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See detailEtude du potentiel des sous-produits vinicoles pour des applications à haute valeur ajoutée
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2016, January 19)

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are ... [more ▼]

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are limited to poor value added applications like composting, agricultural spreading or bioethanol. This work focuses on high value added valorisation possibilities of grape pomace. It takes part in the current trend of using natural bioactive molecules in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industry, through the extraction of polyphenols. Firstly, chemical characterization is performed on grape pomace from two grape varieties (Cabernet sauvignon and Pinot noir) in order to determine variability. Secondly, the same approach is applied to grape seeds and skins. Finally, a method of extraction of polyphenols is developed. Results shown in this work tend to indicate a high valorisation potential of grape pomace thank to the identification of compounds like bioactive molecules and especially polyphenols (0.7% in seeds and 0.4% in skins) as well as high concentrations of other compounds in seeds (lignin (43-53%), grape oil (12%), proteins (12%)) and in skins (lignin (20%), tartaric acid (4%), proteins (10%)) of which the valorisation potential from wine-making byproducts needs to be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive comparison of the chemical and structural characterization of landfill leachate and leonardite humic fractions
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2016), 408(7), 1917-1928

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil), water, and landfills. The exact structure of HS macromolecules has not yet been determined because of their complexity and heterogeneity. Various descriptions of HS are used depending on specific environments of origin and research interests. In order to improve the understanding of the structure of HS extracted from landfill leachate (LHS) and commercial HS from leonardite (HHS), this study sought to compare the composition and characterization of the structure of LHS and HHS using elemental composition, chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), and spectroscopic techniques (UV–vis, FTIR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF). The results showed that LHS molecules have a lower molecular weight and less aromatic structure than HHS molecules. The characteristics of functional groups of both LHS and HHS, however, were basically similar, but there was some differences in absorbance intensity. There were also less aliphatic and acidic functional groups and more aromatic and polyphenolic compounds in the humic acid (HA) fraction than in the fulvic acid (FA) and other molecules (OM) fractions of both origins. The differences between LHS and HHS might be due to the time course of humification. Combining the results obtained from these analytical techniques cold improve our understanding of the structure of HS of different origins and thus enhance their potential use. [less ▲]

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See detailLignin degradation and stability: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) analysis throughout processing
Sallem-Idrissi, N.; Vanderghem, C.; Pacary, T. et al

in Polymer Degradation and Stability (2016), 130

This work investigates the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions during the processing of composite of polyamide 6 (PA) bio-filled with technical lignin. This is of prime interest as volatile ... [more ▼]

This work investigates the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions during the processing of composite of polyamide 6 (PA) bio-filled with technical lignin. This is of prime interest as volatile phenolic structural monomers issued from lignin could penetrate the human organism and cause undesirable health damages. A special attention is given to the measurement of formaldehyde as it is known to be a human carcinogen. Lignin main identified emission consists of a high level of formaldehyde and a large amount of complex substituted phenol and benzene, all representative and constitutive of its structure. Regarding the PA alone, it has been found that the predominant VOC product is ϵ-caprolactam. When filling PA6 with lignin, the emitted VOCs associated to this filler are mainly produced during the extrusion while, only traces are detected during the injection process. Formaldehyde emission level is three times higher during the injection than during the extrusion. Phenols and some remaining reactants used during industrial cellulosic extraction process are identified. Regarding the value of the Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL), suitable industrial process, safety and hygiene rules must be adopted. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the laccase reaction of vanillin and poplar hydrolysate
Sòti, Valentin; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Apers, Sandra et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2016), 91(6), 1914-1922

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Laccase is an intensively researched enzyme for industrial use. Except for decolorisation measurements, HPLC analysis is the conventional method for monitoring the phenolic removal during laccase enzyme reaction. This paper reports an investigation of the continuous UV absorbance follow-up of the laccase reaction with steam pretreated poplar hydrolysate. RESULTS: Vanillin was used as a model substrate and lignocellulose xylose rich fraction (XRF) as a biologically complex substrate for laccase detoxification. The reaction was followed by HPLC-UV as well as by UV spectrometric measurements. Results suggest that the reaction can be successfully monitored by measuring the change of UV absorbance at 280 nm, without previous compound separation. In case of XRF experiments the spectrophotometric follow-up is especially useful, as HPLC analysis takes a long time and provides less information than in case of single substrates. The method seems to be suitable for optimization and process control. CONCLUSION: The obtained results can help to construct a fast, easy and straightforward monitoring system for laccase-phenolic substrate reactions. [less ▲]

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See detailL’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULg; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 94-103

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this biomass. Due to the high added value expected when transforming cellulose fibers into nanocellulose, this technology is highly attractive to the pulp and paper industrial world. Literature. The concept of integrated forest biorefinery is to adapt existing pulp mills so as to maximize the value of the co-products. Through the use of various methods, two types of nanocellulose may be obtained from the cellulose in the pulp. Due to its production of valuable byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis is an interesting method to use for this purpose, but it must be combined with mechanical post-treatments. The production of nanocellulose from chemical pulp takes place in the final step of pulp production, and could be implemented without modifying the existing mills. The economic viability of this mode of production and the potential market size are the subject of recent studies that appear encouraging. Conclusions. Nanocellulose is a promising biomaterial whose field of application continues to grow. Cellulose in wood pulp can be used as a raw material for the production of nanocellulose using enzymatic pre-treatments that generate valuable co-products. This process can be integrated into a conventional chemical pulp mill and constitutes a broadening of the products available to the pulp and paper industry. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of saccharides released during an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour using HPAEC-PAD
Odjo, Djosse Psijus Sylvanus ULg; Bera, François ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

in Stärke = Starch (2016), 68

Saccharides released after an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour were quantified and characterized using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulsed amperometric ... [more ▼]

Saccharides released after an in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn flour were quantified and characterized using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD) and two colorimetric approaches (glucose oxidase/ peroxidase assay and the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay). HPAEC-PAD revealed five major saccharides as the result of in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of corn grain: glucose, isomaltose, maltose, maltotriose, and glucosyl-maltotriose. Concentrations of glucose released as measured by the three methods assessed are similar when the in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion is followed by post incubation with amyloglucosidase. This post incubation unfortunately leads to a loss of information about the degree of polymerization of oligosaccharides that can impact their absorption through intestinal tract. HPAEC-PAD gives both qualitative and quantitative information and then seems more suitable for a nutritional appreciation of the digestion of starchy feedstuffs. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic profile of mixed culture acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulosic residues and the effect of upstream substrate fractionation by steam explosion
Perimenis, Anastasios; van Aarle, Ingrid; Nicolay, Thomas et al

in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (2016), 6

Lignocellulosic biomass residues have attracted attention for the sustainable production of molecules for material and energetic use through biochemical conversion. Their recalcitrant structure prevents a ... [more ▼]

Lignocellulosic biomass residues have attracted attention for the sustainable production of molecules for material and energetic use through biochemical conversion. Their recalcitrant structure prevents a broader use and asks for the development of sustainable techniques that can efficiently separate, recover and valorize the constituting components. In a cascading concept, residual streams of such processes can be further exploited in an attempt to valorize the largest possible fraction of the initial material. Three lignocellulosic substrates, namely dried sugar beet pulp, wheat bran and miscanthus straw, were upstream fractionated by steam explosion to extract the hemicellulose fraction. This study evaluated the valorization of the residual solid fraction through mixed acidogenic fermentation for the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as platform chemicals. Batch experiments have been conducted for the reference material (non-treated) and the solid fraction remaining after steam explosion, with and without the addition of an external mixed inoculum. Steam explosion residues contained less hemicellulose than the initial materials. The difference in the fermentation profile between steam explosion residues and non-treated substrates is dependent on the substrate. Maximum total VFA (tVFA) concentration was 18.8 gCOD/kgmixed_liquor, and maximum yield of chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion into tVFAwas 33 % for the case of non-treated inoculated beet pulp. [less ▲]

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See detailSteam Explosion Process
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Scientific conference (2015, December 17)

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See detailIndustrial Biological Chemistry laboratory activities
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2015, November 26)

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See detailEffect of Metals, Metalloids and Metallic Nanoparticles on Microalgae Growth and Industrial Product Biosynthesis: A Review
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Iwanek, Waldemar; Remacle, Claire ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2015), 16

Microalgae are a source of numerous compounds that can be used in many branches of industry. Synthesis of such compounds in microalgal cells can be amplified under stress conditions. Exposure to various ... [more ▼]

Microalgae are a source of numerous compounds that can be used in many branches of industry. Synthesis of such compounds in microalgal cells can be amplified under stress conditions. Exposure to various metals can be one of methods applied to induce cell stress and synthesis of target products in microalgae cultures. In this review, the potential of producing diverse biocompounds (pigments, lipids, exopolymers, peptides, phytohormones, arsenoorganics, nanoparticles) from microalgae cultures upon exposure to various metals, is evaluated. Additionally, different methods to alter microalgae response towards metals and metal stress are described. Finally, possibilities to sustain high growth rates and productivity of microalgal cultures in the presence of metals are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa chimie biologique industrielle à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech : Un aperçu de nos activités
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Istasse, Thibaut ULg; Schmetz, Quentin ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Présentation du laboratoire de Chimie Biologique Industrielle et illustration de nos principales activités; point sur les recherches de trois jeunes doctorants. Leur travail consiste en la valorisation de ... [more ▼]

Présentation du laboratoire de Chimie Biologique Industrielle et illustration de nos principales activités; point sur les recherches de trois jeunes doctorants. Leur travail consiste en la valorisation de matrice biologique (déchets agricoles, industriels et forestiers,...) pour produire une gamme de nouveaux produits, biocarburants ou molécules chimiques. [less ▲]

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See detailBioresources and circular economy - Strategic approach for Wallonia
Richel, Aurore ULg

Speech/Talk (2015)

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See detailValorisation de la biomasse pour des applications vers des marchés de niche
Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2015, October)

Dans le contexte économique actuel de notre société, il est reconnu que des alternatives et des compléments à la pétrochimie devront être développés dans un futur proche. L’une des solutions possibles ... [more ▼]

Dans le contexte économique actuel de notre société, il est reconnu que des alternatives et des compléments à la pétrochimie devront être développés dans un futur proche. L’une des solutions possibles réside dans le développement de procédés permettant de substituer les actuels produits pétro-sourcés par de nouveaux matériaux bio-basés issus de la biomasse. Sur base de ce constat, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech et son laboratoire de Chimie Biologique Industrielle se positionnent sur cette thématique en abordant les aspects technico-économiques de transformation du végétal en une gamme de produits à haute valeur ajoutée à destination de divers secteurs applicatifs tels que les matériaux, le cosmétique, le pharmaceutique, etc. L'importance de l'agronomie et des techniques agricoles, combinée à une gestion appropriée des déchets en circuits courts, sont deux piliers discutés dans ce exposé et illustrés au travers de divers exemples stratégiques. [less ▲]

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See detailEt si nos déchets devenaient la source de nouveaux produits. Notion d'économie circulaire
Richel, Aurore ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Berchem, Thomas ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Description et illustration de nos activités visant à utiliser les déchets agricoles et forestiers, les déchets végétaux et industriels et nos déchets ménagers pour produire une gamme de nouveaux produits ... [more ▼]

Description et illustration de nos activités visant à utiliser les déchets agricoles et forestiers, les déchets végétaux et industriels et nos déchets ménagers pour produire une gamme de nouveaux produits, biocarburants ou molécules chimiques. Cette présentation se consacre aux nouveaux produits et polymères générés au départ de ces déchets dans une approche d'économie circulaire et de priorité des usages. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternatives to traditional valorisation ways for brewer’s spent grains
Villani, Nicolas ULg; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Poster (2015, August 05)

Brewer’s Spent Grains (BSG) are a highly available and cheap food supply chain waste (FSCW) that is mainly used in low-valued feed applications. This residue represents around 85 % of the total amount of ... [more ▼]

Brewer’s Spent Grains (BSG) are a highly available and cheap food supply chain waste (FSCW) that is mainly used in low-valued feed applications. This residue represents around 85 % of the total amount of waste produced by breweries with an annual tonnage of 3.4 million tons (on a dry basis) in the European Union. Based on its composition, BSG could be valorised in a wide variety of value-added products. For example, cellulose and remaining starch could easily be turned into ethanol or used as solid state fermentation media or as platform molecules for further chemical synthesis. These alternative valorisation ways could lead to an important economic relief through the whole brewery industry. Herein is described a multistep fractionation of BSG into cellulosic pulp, free sugars, proteins, germs and lignin using an Organosolv acidic pretreatment. This extraction procedure has been optimised in order to allow the most efficient and complete valorisation of BSG. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban biorefineries: a solution to manage and upgrade wastes in Wallonia ? Strategic aspects, proof-of-concept and industrial transfert
Richel, Aurore ULg

Scientific conference (2015, July)

“Urban biorefining” is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and/or solid residues and side-products, etc.), mainly of vegetal origin, for ... [more ▼]

“Urban biorefining” is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and/or solid residues and side-products, etc.), mainly of vegetal origin, for the production of an array of biofuels and bioproducts. This “urban biorefining” concept fits particularly with the economic, geographic and politic contexts and constraints of the Walloon Region (south part of Belgium). Indeed, Walloon Region is a very small territory (area of about 6,504 sq mi) with a temperate climate. Supply feedstock, mainly arising form forestry and agriculture, are thus rather restricted, submitted to importation, and subjected to non-standardized quality. Several examples of our regional strategy, still available on an industrial scale, are herein proposed and detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailWood Acid Hydrolysate as a Feedstock for Chlorella Growth
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Goffin, Dorothée ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

Scientific conference (2015, June 24)

In this work, the effect of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood acid hydrolysate on growth of Chlorella sorokin-iana was evaluated. Experiments carried out in this study show that neutralized wood acid ... [more ▼]

In this work, the effect of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood acid hydrolysate on growth of Chlorella sorokin-iana was evaluated. Experiments carried out in this study show that neutralized wood acid hydrolysate can vastly improve Chlorella growth, due to the presence of organic carbon. However, simultaneously the suppression of Chlorella growth at the onset of cultivation was observed, presumably due to inhibitory substances, and this effect was more pronounced with the increase of hydrolysate dosage. Beech wood acid hydrolysate can be a valuable feedstock to stimulate Chlorella growth, on condition that inhibitory level of hydrolysate loading is avoided. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic agricultural waste biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group)
Kamdem, Irenée ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Tiappi Deumaga, Mathias Florian ULg et al

in Waste Management & Research : The Journal of the International Solid Wastes & Public Cleansing Association (2015)

The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the ... [more ▼]

The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82±3.51 and 49.78±1.39 %w/w WCLB’s dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56±1.33 %w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47±0.00 %w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70±0.71 %w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2 %w/w of the LF’s DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210°C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerisation, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210 were the highest (41 and 21 µg mL-1, respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments. [less ▲]

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