References of "Reiter, Sigrid"
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See detailA validation and learning process for CFD simulations of buildings (Keynote speaker)
Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2012, January 15)

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See detailCombining Territorial Data With Thermal Simulations to Improve Energy Management of Suburban Areas
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Petel, Maud; Hamdi, Asma et al

in Proceedings of GEOProcessing 2012 (2012, January)

Urban sprawl has been identified as a major issue for sustainable development. Energy consumption in suburban buildings, in particular, is a widespread issue because detached types of houses require ... [more ▼]

Urban sprawl has been identified as a major issue for sustainable development. Energy consumption in suburban buildings, in particular, is a widespread issue because detached types of houses require significantly more energy to be heated than more compact urban forms. Energy efficiency is often presented as a viable approach to the mitigation of climate change, but research and studies mainly contend with individual buildings and do not address this issue at larger territorial scales or for a whole building stock. In this respect, this paper first presents a morphological definition of urban sprawl. This definition uses territorial and cadastral data available for the Walloon region of Belgium. Using this definition, a suburban type classification adapted to thermal studies is drawn up. A representative block of each type is selected to model energy use and to determine the total energy consumption of the whole suburban building stock. An application is then presented concerning a comparison of potential energy savings associated with several renovation strategies. The results of this exercise are presented and highlight the benefits of combining Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools, territorial data and thermal simulations for the efficient energy management of suburban areas at the scale of the whole building stock. [less ▲]

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See detailLife-cycle assessment of residential buildings in three different European locations, case study
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Building & Environment (2012), 51

The paper presents the comparative results of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of one residential building with two constructive systems in Brussels and one steel frame house located in three different ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the comparative results of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of one residential building with two constructive systems in Brussels and one steel frame house located in three different European towns: Brussels (Belgium), Coimbra (Portugal) and Luleå (Sweden). In a recent study, a modular building was studied in Coimbra and Luleå. It was shown that in terms of CO2 emissions, the Use Stage was the most harmful stage during the building life-cycle for Coimbra climate. Contrarily, in Luleå, it was the Product Stage, despite energy consumption being higher than Coimbra, due to the way electricity and heat are generated. In the present study, two structural systems are first compared for the Belgian house: steel frame and traditional masonry. A different life-cycle scenario is taken into account for the steel frame house for the three different locations, in which the monthly temperatures, energy mix, heating and cooling systems are defined. The LCA is carried out using the basic tool described in the companion paper. It is worth recalling that the results obtained with the basic tool were verified against Pleiades+Comfie and Equer software, enabling to carry out a complete LCA, for Brussels. Our results confirm that for all the three climates, the Use Stage (Operational energy) is the most harmful period during the building life-cycle and that the energy mix of the country strongly influences the equivalent CO2 emissions related to the Use Stage (Operational carbon) and may entirely reverse the conclusions about the life-cycle carbon footprint of the building. [less ▲]

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See detailLife-cycle assessment of residential buildings in three different European locations, basic tool
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Glaumann, Mauritz et al

in Building & Environment (2012), 51

The paper deals with the development of a tool used for the life cycle assessment of residential buildings located in three different European towns: Brussels (Belgium), Coimbra (Portugal) and Luleå ... [more ▼]

The paper deals with the development of a tool used for the life cycle assessment of residential buildings located in three different European towns: Brussels (Belgium), Coimbra (Portugal) and Luleå (Sweden). The basic tool focuses on the structure and the materials of the buildings and permits the evaluation of the Embodied energy, Embodied carbon and yearly energy consumption. For that purpose, a different set of original data is taken into account for each location, in which the monthly temperatures, energy mix, heating and cooling systems are defined. The energy consumption, being for heating space or water, for cooling or for lighting is transformed into CO2 emissions to deduce the Operational carbon as well. The influence of the energy mix can therefore be assessed in the basic tool. As a matter of fact, the heating and cooling systems habitually used in the three countries are also of great importance. The District Heating system, is, for instance, incorporated in the basic tool. The presence of solar water heater or photovoltaic panels is also strongly influencing the operational carbon. After a short literature review on building LCA and the description of the basic tool, the software Pleiades+Comfie combined with Equer is used to achieve the complete LCA for one building using two different load bearing frames. The results of the calculations for Brussels climate are verified against these software results. The dependence of the results to parameters such as climate, energy mix and habits is then discussed in the companion paper. [less ▲]

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See detailToward low energy cities : A case study of the urban area of Liège
Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg

in Journal of Industrial Ecology (2012), 16(6), 829-838

Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this article, a methodology is proposed for ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this article, a methodology is proposed for assessing residential energy uses for buildings and transport at the city scale. This method is based on the use of GIS tools combined with a statistical treatment of urban and transport criteria. The methodology allows to model buildings and transport energy use at the city scale, as well as to consider the possible evolution of the city energy consumption and to simulate the effects of some strategies of urban renewal. An application is given to study different energy management strategies for the urban area of Liège. Buildings and transport energy consumption are compared at the city scale and their possible evolution in the future is highlighted. Forecast scenarios on future energy policies for Liège’s building stock show that the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings and even more selective energy policies applied only on new buildings are not sufficient to widely decrease buildings energy consumptions at the city scale. The renovation of the existing building stock has a much larger positive impact on city energy consumption reductions. The methodology developed in this article can be adapted and/or reproduced on many other urban regions in Belgium but also in Europe or even further. [less ▲]

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See detailA Method to Evaluate the Energy Consumption of Suburban Neighbourhoods
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in HVAC&R Research (2012), 18(1-2), 88-99

Energy use in buildings, transportation systems and lighting networks represents a significant contribution to the overall energy consumption in urban and suburban areas. This paper presents a method to ... [more ▼]

Energy use in buildings, transportation systems and lighting networks represents a significant contribution to the overall energy consumption in urban and suburban areas. This paper presents a method to evaluate the energy consumption of suburban neighborhoods from these three points of view, aiming to highlight the most relevant variables linking urban form and neighborhoods energy consumptions. The method includes three parts: 1) a computational approach combining dynamic simulation tools and a database of building typologies to determine the energy consumed in heating; 2) an empirical approach to assess the energy consumed by transportation systems (four purposes of travel are taking into account: work, school, leisure and shopping); and 3) a simplified approach to calculate the energy consumed by public lighting. Results from the application of the method to three characteristic suburban neighborhoods in Belgium are presented along with a life cycle energy assessment of buildings. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of building and neighborhood characteristics and of building inhabitant behavior on calculated energy consumption. Results from the analysis show that building insulation, building distribution, heating system management and neighborhood location are critically important factors in the energy efficiency of suburban residential areas. [less ▲]

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See detailSAFE
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; De Meester, Tatiana; Winant, Julien ULg et al

Software (2012)

L’outil informatique développé est un outil interactif accessible gratuitement sur le web qui comprend trois outils de modélisation énergétique permettant d’évaluer les consommations énergétiques liées au ... [more ▼]

L’outil informatique développé est un outil interactif accessible gratuitement sur le web qui comprend trois outils de modélisation énergétique permettant d’évaluer les consommations énergétiques liées au chauffage d'une habitation ou d'un quartier résidentiel ainsi qu’aux déplacements de leurs habitants, à les comparer et à identifier, sur cette base, les actions les plus efficaces à mener pour réduire leur consommation énergétique globale. [less ▲]

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See detailAn investigation on thermal performance of a low cost apartment in hot humid climate of Danang
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Energy and Buildings (2012), 47

Low cost apartment has recently become one of the essential state policies to deal with rapid urbanisation and population boom in Vietnam. Thermal performance of a low cost apartment in Danang was ... [more ▼]

Low cost apartment has recently become one of the essential state policies to deal with rapid urbanisation and population boom in Vietnam. Thermal performance of a low cost apartment in Danang was examined using building simulation approach. The simulated results created by COMFIE were first calibrated by comparing them with measured data. The statistical indicators CV(RMSE) and NMBE as well as linear regression analysis were applied to assess the calibration. The calibrated model was then used to perform whole year simulations in which various ventilation and design strategies were applied. Thermal comfort potentials of these strategies were graphically defined by Brager’s adaptive comfort model from which the efficiency of each strategy was quantitatively determined. In the present paper, details of the calibration approach, assessment of simulated results and comparison of the findings were discussed. Results of these analyses revealed many notable findings which are in good agreement with those obtained from other publications. The limitation and recommendations for further study are also outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet de recherches SAFE
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; De Meester, Tatiana; De Herde, André et al

Poster (2011, December 08)

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See detailA validation process for CFD use in building physics – study of contaminant dispersion.
Barbason, Mathieu ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the 5th international conference on advanced computational methods in engineering (2011, November)

Growing interests in environmental concerns oblige building engineers to develop new approaches and to get used to new skills. Among them, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) holds more and more importance ... [more ▼]

Growing interests in environmental concerns oblige building engineers to develop new approaches and to get used to new skills. Among them, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) holds more and more importance. This technique can help to improve the comfort of the occupants but also to predict very early building energy performance. Moreover, it is possible to study the quality of the air. This last point will greatly help building engineers to improve sanitary conditions in various cases such as hospitals, clean rooms or even in classical buildings. However, this approach is still new and need to be validated. Indeed, CFD is still new in the frame of building physics. This paper aims to prove the ability of CFD to predict accurately contaminant dispersion and to demonstrate the breakthroughs that CFD can bring in the near future. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling approach in building physics.
Barbason, Mathieu ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2011, November)

CFD and Multizone Simulations can be coupled to improve their performance. This presentation tackles the possibilities of this technique and its difficulties.

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See detailImproving energy efficiency of existing suburban areas through district energy planning
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of ISHVAC 2011 (2011, November)

Urban sprawl represents a significant contribution to the overall energy consumption of a territory for energy needs in buildings and for transport. It is a huge concern in Belgium where public ... [more ▼]

Urban sprawl represents a significant contribution to the overall energy consumption of a territory for energy needs in buildings and for transport. It is a huge concern in Belgium where public authorities face the following question: “what to do with existing low-density districts that require a lot of resources?” while households still continue to favour this kind of dwellings. In this context, the paper draws up a typological classification of reference Walloon suburban blocks. Then, energy savings relating to several types of renewal strategy are evaluated. These strategies deal with the measures to reduce heat demand in buildings, to increase the built density and to reduce energy consumption in the transport sector. Results from this analysis show that a strong potential exists to improve energy efficiency in existing suburban districts. Building insulation and travel distances are critically important factors. Solar gains on the roofs are huge even if the built density is increased. [less ▲]

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See detailLife-cycle carbon footprint of a residential steel framed building in different climates
Rossi, Barbara ULg; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in World Sustainable Building Conference: SB11, Helsinki 18-21 October 2011 (2011, October 19)

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See detailA method to compare computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and multizonal dynamics simulations in buildings physics
Deltour, Jade; Van Moeseke, Geoffrey; Barbason, Mathieu ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Conference CISBAT 2011 - Clean Tech for sustainable buildings - From Nano to Urban scale (2011, September 15)

This paper focuses on the development of a new evaluation method that combines data obtained by two different approaches: “multizonal dynamics” and “computational fluid dynamics (CFD)”. This research is a ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the development of a new evaluation method that combines data obtained by two different approaches: “multizonal dynamics” and “computational fluid dynamics (CFD)”. This research is a part of a project whose the main objective is to define guidelines for architects and buildings engineers. This guidelines aims at determining the adequate approach needed to evaluate the occupant thermal comfort and the building energy consumption for cooling and heating. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Passive cooling and heating potential in Vietnam using Graphical Method and Typical Meteorological Year weather file
Nguyen, Anh Tuan ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of CISBAT 2011 (2011, September 15)

This paper studies the potential to improve thermal comfort in Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. First, a thermal comfort zone for the Vietnamese is proposed by using the PMV-PPD heat balance model of ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the potential to improve thermal comfort in Vietnam thanks to passive strategies. First, a thermal comfort zone for the Vietnamese is proposed by using the PMV-PPD heat balance model of Fanger and the effects of adaptive mechanism of the people living in tropical hot humid region. Then, the comfort zone is enlarged using the algorithms proposed by the authors to calculate the effects of the passive heating and cooling strategies. Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data are used for graphically printing of hourly environmental parameters on the psychrometric chart and for climate analysis, subsequently. The limitation and the scope of this method are also specified. Results of this study show that in all climatic zones of Vietnam, natural ventilation is an efficient cooling solution, low-cost and easy to apply. Thermal comfort improvement of natural ventilation strategy varies with the climatic zones, increasing from 17.1% in Hanoi, 21% in Danang to 31.4% in Hochiminh city. Meanwhile, passive solar heating is not really effective since winter in Vietnam is usually not too cold and the capacity of the passive solar collector system is usually limited. Direct evaporative cooling also has a great cooling effect compared with that of natural ventilation, but significant humidity augmentation in the air in hot and humid conditions may be inappropriate. Seasonal analysis reveals that natural ventilation gives higher performance than other methods and is particularly effective in mild seasons. During 12 months in Hanoi, the analysis clearly shows significant contribution of natural ventilation in the period from April to October during which comfort period achieved might vary from 30% to 81%. The combination of all passive strategies considerably improves thermal comfort: 22.6%, 31.7% and 47.6% of total time in Hanoi, Danang and Hochiminh city, respectively. Finally, the findings of this study indicate that conventional heating and cooling methods are also needed during extreme weather conditions in summer and winter, especially in Hanoi. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy requirements and solar availability in suburban areas: the influence of built density in an existing district
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; De Meester, Tatiana; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Proceedings of the International Conference CISBAT 2011 - Clean Tech for sustainable buildings - From Nano to urban scale (2011) (2011, September)

Although the environmental impacts of urban sprawl and their associated energy consumptions are now well documented, it remains a concern in many regions. In the current context of growing interest in ... [more ▼]

Although the environmental impacts of urban sprawl and their associated energy consumptions are now well documented, it remains a concern in many regions. In the current context of growing interest in environmental issues, local authorities become aware of this concern and are now trying to limit the development of new low-density suburban districts while households still continue to promote dispersed individual housing types located outside city centres. In this context, the paper proposes to investigate the influence of an increase in built density, in existing suburban neighbourhoods. The idea is to favour a higher built density in existing neighbourhoods instead of building new low-density neighbourhoods on unbuilt areas. The impacts of four renewal strategies dealing with the density are assessed, at the neighbourhood scale, for three indicators: (1) the potential energy savings for heating houses, (2) the solar energy received by the facades and roofs, as dispersed individual housing types are known to be those that receive most solar gains and (3) the potential area of land savings. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban Sprawl and Travel Energy Consumption: the Case of the Walloon Region of Belgium
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Dujardin, Sébastien ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg et al

in Irish Transport Research Network Conference, Energy & Transport, Programme and Proceedings (2011, August)

In the actual context of growing interests in environmental issues, reducing energy consumption in the transport sector, which represents 27% of final energy in the Walloon region of Belgium, appears as ... [more ▼]

In the actual context of growing interests in environmental issues, reducing energy consumption in the transport sector, which represents 27% of final energy in the Walloon region of Belgium, appears as an important policy target. Although it is often argued that more compact urban forms would significantly reduce transport energy consumption, urban sprawl is a concern in a large part of the regional territory. Moreover, assessment tools dedicated to transport energy consumption are lacking. In this context, the paper first presents a quantitative method developed to assess the transport system in the Walloon region of Belgium. Statistical data available at the neighbourhood scale and characteristics of cars and public vehicles are used to predict transport needs and assess energy consumption as far as home-to-work and home-to-school travels are concerned. Three index are presented and mapped (the energy performance index, the modal share and the mean distance travelled) to investigate the interdependences between spatial planning, urban sprawl and travel energy consumption in the Walloon region of Belgium. Three complementary scales are used: the “municipality” scale allows to highlight the general structure of the territory whereas the “former municipality” and the “census block” scales (the smallest geographical unit in which data are available in Belgium) highlight more detailed phenomenon. The evolution of the performance index between 1991 and 2001 and the difference in energy performance between home-to-work and home-to-school travels are also presented. Our main findings are presented and highlight that urban planning acts upon travel energy consumption. We show particularly that main cities present low energy consumption. However, a local scale approach is useful to highlight the existence of secondary suburban and rural cores presenting low transport energy consumption. In this respect, distance from home to destination is paramount while the mode of transport used has a lower impact. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of occupation modes on building heating loads: the case of a detached house located in a suburban area
de Meester, Tatiana; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Evrard Arnaud, Bodard Magali (Ed.) PLEA 2011 Architecture & Sustainable Development, Proceedings (2011, July)

Occupants’ behaviour is known to have a great influence on energetic demand, management and consumptions of a building. However, parameters related to inhabitants’ lifestyle are often neglected in ... [more ▼]

Occupants’ behaviour is known to have a great influence on energetic demand, management and consumptions of a building. However, parameters related to inhabitants’ lifestyle are often neglected in energetic studies and researches that often focus on insulation, ventilation or climate. In this context, the aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of three parameters related to human behaviour (the family size and the modes of occupations, the management of the heating system and the management of the heated area) on the housing heating loads of a standard dwelling. The case study chosen for this analysis is a detached house located in a suburban area. Five levels of insulation are tested (no insulation, an intermediate level corresponding to 3 cm of insulation, the current standard for new buildings in the Walloon region of Belgium, the low energy standard and the passive house standard) in order to highlight the impact and the interactions between occupation modes and insulation levels. The relevance of the adaptation of the living area of the house according to the evolution of the family size is finally discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an urban typology to assess residential environmental performance at the city scale
Wallemacq, Véronique; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Evrard Arnaud, Bodard Magali (Ed.) Proceedings of International Conference PLEA 2011 : Architecture & Sustainable Development (2011, July)

In this research, a typology of urban blocks is drawn up for the urban area of Liege. This typology of urban blocks is organized into a set of themes according to various environmental parameters. This ... [more ▼]

In this research, a typology of urban blocks is drawn up for the urban area of Liege. This typology of urban blocks is organized into a set of themes according to various environmental parameters. This paper presents the energy part of this typology on the residential building stock of Liege, which includes four topics: residential buildings energy consumption; transport energy consumption of residents; development potentialities of public transport and development potentialities of energy networks. The proposed typology was elaborated through the use of GIS tools combined with a statistical treatment of several specific criteria at the urban block scale. For each class of this typology, a representative block is selected for further energy simulations in order to model residential energy use related to buildings, transport and energy networks at the city scale. The methodology developed in this paper is adapted to urban, suburban and rural zones. It can thus be adapted and/or reproduced on many other territories in Belgium but also in Europe or even further. [less ▲]

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