References of "Reiter, Sigrid"
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See detailAnalysis of Passive cooling and heating potential in Vietnam using Graphical Method and Typical Meteorological Year weather file
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of CISBAT 2011 (2011, September 15)

This paper studies the potential to improve thermal comfort in Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. First, a thermal comfort zone for the Vietnamese is proposed by using the PMV-PPD heat balance model of ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the potential to improve thermal comfort in Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. First, a thermal comfort zone for the Vietnamese is proposed by using the PMV-PPD heat balance model of Fanger and the effects of adaptive mechanism of the people living in tropical hot humid region. Then, the comfort zone is enlarged using the algorithms proposed by the authors to calculate the effects of the passive heating and cooling strategies. Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data are used for graphically printing of hourly environmental parameters on the psychrometric chart and for climate analysis, subsequently. The limitation and the scope of this method are also specified. Results of this study show that in all climatic zones of Vietnam, natural ventilation is an efficient cooling solution, low-cost and easy to apply. Thermal comfort improvement of natural ventilation strategy varies with the climatic zones, increasing from 17.1% in Hanoi, 21% in Danang to 31.4% in Hochiminh city. Meanwhile, passive solar heating is not really effective since winter in Vietnam is usually not too cold and the capacity of the passive solar collector system is usually limited. Direct evaporative cooling also has a great cooling effect compared with that of natural ventilation, but significant humidity augmentation in the air in hot and humid conditions may be inappropriate. Seasonal analysis reveals that natural ventilation gives higher performance than other methods and is particularly effective in mild seasons. During 12 months in Hanoi, the analysis clearly shows significant contribution of natural ventilation in the period from April to October during which comfort period achieved might vary from 30% to 81%. The combination of all passive strategies considerably improves thermal comfort: 22.6%, 31.7% and 47.6% of total time in Hanoi, Danang and Hochiminh city, respectively. Finally, the findings of this study indicate that conventional heating and cooling methods are also needed during extreme weather conditions in summer and winter, especially in Hanoi. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy requirements and solar availability in suburban areas: the influence of built density in an existing district
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; De Meester, Tatiana; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the International Conference CISBAT 2011 - Clean Tech for sustainable buildings - From Nano to urban scale (2011) (2011, September)

Although the environmental impacts of urban sprawl and their associated energy consumptions are now well documented, it remains a concern in many regions. In the current context of growing interest in ... [more ▼]

Although the environmental impacts of urban sprawl and their associated energy consumptions are now well documented, it remains a concern in many regions. In the current context of growing interest in environmental issues, local authorities become aware of this concern and are now trying to limit the development of new low-density suburban districts while households still continue to promote dispersed individual housing types located outside city centres. In this context, the paper proposes to investigate the influence of an increase in built density, in existing suburban neighbourhoods. The idea is to favour a higher built density in existing neighbourhoods instead of building new low-density neighbourhoods on unbuilt areas. The impacts of four renewal strategies dealing with the density are assessed, at the neighbourhood scale, for three indicators: (1) the potential energy savings for heating houses, (2) the solar energy received by the facades and roofs, as dispersed individual housing types are known to be those that receive most solar gains and (3) the potential area of land savings. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban Sprawl and Travel Energy Consumption: the Case of the Walloon Region of Belgium
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Dujardin, Sébastien ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg et al

in Irish Transport Research Network Conference, Energy & Transport, Programme and Proceedings (2011, August)

In the actual context of growing interests in environmental issues, reducing energy consumption in the transport sector, which represents 27% of final energy in the Walloon region of Belgium, appears as ... [more ▼]

In the actual context of growing interests in environmental issues, reducing energy consumption in the transport sector, which represents 27% of final energy in the Walloon region of Belgium, appears as an important policy target. Although it is often argued that more compact urban forms would significantly reduce transport energy consumption, urban sprawl is a concern in a large part of the regional territory. Moreover, assessment tools dedicated to transport energy consumption are lacking. In this context, the paper first presents a quantitative method developed to assess the transport system in the Walloon region of Belgium. Statistical data available at the neighbourhood scale and characteristics of cars and public vehicles are used to predict transport needs and assess energy consumption as far as home-to-work and home-to-school travels are concerned. Three index are presented and mapped (the energy performance index, the modal share and the mean distance travelled) to investigate the interdependences between spatial planning, urban sprawl and travel energy consumption in the Walloon region of Belgium. Three complementary scales are used: the “municipality” scale allows to highlight the general structure of the territory whereas the “former municipality” and the “census block” scales (the smallest geographical unit in which data are available in Belgium) highlight more detailed phenomenon. The evolution of the performance index between 1991 and 2001 and the difference in energy performance between home-to-work and home-to-school travels are also presented. Our main findings are presented and highlight that urban planning acts upon travel energy consumption. We show particularly that main cities present low energy consumption. However, a local scale approach is useful to highlight the existence of secondary suburban and rural cores presenting low transport energy consumption. In this respect, distance from home to destination is paramount while the mode of transport used has a lower impact. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of occupation modes on building heating loads: the case of a detached house located in a suburban area
de Meester, Tatiana; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Evrard Arnaud, Bodard Magali (Ed.) PLEA 2011 Architecture & Sustainable Development, Proceedings (2011, July)

Occupants’ behaviour is known to have a great influence on energetic demand, management and consumptions of a building. However, parameters related to inhabitants’ lifestyle are often neglected in ... [more ▼]

Occupants’ behaviour is known to have a great influence on energetic demand, management and consumptions of a building. However, parameters related to inhabitants’ lifestyle are often neglected in energetic studies and researches that often focus on insulation, ventilation or climate. In this context, the aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of three parameters related to human behaviour (the family size and the modes of occupations, the management of the heating system and the management of the heated area) on the housing heating loads of a standard dwelling. The case study chosen for this analysis is a detached house located in a suburban area. Five levels of insulation are tested (no insulation, an intermediate level corresponding to 3 cm of insulation, the current standard for new buildings in the Walloon region of Belgium, the low energy standard and the passive house standard) in order to highlight the impact and the interactions between occupation modes and insulation levels. The relevance of the adaptation of the living area of the house according to the evolution of the family size is finally discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an urban typology to assess residential environmental performance at the city scale
Wallemacq, Véronique; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Evrard Arnaud, Bodard Magali (Ed.) Proceedings of International Conference PLEA 2011 : Architecture & Sustainable Development (2011, July)

In this research, a typology of urban blocks is drawn up for the urban area of Liege. This typology of urban blocks is organized into a set of themes according to various environmental parameters. This ... [more ▼]

In this research, a typology of urban blocks is drawn up for the urban area of Liege. This typology of urban blocks is organized into a set of themes according to various environmental parameters. This paper presents the energy part of this typology on the residential building stock of Liege, which includes four topics: residential buildings energy consumption; transport energy consumption of residents; development potentialities of public transport and development potentialities of energy networks. The proposed typology was elaborated through the use of GIS tools combined with a statistical treatment of several specific criteria at the urban block scale. For each class of this typology, a representative block is selected for further energy simulations in order to model residential energy use related to buildings, transport and energy networks at the city scale. The methodology developed in this paper is adapted to urban, suburban and rural zones. It can thus be adapted and/or reproduced on many other territories in Belgium but also in Europe or even further. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards more sustainable neighbourhoods: are good practices reproducible and extensible?
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Evrard Arnaud, Bodard Magali (Ed.) Proceedings of International Conference PLEA 2011 : Architecture & Sustainable Development (2011, July)

Several urban neighbourhoods built or retrofitted from the 1990s have become renowned for their sustainability and are often presented as good practices, as far as sustainable development and low energy ... [more ▼]

Several urban neighbourhoods built or retrofitted from the 1990s have become renowned for their sustainability and are often presented as good practices, as far as sustainable development and low energy architecture are concerned. Although these “sustainable neighbourhoods” receive a great deal of media coverage, they seem to stay “single” experiments and are rarely repeated in other territories or at larger scales. This paper first discusses the European context, which fostered the development of these pilot experiments. It then proposes a rereading of eight famous sustainable neighbourhoods in an analytic way that is more than descriptive to highlight good practices to repeat and weaknesses to avoid and question the reproducibility of these experiments. The settings grid, which describes the achievement conditions and some common characteristics of these urban projects, highlighted through this analysis, is compared with a Belgian dwelling project, and this comparison allows us to explain why it can be difficult to extend these concepts more widely. Finally, the paper proposes several guidelines to promote energy efficiency and sustainability at the urban scale in order to support the planning of more sustainable urban projects. [less ▲]

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See detailA validation process for CFD use in building physics – Study of the different length scales
Barbason, Mathieu ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of ROOMVENT 2011 (2011, June)

Due to growing environmental concerns, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is more and more used in building physics. Until today, the research community has validated separately several cases but there is ... [more ▼]

Due to growing environmental concerns, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is more and more used in building physics. Until today, the research community has validated separately several cases but there is no global validation process for this method. The aim of this paper is to provide a way for new users to develop and improve their CFD skills. This paper deals with the different geometry scales involved in building physics. Experimental results are available and will assess the ability of CFD to predict accurately the thermal behaviour of buildings. Thanks to this validation process, building engineers and architects can improve their simulations results and their understanding of the physical phenomena in building physics. [less ▲]

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See detailChromatic characterization of urban fragments: Validation of a user-oriented protocol through the study of Hors-Château street (Liège, Belgium)
Nguyen, Ngoc Luan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Schindler, Verena M.; Cuber, Stefan (Eds.) AIC 2011, Interaction of Colour & Light in the Arts and Sciences, Midterm Meeting of the International Color Association, Zurich, Switzerland, 7-10 June 2011: Book of Abstracts (2011, June)

A growing need for objective assessment of colour has been observed in recent years in the field of urban design. In contrast to other building attributes (shape, size or location), which are easy to ... [more ▼]

A growing need for objective assessment of colour has been observed in recent years in the field of urban design. In contrast to other building attributes (shape, size or location), which are easy to specify, urban design codes generally define expected chromatic attributes of building façades through indirect regulations considering materials. Some municipalities propose colour charts as guidance tools for urban regulation which present some disadvantages. This obvious lack of affordable instruments in a purpose of characterization or regulation was the main motivation of this research. The aim of this paper is to present a user-oriented protocol which can be applied to characterize chromatic attributes of an urban fragment. The challenge is to provide quantitative answers to these two questions: how is colour organized, how does it develop a structure in the city? The main purpose of the research is hence to investigate stable colour typologies within the city; each urban area (historic center, suburban housing district, commercial zone, etc.) being characterized by a specific colour palette. [less ▲]

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See detailAn investigation on climate responsive design strategies of vernacular housing in Vietnam
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Tran, Quoc Bao; Tran, Duc Quang et al

in Building & Environment (2011), 46

Energy conservation issues and environmental problems in recent years have increased interest in traditional architecture which is well known for its energy saving designs. This paper thoroughly ... [more ▼]

Energy conservation issues and environmental problems in recent years have increased interest in traditional architecture which is well known for its energy saving designs. This paper thoroughly investigates vernacular housing designs and evaluates on the aspect of building physics. A new research methodology which is adapted to the natural and social context of Vietnam was proposed and applied. The process was carried out step by step, including: climate zoning, systematic analysis, in-situ survey and building simulations. The results of this study indicate that vernacular housing in Vietnam is creatively adapted to the local natural conditions and uses various climate responsive strategies. Through this study, the most frequently used strategies and their effectiveness were derived. The authors also found that under extreme weather conditions, traditional designs might not be sufficient to maintain indoor thermal comfort. [less ▲]

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See detailLe confort du piéton dans l'espace public
Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2011, April 08)

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See detailComparative study of the life cycle profile of residential masonry and steel framed buildings in Belgium
Massetto de Aquino, Ligia; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Rossi, Barbara ULg

in Final International Conference of COST Action C25 - Sustainability of Constructions : Towards a better built environment: Innsbruck 3-5 February 2011 (2011, February)

This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of two buildings similar in dimensions, orientations, climate and purpose but designed for Belgium using two different construction systems: traditional ... [more ▼]

This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of two buildings similar in dimensions, orientations, climate and purpose but designed for Belgium using two different construction systems: traditional masonry made of concrete blocks, insulation and ceramic bricks and light gauge steel framing as the load carrying component. The comparison between the LCA focuses on the CO2 emission equivalent for each building’s life cycle. After a short sensitivity analysis, the results of the assessment are compared against each other and the conclusions are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of ceiling configurations on indoor air motion and ventilation flow rates
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Building & Environment (2011), (46), 1211-1222

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a building parameter, namely ceiling configuration, on indoor natural ventilation. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Phoenics was used ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a building parameter, namely ceiling configuration, on indoor natural ventilation. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Phoenics was used with the RNG k-ɛ turbulence model to study wind motion and ventilation flow rates inside the building. All the CFD boundary conditions were described. The simulation results were first validated by wind tunnel experiment results in detail, and then used to compare rooms with various ceiling configurations in different cases. The simulation results generated matched the experimental results confirming the accuracy of the RNG k-ɛ turbulence model to successfully predict indoor wind motion for this study. Our main results reveal that ceiling configurations have certain effects on indoor airflow and ventilation flow rates although these effects are fairly minor. [less ▲]

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See detailConcevoir des bâtiments économes en énergie
Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Nguyen, Ngoc Luan ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2011)

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See detailQuality indicators for district heating networks
Pacot, Pierre-Emmanuel ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the International Conference CISBAT 2011 - Clean Tech for sustainable buildings - From Nano to urban scale (2011)

District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. These indicators express ... [more ▼]

District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. These indicators express district heating performances through different points of view. Four ones are developed in this study: energy sources, efficiencies, heat delivering equipments characteristics and environmental efficiency as a sum up. First, the only energy indicator generally used is the primary energy factor (PEF), which quantifies the primary energy use of a device. However it does not give a complete insight of the whole energy use of district heating networks. Two other parameters have to be stated for this purpose: primary energy efficiency and the energy share. Second, district heating efficiencies are generally not been taken into account unless sometimes the only amount of heat losses. A first indicator is defined to quantify networks heat losses relatively to the amount of heat delivered to customers. To take heat plant efficiencies into account, a more global indicator is defined. Its definition is close to a seasonal efficiency and it permits comparisons with other heating systems. Third, indicators have been defined for heat plants equipments. Their aim is to permit stakeholders to check networks management of district heating companies. Two indicators are defined: one measures subscripted power relatively to network length and the other one represents the fictitious number of plants working hours while maximum plants power was delivered all the year. Finally, environmental efficiency is stated. This analysis can include different aspects: green house gas emissions, water use and other pollutants emissions. For both design and management of district heating networks, an indicator representing CO2 emissions appears to be the most suitable one. Expressed relatively to delivered energy, it can be seen as a sum up of previous indicators because result of bad performances increases these emissions. In this paper, these eight indicators are defined and their use is highlighted by a comparison of four different Finnish district heating networks. [less ▲]

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See detailDistrict heating and energy indicators: a method to assess the link between urban planning characteristics and energy efficiency of district heating networks
Pacot, Pierre-Emmanuel ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proc. of The 7th international symposium on heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (2011)

District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. Moreover, the only energy ... [more ▼]

District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. Moreover, the only energy indicator generally used is the primary energy factor (PEF), which quantifies the primary energy use of a device. However it does not give a complete insight of the whole energy use of district heating networks. In this paper, three other energy indicators are defined to enhance their energy analysis. The use of these energy indicators is highlighted by an application on a specific heating district network and by a sensitivity analysis. Finally, a methodology to assess the link between urban characteristics and energy district heating performance is proposed, based on the developed energy indicators. [less ▲]

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See detailCity Energy Management : A Case Study on the Area of Liège in Belgium
Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Wallemacq, Véronique

in Rückermann, Claus-Peter; Wolfson, Ouri (Eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference GEOProcessing 2011 (2011)

Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this research, a typology of urban blocks is ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this research, a typology of urban blocks is drawn up for the urban area of Liège through the use of GIS tools in order to assess energy uses of residential buildings and transport of residents at the city scale. For each class of this typology, a representative block is selected in order to model energy use at the city scale, as well as to consider the possible evolution of the city energy consumption and to simulate the effects of some strategies of urban renewal. An application study on the residential buildings energy consumption part of this typology is given to compare different energy management strategies. This case study allow to conclude that the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings and even more selective energy policies on new buildings are not sufficient to widely decrease the energy consumption of Liège building stock but that renovation of the existing building stock has a much larger positive impact on city energy consumption reductions. These conclusions put forward the benefits of using urban GIS for policymaking and city management. Energy management is an important GIS application field. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of the Large Eddy Simulation model in building
Barbason, Mathieu ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the 8th Conference on System Simulation in Buildings (2010, December)

Environmental concerns and growing computer resources have promoted the emergence of new simulation tools and especially Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Turbulence modelling is a key for a good ... [more ▼]

Environmental concerns and growing computer resources have promoted the emergence of new simulation tools and especially Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Turbulence modelling is a key for a good simulation. Unfortunately, models are numerous: Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), Large Eddy Simulation (LES), etc. Moreover, there are lots of physical phenomena involved in building physics. Consequently, it is often difficult for a non-expert user to choose efficiently their models. This paper describes results obtained with LES for three different cases. These cases were retained to represent the most common situations encounter in building physics. Results are good and so the use of LES is validated for building physics simulations. RANS and DES results are also introduced to have a global view of the capacity of CFD simulations. RANS results are sufficient for the most current applications in building physics. But LES and DES can improve the results and give complementary data. [less ▲]

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See detailA method to assess transport consumptions in suburban areas
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2010, October 21)

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See detailA method to assess global energy requirements of suburban areas at the neighbourhood scale
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conservation in buildings (2010, August)

This article presents the method developed to assess existing suburban neighbourhoods in order to improve their energy efficiency. It combines the use of dynamic simulation tools to evaluate energy ... [more ▼]

This article presents the method developed to assess existing suburban neighbourhoods in order to improve their energy efficiency. It combines the use of dynamic simulation tools to evaluate energy requirements for heating and lighting residential buildings, a statistical approach to assess the transport system and a simplified calculation to take also into account public lighting. The method is completed by a life-cycle analysis of buildings. An application is presented concerning the comparison of three typical suburban structures in the Walloon region of Belgium. The influence of parameters which are often underestimated, like distribution of buildings or location, on the global energy performances of suburban fabrics is tested. The results of this exercise are presented and its limits are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLife Cycle Assessment of Buildings - a review
Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of ArcelorMittal International Network in Steel Construction 2010 : Sustainability Workshop (2010, July 07)

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