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See detailLa législation REACH: une opportunité d’innovation pour l’économie biobasée
Schmetz, Quentin ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

Conference (2016, January 20)

REACH is the acronym given to the integrated legislative system for the recording, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals introduced by the European Union. The aim of REACH is to improve ... [more ▼]

REACH is the acronym given to the integrated legislative system for the recording, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals introduced by the European Union. The aim of REACH is to improve and ensure health and environmental protection while boosting competitiveness and innovation in the European chemicals industry. This system thus strongly encourages the transition to a biobased economy by encouraging the development and the operation of production patterns and new substitutes greener for the environment and health. Biotechnological production pathways, including the use of renewable raw materials have thus been developed over the past decade in the industry, and this trend is confirmed for the coming years. This presentation provides an update on current trends in this sector through various concrete cases such as flame retardant, plasticizer and surfactant substituted by alternatives from the vegetal. It also discusses the various research programs carried out in the Laboratory of Biological and Industrial Chemistry of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech that allowed the development of new biobased substances consistent with a more sustainable chemistry and meeting REACH requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction de nanocellulose à partir de pâte à papier: Hydrolyse enzymatique et valorisation des coproduits dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

Conference (2016, January 19)

Présentation succincte de la thématique de recherche doctorale et de son contexte

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See detailEtude du potentiel des sous-produits vinicoles pour des applications à haute valeur ajoutée
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2016, January 19)

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are ... [more ▼]

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are limited to poor value added applications like composting, agricultural spreading or bioethanol. This work focuses on high value added valorisation possibilities of grape pomace. It takes part in the current trend of using natural bioactive molecules in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industry, through the extraction of polyphenols. Firstly, chemical characterization is performed on grape pomace from two grape varieties (Cabernet sauvignon and Pinot noir) in order to determine variability. Secondly, the same approach is applied to grape seeds and skins. Finally, a method of extraction of polyphenols is developed. Results shown in this work tend to indicate a high valorisation potential of grape pomace thank to the identification of compounds like bioactive molecules and especially polyphenols (0.7% in seeds and 0.4% in skins) as well as high concentrations of other compounds in seeds (lignin (43-53%), grape oil (12%), proteins (12%)) and in skins (lignin (20%), tartaric acid (4%), proteins (10%)) of which the valorisation potential from wine-making byproducts needs to be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive comparison of the chemical and structural characterization of landfill leachate and leonardite humic fractions
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2016), 408(7), 1917-1928

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil), water, and landfills. The exact structure of HS macromolecules has not yet been determined because of their complexity and heterogeneity. Various descriptions of HS are used depending on specific environments of origin and research interests. In order to improve the understanding of the structure of HS extracted from landfill leachate (LHS) and commercial HS from leonardite (HHS), this study sought to compare the composition and characterization of the structure of LHS and HHS using elemental composition, chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), and spectroscopic techniques (UV–vis, FTIR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF). The results showed that LHS molecules have a lower molecular weight and less aromatic structure than HHS molecules. The characteristics of functional groups of both LHS and HHS, however, were basically similar, but there was some differences in absorbance intensity. There were also less aliphatic and acidic functional groups and more aromatic and polyphenolic compounds in the humic acid (HA) fraction than in the fulvic acid (FA) and other molecules (OM) fractions of both origins. The differences between LHS and HHS might be due to the time course of humification. Combining the results obtained from these analytical techniques cold improve our understanding of the structure of HS of different origins and thus enhance their potential use. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-treatment and extraction techniques for recovery of added value compounds from wastes throughout the agri-food chain
Arshadi, Mehrdad; Attard, Thomas M.; Bogel-Lukasik, Rafal Marcin et al

in Green Chemistry (2016), (18), 6160-6204

The enormous quantity of food wastes discarded annually force to look for alternatives for this interesting feedstock. Thus, food bio-waste valorisation is one of the imperatives of the nowadays society ... [more ▼]

The enormous quantity of food wastes discarded annually force to look for alternatives for this interesting feedstock. Thus, food bio-waste valorisation is one of the imperatives of the nowadays society. This review is the most comprehensive overview of currently existing technologies and processes in this field. It tackles classical and innovative physical, physico-chemical and chemical methods of food waste pre-treatment and extraction for recovery of added value compounds and detection by modern technologies and are an outcome of the COST Action EUBIS, TD1203 Food Waste Valorisation for Sustainable Chemicals, Materials and Fuels. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of biofuels from Brazil’s sugarcane bagasse via thermochemical pathway. A review
Nicodème, Thibault ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2016)

Document décrivant la production de biocarburants à partir de la bagasse de canne à sucre par la voie thermochimique. Des techniques telles que la gazéification, le procédé Fischer-Tropsch ou la pyrolyse ... [more ▼]

Document décrivant la production de biocarburants à partir de la bagasse de canne à sucre par la voie thermochimique. Des techniques telles que la gazéification, le procédé Fischer-Tropsch ou la pyrolyse sont décrites. [less ▲]

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See detailPhosphorus and nitrogen derivatization as efficient route for improvement of lignin flame retardant action in PLA
Costes, Lucie; Laoutid, Fouad; Aguedo, Mario ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2016), 84

The present study focuses on the use of lignin, which is the second most abundant constituent of the biomass, as sustainable flame retardant additive for polylactide (PLA). Indeed, thanks to its aromatic ... [more ▼]

The present study focuses on the use of lignin, which is the second most abundant constituent of the biomass, as sustainable flame retardant additive for polylactide (PLA). Indeed, thanks to its aromatic structure, lignin could be advantageously used, in polymeric matrices, as a char promotor agent that can allow some reduction of the combustion rate. An original and simple approach, based on a two-step phosphorus/nitrogen chemical modification, is proposed to enhance the flame retardant effect of lignin in PLA. This approach has been applied on two different lignins, i.e. kraft and organosolv lignins. The effect of the plant origin, extraction mode of lignin as well as it chemical modification on both its structure and properties was investigated by using several characterization techniques. Fire properties and thermal behavior of PLA composites containing 20 wt% of both untreated and treated lignins were characterized by using cone calorimeter, UL-94 and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed that the incorporation of untreated lignins led to a flame retardant action in PLA thanks to the formation of char but also to a significant loss of the thermal stability of PLA and to an important decrease of its time to ignition. In contrast, both phosphorus/nitrogen chemically treated lignins were found to limit PLA thermal degradation during melt processing as well as during TG experiments and also to significantly improve fire retardant properties allowing to reach V0 classification at UL-94. In this paper we also deeply investigated the nature of the gases evolved during thermal decomposition of treated and untreated lignins by using TGA-Mass spectrometer and cone calorimeter – FTIR couplings [less ▲]

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See detailAspects stratégiques de la valorisation de la biomasse en Wallonie: innover pour la qualité ?
Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2016)

Le bioraffinage se définit comme l'art de valoriser la biomasse (végétale) en diverses applications relevant du secteur des "bioproduits", de l'énergie, des biocarburants, etc. La biomasse végétale est l ... [more ▼]

Le bioraffinage se définit comme l'art de valoriser la biomasse (végétale) en diverses applications relevant du secteur des "bioproduits", de l'énergie, des biocarburants, etc. La biomasse végétale est l'argument décisionnel le plus important dans la viabilité économique, la compétitivité et l'originalité des approches menées à l'heure actuelle. Cet exposé fait ainsi le point sur les grandes tendances en innovation concernant la biomasse et sa valorisation. Sont ainsi illustrés: 1) la sélection variétale en agriculture pour l'extraction de molécules pharmaceutiques; 2) la sélection de nouvelles espèces pour la production de caoutchouc naturel; 3) la valorisation des déchets verts et de jardinage; 4) le design de nouvelles approches de gestion et transformation des herbes de tonte; 5) la production de nouveaux biocarburants, notamment pour l'automobile et l'aviation civile, au départ des déchets municipaux solides; 7) la production de nouveaux matériaux pour le packaging (alimentaire) au départ de biomasse végétale et des déchets. [less ▲]

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See detailL’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré (Synthèse Bibliographique)
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 94-103

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this biomass. Due to the high added value expected when transforming cellulose fibers into nanocellulose, this technology is highly attractive to the pulp and paper industrial world. <br />Literature. The concept of integrated forest biorefinery is to adapt existing pulp mills so as to maximize the value of the co-products. Through the use of various methods, two types of nanocellulose may be obtained from the cellulose in the pulp. Due to its production of valuable byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis is an interesting method to use for this purpose, but it must be combined with mechanical post-treatments. The production of nanocellulose from chemical pulp takes place in the final step of pulp production, and could be implemented without modifying the existing mills. The economic viability of this mode of production and the potential market size are the subject of recent studies that appear encouraging. <br />Conclusions. Nanocellulose is a promising biomaterial whose field of application continues to grow. Cellulose in wood pulp can be used as a raw material for the production of nanocellulose using enzymatic pre-treatments that generate valuable co-products. This process can be integrated into a conventional chemical pulp mill and constitutes a broadening of the products available to the pulp and paper industry. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual lignocellulosic components as raw materials for the biobased sector: strategic innovations in the Belgian context
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Istasse, Thibaut ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Scientific conference (2016)

The southern region of Belgium (Wallonia) has been selected by the European Commission to be a bioeconomic “model demonstrator region”. This designation ensures adequate financial support for the ... [more ▼]

The southern region of Belgium (Wallonia) has been selected by the European Commission to be a bioeconomic “model demonstrator region”. This designation ensures adequate financial support for the development of production of sustainable chemicals. At the University of Liège, the Laboratory of Biological and Industrial Chemistry, which is recognized as a Center of Excellence in Biorefining and Green Technologies, is engaged in R&D with a strong partnership with the industrial sector. With unique pilot facilities, this Laboratory is able to perform prototyping and demonstration for the conversion of an array of biomasses. Local raw (lignocellulosic) materials are emphasized. This talk will describe two specific topics developed in our laboratory, from fundamentals to industrial applications. Lignin: toward high-value-added applications (Ir. Thomas Berchem) Lignin, the most abundant natural aromatic biopolymer, demonstrates high added value potential as an alternative to fossil resources for the production of a wide range of bioproducts and molecules for the chemical sector because of its unique aromatic structure. In Wallonia, two providers of lignins have been identified: the pulping industry and the agricultural sector (mostly as by-products from cereals). Profitable applications of lignins were few in Belgium before 2010 and development of new technologies were needed to exploit the full potential of this promising resource. Several projects led by our Laboratory and aiming to extract and upgrade lignin in high-value-added industrial applications (surface active agents, electric dispersants, components for waterproofing membranes, flame retardants, etc.) are proposed herein. These projects are strongly supported by grants from the Belgian chemical sector. Production of furan-based compounds for the plastics industry (Ir. Thibaut Istasse) Belgium is world-class innovator for chemicals and plastics. It is notably innovative in the production of bioplastics, mostly for packaging). Combined with strong European regulations (e.g. REACh), the substitution of some petrochemical-based monomers by biobased alternatives is strongly favored. In this context, the production of furans derivatives is studied starting from several local biomasses. In particular, our Laboratory has emphasized the potential of hydrothermal treatments and aqueous acid-catalyzed processes as key industrial steps for an economically viable production of these furanic platform chemicals. [less ▲]

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See detailSphingolipids: promising lipid-class molecules with potential applications for industry. A review
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Lebecque, Simon ULg; Hamaïdia, Malik ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), (20(S1)), 321-336

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See detailGrasshoppers as a food source? A review
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(AgricultureIsLife), 337-352

Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as insects. Literature. From a nutritional point of view, of all the insects consumed globally, grasshoppers are particularly important as a human food. Data from the literature regarding the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, mineral composition and vitamin content of grasshoppers as reviewed in this paper, suggest that a number of grasshopper species are a good source of nutrients. It also highlights some of the health related aspects that might arise from the consumption of grasshoppers, mostly linked to agricultural practices and the allergic response of sensitive individuals. The paper also summarizes some religious, social and economic factors that are associated with grasshopper consumption. Conclusions. The success of introducing grasshoppers as a novel food in western countries depends on changes in consumer attitudes. It would be interesting to develop food products derived from grasshoppers in a form acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, it is important to explore the food potential of some grasshopper species native to western countries and to develop their rearing methodologies to enhance availability. [less ▲]

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See detailLignin degradation and stability: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) analysis throughout processing
Sallem-Idrissi, N.; Vanderghem, C.; Pacary, T. et al

in Polymer Degradation and Stability (2016), 130

This work investigates the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions during the processing of composite of polyamide 6 (PA) bio-filled with technical lignin. This is of prime interest as volatile ... [more ▼]

This work investigates the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions during the processing of composite of polyamide 6 (PA) bio-filled with technical lignin. This is of prime interest as volatile phenolic structural monomers issued from lignin could penetrate the human organism and cause undesirable health damages. A special attention is given to the measurement of formaldehyde as it is known to be a human carcinogen. Lignin main identified emission consists of a high level of formaldehyde and a large amount of complex substituted phenol and benzene, all representative and constitutive of its structure. Regarding the PA alone, it has been found that the predominant VOC product is ϵ-caprolactam. When filling PA6 with lignin, the emitted VOCs associated to this filler are mainly produced during the extrusion while, only traces are detected during the injection process. Formaldehyde emission level is three times higher during the injection than during the extrusion. Phenols and some remaining reactants used during industrial cellulosic extraction process are identified. Regarding the value of the Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL), suitable industrial process, safety and hygiene rules must be adopted. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the laccase reaction of vanillin and poplar hydrolysate
Sòti, Valentin; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Apers, Sandra et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2016), 91(6), 1914-1922

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during laccase enzyme reaction. This paper reports an investigation of the continuous UV absorbance follow-up of the laccase reaction with steam pretreated poplar hydrolysate. RESULTS: Vanillin was used as a model substrate and lignocellulose xylose rich fraction (XRF) as a biologically complex substrate for laccase detoxification. The reaction was followed by HPLC-UV as well as by UV spectrometric measurements. Results suggest that the reaction can be successfully monitored by measuring the change of UV absorbance at 280 nm, without previous compound separation. In case of XRF experiments the spectrophotometric follow-up is especially useful, as HPLC analysis takes a long time and provides less information than in case of single substrates. The method seems to be suitable for optimization and process control. CONCLUSION: The obtained results can help to construct a fast, easy and straightforward monitoring system for laccase-phenolic substrate reactions. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of saccharides released during an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour using HPAEC-PAD
Odjo, Djosse Psijus Sylvanus ULg; Bera, François ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

in Stärke = Starch (2016), 68

Saccharides released after an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour were quantified and characterized using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulsed amperometric ... [more ▼]

Saccharides released after an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour were quantified and characterized using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD) and two colorimetric approaches (glucose oxidase/ peroxidase assay and the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay). HPAEC-PAD revealed five major saccharides as the result of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn grain: glucose, isomaltose, maltose, maltotriose, and glucosyl-maltotriose. Concentrations of glucose released as measured by the three methods assessed are similar when the in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion is followed by post incubation with amyloglucosidase. This post incubation unfortunately leads to a loss of information about the degree of polymerization of oligosaccharides that can impact their absorption through intestinal tract. HPAEC-PAD gives both qualitative and quantitative information and then seems more suitable for a nutritional appreciation of the digestion of starchy feedstuffs. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic profile of mixed culture acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulosic residues and the effect of upstream substrate fractionation by steam explosion
Perimenis, Anastasios; van Aarle, Ingrid; Nicolay, Thomas et al

in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (2016), 6

Lignocellulosic biomass residues have attracted attention for the sustainable production of molecules for material and energetic use through biochemical conversion. Their recalcitrant structure prevents a ... [more ▼]

Lignocellulosic biomass residues have attracted attention for the sustainable production of molecules for material and energetic use through biochemical conversion. Their recalcitrant structure prevents a broader use and asks for the development of sustainable techniques that can efficiently separate, recover and valorize the constituting components. In a cascading concept, residual streams of such processes can be further exploited in an attempt to valorize the largest possible fraction of the initial material. Three lignocellulosic substrates, namely dried sugar beet pulp, wheat bran and miscanthus straw, were upstream fractionated by steam explosion to extract the hemicellulose fraction. This study evaluated the valorization of the residual solid fraction through mixed acidogenic fermentation for the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as platform chemicals. Batch experiments have been conducted for the reference material (non-treated) and the solid fraction remaining after steam explosion, with and without the addition of an external mixed inoculum. Steam explosion residues contained less hemicellulose than the initial materials. The difference in the fermentation profile between steam explosion residues and non-treated substrates is dependent on the substrate. Maximum total VFA (tVFA) concentration was 18.8 gCOD/kgmixed_liquor, and maximum yield of chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion into tVFAwas 33 % for the case of non-treated inoculated beet pulp. [less ▲]

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See detailSteam Explosion Process
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Scientific conference (2015, December 17)

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See detailIndustrial Biological Chemistry laboratory activities
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2015, November 26)

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