following craniotomy (11 patients) and/or stereotaxic biopsy (22 patients); diagnosis was obtained on CSF cytology in one patient with a third ventricle tumour. In the last patient, the diagnosis was based on the finding of marked tumour shrinkage under corticotherapy, despite two negative histological examinations. Treatment included surgical resection (10 patients), chemotherapy (25 patients) and/or radiotherapy (12 patients). According to the therapeutic recommendations of the GELA (Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte), 19 patients received at least two courses of high-dose methotrexate; intrathecal chemotherapy was used in 20 patients with methotrexate and/or cytosine arabinoside. Radiation therapy consisted of whole brain irradiation followed by a boost on tumour site. Nine patients received a combined treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Twelve patients showed rapid progression to death. At the time of last contact, 28/32 patients (88%) had died, all from PCNSL disease or from complications due to its treatment. The median Survival time was 13.9 months. We conclude that PCNSL is an increasingly frequent tumour. The diagnosis is obtained by stereotactic biopsy in the majority of cases. The prognosis appears dismal despite an intensive multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of the HSV-TK/ganciclovir bystander effect by n-butyrate in glioblastoma: correlation with gap-junction intercellular communication.
Robe, Pierre ULg; Jolois, Olivier ULg; Nguyen Khac, Minh-Tuan ULg et al

in International Journal of Oncology (2004), 25(1), 187-92

The efficacy of HSV-TK/ganciclovir gene therapy largely relies on the bystander effect, i.e. the ability of transfected cells to kill the adjacent, untrasfected cells. This mechanism itself depends ... [more ▼]

The efficacy of HSV-TK/ganciclovir gene therapy largely relies on the bystander effect, i.e. the ability of transfected cells to kill the adjacent, untrasfected cells. This mechanism itself depends chiefly on the transfer via gap junctions of phosphorylated ganciclovir between cells, and is often deficient in glioblastomas. In this report, we demonstrate that n-butyrate markedly enhances the gap junction intercellular communication of GJIC-deficient glioma cells, and significantly increases the bystander effect in such cells. This effect of n-butyrate appears to be independent from its HDAC inhibitory effect, since trichostatin A does not reproduce it. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro and in vivo activity of the nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor sulfasalazine in human glioblastomas.
Robe, Pierre ULg; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Bonif, Marianne et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2004), 10(16), 5595-603

Glioblastomas, the most common primary brain cancers, respond poorly to current treatment modalities and carry a dismal prognosis. In this study, we demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear ... [more ▼]

Glioblastomas, the most common primary brain cancers, respond poorly to current treatment modalities and carry a dismal prognosis. In this study, we demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is constitutively activated in glioblastoma surgical samples, primary cultures, and cell lines and promotes their growth and survival. Sulfasalazine, an anti-inflammatory drug that specifically inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB, blocked the cell cycle and induced apoptosis in several glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures, as did gene therapy with a vector encoding a super-repressor of NF-kappaB. In vivo, sulfasalazine also significantly inhibited the growth of experimental human glioblastomas in nude mice brains. Given the documented safety of sulfasalazine in humans, these results may lead the way to a new class of glioma treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary cerebral lymphoma. A retrospective study of 32 patients
Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Kaschten, Bruno ULg; Lenelle, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2002, April 25)

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