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See detailRecognition of the latency-associated immediate early protein IE63 of varicella-zoster virus by human memory T-lymphocytes
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Kinchington, Paul R.; Debrus, Serge et al

in Journal of Immunology (1997), 159(6), 2802-2806

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alpha herpesvirus that establishes latency in sensory ganglia. Latency is characterized by the abundant expression of the immediate early protein 63 (IE63), whereas ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alpha herpesvirus that establishes latency in sensory ganglia. Latency is characterized by the abundant expression of the immediate early protein 63 (IE63), whereas other viral proteins have not yet been detected during the quiescent phase of VZV infection. The IE63 protein is a component of the virion and is expressed very early in the infectious cycle. The IE63 protein is also expressed in skin during episodes of varicella and herpes zoster. We have evaluated the cell-mediated immune response against IE63 in naturally immune adults with a history of chickenpox, by T lymphoproliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Among donors who had T cell proliferation to unfractionated VZV Ags from infected cell extract, 59% had T cell recognition of purified IE63. The CTL response to IE63 was equivalent to CTL recognition of IE62, the major tegument component of VZV whose immunogenicity has been previously described. IgG Abs against IE63 were detected in serum from healthy immune adults. These results indicate that IE63 is an important target of immunity to VZV. T cell recognition of IE63 is likely to be involved in controlling VZV reactivation from latency. [less ▲]

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See detailThe VZV IE63, expressed during latency, is an efficient target for the immune system
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Debrus, Serge; Kinchington, P. et al

Conference (1997)

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See detailThe VZV IE63, expressed during latency, is an efficient target for the immune system
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Debrus, Serge; Kinchington, P. et al

Conference (1997)

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See detailIn vitro models of non persistent and persistent infection of human and murine neuroblastoma cell lines by the varicella zoster virus
Schlabertz, Tania; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1997)

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See detailAssessment of pain in herpes zoster: lessons learned from antiviral trials
Dworkin, R. H.; Carrington, D.; Cunningham, A. et al

in Antiviral Research (1997), 33(2), 73-85

Pain typically accompanies acute herpes zoster and, in a proportion of patients, it persists well beyond rash healing. Pain must therefore be analyzed in trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster, but ... [more ▼]

Pain typically accompanies acute herpes zoster and, in a proportion of patients, it persists well beyond rash healing. Pain must therefore be analyzed in trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster, but different methods have been used to analyze pain in recent published trials. These reports are reviewed and their methodological strengths and weaknesses examined. Based on this review, recommendations for the design and analysis of future trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster are proposed. The principal recommendation is that antiviral efficacy should be evaluated both by distinguishing post-herpetic neuralgia from acute pain and by considering pain as a continuum. The primary endpoint should address both the prevalence and duration of post-herpetic neuralgia and should be examined in those patients who have post-herpetic neuralgia. Adopting the proposed recommendations in design and analysis of future trials should facilitate comparison across trials of the efficacy of antiviral agents in the treatment of herpes zoster. [less ▲]

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See detailLes prions, aspects moleculaires
Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1996), 51(11), 700-705

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See detailLessons to be learned from varicella-zoster virus
Rentier, Bernard ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1996), 53(1-2), 55-66

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus responsible for two human diseases: chicken pox and shingles. The virus has a respiratory port of entry. After two successive viremias, it reaches the ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus responsible for two human diseases: chicken pox and shingles. The virus has a respiratory port of entry. After two successive viremias, it reaches the skin where it causes typical lesions. There, it penetrates the peripheral nervous system and it remains latent in dorsal root ganglia. It is still debatable whether VZV persists in neurons or in satellite cells. During latency, VZV expresses a limited set of transcripts of its immediate early (IE) and early (E) genes but no protein has been detected. Mechanisms of reactivation from ganglia have not been identified. However, dysfunction of the cellular immune system appears to be involved in this process. The cell-associated nature of VZV has made it difficult to identify a temporal order of gene expression, but there appears to be a cascade mechanism as for HSV-1. The lack of high titre cell-free virions or recombination mutants has hindered so far the understanding of VZV gene functions. Five genes, ORFs 4, 10, 61, 62, and 63 that encode regulatory proteins could be involved in VZV latency. ORF4p activates gene promoters with basal activities. ORF10p seems to activate the ORF 62 promoter. ORF61p has trans-activating and trans-repressing activities. The major IE protein ORF62p, a virion component, has DNA-binding and regulatory functions, transactivates many VZV promoters and even regulates its own expression. ORF63p is a nuclear IE protein of yet unclear regulatory functions, abundantly expressed very early in infection. We have established an animal model of VZV latency in the rat nervous system, enabling us to study the expression of viral mRNA and protein expression during latency, and yielding results similar to those found in humans. This model is beginning to shed light on the molecular events in VZV persistent infection and on the regulatory mechanisms that maintain the virus in a latent stage in nerve cells. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancement of Varicella-Zoster virus infection in cell lines expressing ORF4- or ORF62-encoded proteins
Schoonbroodt, Sonia; Piette, Jacques ULg; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of Medical Virology (1996), 49(4), 264-273

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) open reading frames 4 (ORF4) and 62 (ORF62) encode putative immediate-early proteins (ORF4p and ORF62p, respectively) which are strong transactivators of other VZV genes and ... [more ▼]

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) open reading frames 4 (ORF4) and 62 (ORF62) encode putative immediate-early proteins (ORF4p and ORF62p, respectively) which are strong transactivators of other VZV genes and are involved in the very early stages of viral infection. ORF4p and ORF62p transactivate immediate-early and early gene promoters but have little or no effect on late gene promoters. To investigate the effect of ORF4p or ORF62p overexpression on the viral replication cycle, we constructed Vero cell lines expressing those genes under the control of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter. VZV OKA infection of these stably transformed cell lines was followed-up using VZV glycoprotein E (gE) antigen quantification and virus titration. Upon serial passaging of infection in these cell lines expressing functionally active ORF4p or ORF62p, a 5- to 10-fold increase in viral gE antigen production was observed. Viral titers also demonstrated a 2- to 5-fold increase in viral production in these transformed cell lines. These results emphasize the role that both ORF4p and ORF62p play in enhancing the VZV replicative cycle. (C) 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailIntracellular distribution of the ORF4 gene product of varicella-zoster virus is influenced by the IE62 protein
Defechereux, Patricia; Debrus, Serge; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of General Virology (1996), 77(Part 7), 1505-1513

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate ... [more ▼]

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 4-encoded protein (IE4) possesses transactivating properties for VZV genes as well as for genes of heterologous viruses, The major regulatory immediate-early protein of VZV (IE62) is a transactivator of VZV gene expression, In transfection assays, IE4 has been shown to enhance activation induced by IE62, To investigate the functional interactions underlying this observation, indirect immunofluorescence studies were undertaken to determine whether IE62 could influence IE4 intracellular localization in transfected cells, In single transfections, IE4 was predominantly found in cytoplasm, In cotransfection with IE62, the IE4 localization pattern was altered, with nuclear staining predominating over cytoplasmic staining, This effect was specific to the IE62 protein since the gene products of ORF63 and ORF61, which are also regulatory proteins, did not influence IE4 distribution, The use of IE62 mutants indicated that IE62 influence is independent of its transactivation function and that the integrity of regions 3 and 4 is required, IE62 remained nuclear whether IE4 was present or not, These observations underline differences in the regulation of gene expression between VZV proteins and their herpes simplex virus type 1 homologues, In infected cells, IE4 was only sometimes found to colocalize with IE62 in nuclei, This observation suggests that when all VZV proteins are present, complex interactions probably occur which could diminish the influence of IE62. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in disseminated fatal infections
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Pathology (1996), 49(3), 243-248

AIMS: To study the cutaneous and visceral distribution of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in fatal infections. METHODS: Standard histology, immunohistochemistry (monoclonal ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To study the cutaneous and visceral distribution of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in fatal infections. METHODS: Standard histology, immunohistochemistry (monoclonal antibodies VL8 and VL2 and polyclonal antibody IE63 directed against VZV; monoclonal antibodies IBD4 and HH2 and polyclonal antibodies directed against HSVI and HSVII) and in situ hybridisation (anti-HSV and anti-VZV probes) were applied to formalin fixed, paraffin wax sections. RESULTS: On histological examination, Herpesviridae infection was evident in various organs including the lungs, liver and skin. In addition, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation revealed the presence of HSV and VZV antigens and nucleic acids in several cell types and tissues showing no cytopathological alterations suggestive of Herpesviridae infection. The organs with histological evidence of infection also contained VZV or HSV antigens and their genes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that organ failure in disseminated VZV and HSV infections is primarily caused by HSV or VZV induced cell damage and lysis. They also indicate that immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation can provide an accurate, type-specific diagnosis on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue even when classic histological and cytological characteristics are lacking. [less ▲]

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See detailCritères de l'IHMF pour le traitement des infections à VZV
Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Virologics (1996), (Mars), 4-5

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See detailAnalysis of VZV IE62 protein DNA binding sites on VZV gene promoters
Baudoux, Laurence; Remacle, V.; Defechereux, Patricia et al

Conference (1996)

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See detailVaricella-zoster virus : a cause of waxing and waning vasculitis. The New England Journal of Medicine case 5-1995 revisited
Gilden, D. H.; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B. K.; Wellish, M. et al

in Neurology (1996), 47(6), 1441-1446

A 73-year-old man developed an ill-defined fatal vasculitis involving the central nervous system. The case report was published as a clinicopathologic exercise in February 1995 in The New England Journal ... [more ▼]

A 73-year-old man developed an ill-defined fatal vasculitis involving the central nervous system. The case report was published as a clinicopathologic exercise in February 1995 in The New England Journal of Medicine.(1) We restudied the pathologic material and found both varicella tester virus (VZV) DNA and VZV-specific antigen, but not herpes simplex virus (HSV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA or HSV- or CMV-specific antigen, in three of the five cerebral arteries examined. The inflammatory response, disruption of the internal elastic lamina, and detection of viral antigen were patchy from one artery to another, as well as within a given artery. A search for VZV should be conducted in cases of vasculitis when both the central and peripheral nervous systems are involved, when focal narrowing is present in large arteries, when brain imaging reveals infarction in gray and white matter, both deep and superficial, and when white matter is disproportionally involved. Zosteriform rash is not required for diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of protein encoded by varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 in latently infected human ganglionic neurons
Mahalingam, Ravy; Wellish, Mary; Cohrs, Randall et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1996), 93(5), 2122-2124

The ganglionic cell type in which varicellazoster virus (VZV) is latent in humans was analyzed by using antibodies raised against in vitro-expressed VZV open reading frame 63 protein, VZV open reading ... [more ▼]

The ganglionic cell type in which varicellazoster virus (VZV) is latent in humans was analyzed by using antibodies raised against in vitro-expressed VZV open reading frame 63 protein, VZV open reading frame 63 protein was detected exclusively in the cytoplasm of neurons of latently infected human trigeminal and thoracic ganglia. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a herpesvirus protein expressed during latency in the human nervous system. [less ▲]

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See detailNew anti-herpetic strategies
Rentier, Bernard ULg

Conference (1995, October 10)

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See detailDistribution of varicella-zoster virus gpI and gpII and corresponding genome sequences in the skin
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Debrus, S. et al

in Journal of Medical Virology (1995), 46(2), 91-96

In the course of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, some viral capsid antigens are found in the epidermis and dermis. The aim of this study was to investigate the localisation of two major VZV ... [more ▼]

In the course of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, some viral capsid antigens are found in the epidermis and dermis. The aim of this study was to investigate the localisation of two major VZV glycoproteins (gpI and gpII) and of their respective genes in the skin. The distribution of VZV gpI and II in 27 formalin fixed paraffin embedded skin biopsies from herpes tester eruptions were compared by immunohistochemistry. Double immunostaining was carried our to identify infected cells. The presence of viral nucleic acids coding for gpI and gpII was examined by in situ hybridisation. The distribution of gpI and gpII and their corresponding genome sequences was similar in the epidermis, gpI and gpII were also detected in dermal FXIIIa positive dendrocytes, in Mac 387 and CD68 positive macrophages, and in perineural and endothelial cells. However, the corresponding viral nucleic acids were rarely and barely detected in these cells of the dermis. It is concluded that VZV infection of epithelial cells follows a different course than in dermal cells. (C) 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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