References of "Quertemont, Etienne"
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See detailStimulant effects of ethanol in adolescent Swiss mice: development of sensitization and consequences in adulthood
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcohol & Alcoholism (2011), 46(Supplément 1), 40

The adolescent period is characterized by behavioral and neurobiological changes, which might predispose adolescents to the long-term negative consequences of alcohol. For example, enhanced risks of ... [more ▼]

The adolescent period is characterized by behavioral and neurobiological changes, which might predispose adolescents to the long-term negative consequences of alcohol. For example, enhanced risks of alcohol dependence are reported when drinking is initiated early. In the present studies, we used Swiss female mice to test whether chronic ethanol injections during adolescence durably affect the sensitivity to the stimulant effects of ethanol in adulthood. In a first set of experiments, several groups of young (28 day-old) mice were daily injected with various ethanol doses (1.5 – 4 g/kg) to test for ethanol sensitization during adolescence in comparison to adult mice exposed to the same schedule of ethanol injections. The results show that young mice express much higher stimulant effects after acute ethanol injections. However, they also require higher ethanol doses than adult mice to develop a sensitization to the stimulant effects of ethanol. In a second set of experiments, 28 day-old mice were sensitized to ethanol for 14 days with high ethanol doses (2.5 or 4 g/kg) and then tested for the stimulant effects of ethanol and the development of ethanol sensitization in adulthood. The results of this second set of experiments show that mice sensitized to ethanol during their adolescence remain more sensitive to the acute stimulant effects of ethanol in adulthood, especially when high ethanol doses were administered. However, the rate of the development of a sensitization to this effect was only slightly affected relative to adult mice exposed to a chronic ethanol regimen for the first time. Together, these results indicate that adolescent mice are more sensitive to the stimulant effects of ethanol but require higher ethanol doses to develop a sensitization. However, when a sensitization develops during adolescence, these mice still experience higher ethanol stimulant effects when tested in adulthood. [less ▲]

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See detailDo excitatory and inhibitory conditioning processes underlie psychomotor sensitization to amphetamine? An analysis using simple and multiple regressions
Brabant, Christian ULg; Tambour, Sophie; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2011), 221

Excitatory or inhibitory conditioning processes have been proposed to account for the context-dependent establishment of amphetamine psychomotor sensitization in rodents. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Excitatory or inhibitory conditioning processes have been proposed to account for the context-dependent establishment of amphetamine psychomotor sensitization in rodents. The purpose of this study was to test the predictions of these theories in mice. We first assessed the consequence of the extinction of post-sensitization conditioned activity (CR) on the ulterior expression of sensitization. We also assessed the relations between several measures of sensitization and conditioned hyperactivity revealed on a saline challenge using simple and multiple regression analyses. Context-dependent sensitization was induced via 7 amphetamine injections in the test context given alternately with 7 saline injections in another context in paired mice, unpaired mice receiving the converse pretreatment. Context-dependent sensitization (drug challenge) and the CR (saline challenge) were revealed subsequently. After CR extinction (over 7 every-other-day repetition of the saline challenge), mice were tested again for context-dependent sensitization. Against the excitatory conditioning model, CR extinction spared context-dependent sensitization in paired mice, and regression analyses revealed no significant correlations between the size of the CR and several measures of sensitization. In apparent agreement with the inhibitory conditioning model, unpaired mice expressed higher levels of sensitization in the test context after extinction than before. However, regression analyses did not indicate that activity on the saline challenge was related to measures of sensitization in unpaired mice. Therefore, the present results support neither the excitatory nor the inhibitory conditioning models of context-dependent sensitization, but remain compatible with theories proposing that other inhibitory mechanisms modulate sensitization. [less ▲]

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See detailDu corps à la parole
Close, Mireille; Servais, Catherine; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Revue des Hôpitaux de Jour Psychiatriques et des Thérapies Institutionnelles (2011), 14

Through an interactive workshop called "the feelings through the senses", we are going to describe three successive stages allowing to tame the psychic experiences via the sensory channels, the hearing ... [more ▼]

Through an interactive workshop called "the feelings through the senses", we are going to describe three successive stages allowing to tame the psychic experiences via the sensory channels, the hearing then the sight, isolated artificially at first then gathered secondly. A work of verbalization in small groups is realized at the end of every session. To test the emotional changes among our patients benefiting from this institutional psychotherapy, we have been assessing, for two years, for every patient, at the beginning and the end of hospitalization, the following dimensions: awareness of feelings, representation of emotions, capacities of social regulation of the feelings. These first results are encouraging and testify that the therapeutic work in institution enhances transfer and counter- transfer movements by leading new corrective emotional experiences in a "secure" environment. The Day hospital, transformer of psychic experiences, proves to be a real process of particularly dynamic symbolization... [less ▲]

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See detailGradual changes in the sensitivity to the stimulant and sedative effects of ethanol during adolescence in Swiss mice
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 97-97

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See detailOntogeny of the stimulant and sedative effects of ethanol in male and female Swiss mice: gradual changes from weaning to adulthood
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (2010), 212(4), 501-512

Rationale: The adolescent period is characterized by a specific sensitivity to the effects of alcohol, which is believed to contribute to the enhanced risks of alcohol dependence when drinking is ... [more ▼]

Rationale: The adolescent period is characterized by a specific sensitivity to the effects of alcohol, which is believed to contribute to the enhanced risks of alcohol dependence when drinking is initiated early during adolescence. In adolescent rodents, while the reduced sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol has been well characterized, its stimulant effects have not yet been extensively studied. Objectives: The present study characterized the development of the stimulant and sedative effects of acute ethanol in male and female Swiss mice from weaning to early adulthood and tested whether both effects are interrelated. Methods: In a first experiment, mice aged 21, 28, 35, 42 and 60 days were injected with various ethanol doses and tested for ethanol-induced locomotor activity. In an independent experiment, mice of the same groups of age were injected with 4 g/kg ethanol and ethanol-induced sedation was quantified with the loss of righting reflex procedure. Results: In male and female mice, the stimulant effects of ethanol gradually decreased, whereas its sedative effects increased with age. When the sedation was statistically controlled using a covariance analysis, the differences between adult and juvenile mice in the locomotor stimulation were significantly reduced. Conclusions: From weaning to early adulthood, the acute stimulant and sedative effects of ethanol show gradual changes that are similar in male and female mice. Although the initial tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol contribute to the changes in ethanol-induced locomotor activity, young mice also show a higher sensitivity to the stimulant effects of ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailAnxiety in adult female mice following perinatal exposure to chlorpyrifos.
Braquenier, Jean-Baptiste; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg et al

in Neurotoxicology & Teratology (2010), 32

Epidemiologic studies suggested a possible link between prenatal exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) and long-term mental delay and some behavioral troubles. Experimental studies in rats and ... [more ▼]

Epidemiologic studies suggested a possible link between prenatal exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) and long-term mental delay and some behavioral troubles. Experimental studies in rats and mice have confirmed that a relatively short exposure to low doses of OP such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) during specific perinatal periods decreased anxiety-like behaviors. In the present study, we report that chronic perinatal exposure (GD15-PND14) to low doses of CPF leads to an increase (and not a decrease) in anxiety-like behaviors of female mouse offspring. Pregnant or lactating female mice were exposed to CPF (0.2; 1; or 5 mg/kg day) by oral treatment during 18 consecutive days. Following a recovery period of several weeks, the anxiety of adult female offspring was determined using neurobehavioral tests (elevated plus-maze and light/dark box tests). Our results showed that CPF-exposed female offspring were more anxious than controls. In addition, the magnitude of anxiety profile alterations depended on the level of exposure to CPF during gestation and lactation with a maximal effect observed at the 1 mg/kg day dose. Our results confirm that OP exposure during the perinatal period can induce long-term alterations in mouse anxiety-like behaviors and suggest that the routes of administration and the duration of OP exposure during brain development may be factors to consider when studying the development of anxiety. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of brand presence and stimulus of comparison on response inhibition toward alcohol cues in male and female heavy drinkers
Kreusch, Fanny ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in 2010 annual meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Sciences (2010)

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See detailResponse inhibition toward alcohol cues in heavy drinkers and alcohol dependent patients
Kreusch, Fanny ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 139-139

Alcohol addictive behaviors have been recently associated with a combination of deficits in executive function, such as a weak response inhibition, and potent automatic appetitive responses for alcohol ... [more ▼]

Alcohol addictive behaviors have been recently associated with a combination of deficits in executive function, such as a weak response inhibition, and potent automatic appetitive responses for alcohol-related cues. The aim of the present studies was to investigate response inhibition for alcohol and neutral or soft drink cues in alcohol abusers and alcohol dependent patients. Response inhibition was assessed in a go/nogo task with pictures of alcohols, soft drinks or neutrals objects. In this task, participants had to respond to specific stimuli (go trial) and inhibit that action under a different set of stimuli (nogo trial). Faster responses for alcohol in go trials reflect approach tendency for alcohol cues while false alarm responses for alcohol in nogo trials reflect a deficit in response inhibition toward alcohol-related cues. Moreover, since standard alcohol cues are not equally appreciated across participants, the preference for the different alcoholic drinks presented were measured and analyzed in reference to task responses. Both light and heavy drinkers showed faster responses to alcohol cues in go trial relative to soft/neutral cues. Preliminary results indicate a negative relationship between the preference scores for alcohols and the reaction times to those stimuli in go trials. The present study also demonstrated that the presence of brands logo significantly altered the discrimination and reactions time patterns of response to alcohol and soft cues. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the amnesic, ataxic and hypothermic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde in mice
Closon, Catherine ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 92-92

Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, has been suggested to be involved in many behavioral effects of ethanol. However, very few studies have been published on the role of acetaldehyde in the ... [more ▼]

Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, has been suggested to be involved in many behavioral effects of ethanol. However, very few studies have been published on the role of acetaldehyde in the amnesic and ataxic effects of ethanol. The aim of the present studies was to compare the profiles of ethanol and acetaldehyde in several behavioral tests, measuring motor coordination, learning and memory in mice. Female Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally with ethanol (0-3g/kg) and acetaldehyde (100-300mg/kg). The effects of these substances on a series of representative behaviors were investigated. The amnesic effects were tested with an object recognition task and a one-trial passive avoidance test. Additionally, the rectal temperatures were used to evaluate the hypothermic effects of the two substances. Finally, motor coordination was assessed using the accelerating rotarod test. The results showed that acetaldehyde, like ethanol, altered memory as shown by a reduced performance in the passive avoidance test and the object recognition task. In addition, acetaldehyde at doses between 100 and 300 mg/kg induced significant hypothermic effects, but that was of shorter duration than ethanol-induced hypothermia. Finally, significant ataxic effects of both acetaldehyde and ethanol were observed in the accelerating rotarod test. Overall, the results of the present study clearly show that acetaldehyde, like ethanol, has amnesic, hypothermic and ataxic properties in mice at least at relatively high concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of the brain histaminergic system in addiction and addiction-related behaviors: a comprehensive review with emphasis on the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic compounds in drug dependence
Brabant, Christian ULg; Alleva, Livia ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Progress in Neurobiology (2010), 92

Neurons that produce histamine are exclusively located in the tuberomamillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and send widespread projections to almost all brain areas. Neuronal histamine is ... [more ▼]

Neurons that produce histamine are exclusively located in the tuberomamillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and send widespread projections to almost all brain areas. Neuronal histamine is involved in many physiological and behavioral functions such as arousal, feeding behavior and learning. Although conflicting data have been published, several studies have also demonstrated a role of histamine in the psychomotor and rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Pharmacological and brain lesion experiments initially led to the proposition that the histaminergic system exerts an inhibitory influence on drug reward processes, opposed to that of the dopaminergic system. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on this topic and to discuss whether the inhibitory function of histamine on drug reward is supported by current evidence from published results. Research conducted during the past decade demonstrated that the ability of many antihistaminic drugs to potentiate addictionrelated behaviors essentially results from non-specific effects and does not constitute a valid argument in support of an inhibitory function of histamine on reward processes. The reviewed findings also indicate that histamine can either stimulate or inhibit the dopamine mesolimbic system through distinct neuronal mechanisms involving different histamine receptors. Finally, the hypothesis that the histaminergic system plays an inhibitory role on drug reward appears to be essentially supported by place conditioning studies that focused on morphine reward. The present review suggests that the development of drugs capable of activating the histaminergic system may offer promising therapeutic tools for the treatment of opioid dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of histamine H3 receptor modulators on sedative effects induced by ethanol
Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 93-93

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See detailEthanol-induced behaviors in mice genetically deficient in MCH1 receptors
Didone, Vincent ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 93-93

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See detailLa dépendance au cannabis : propriétés addictives, tolérance et sevrage
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Seutin, Vincent; Scuvée, Jacqueline; Quertemont, Etienne (Eds.) Regards croisés sur le cannabis (2010)

En dépit de controverses récurrentes, les données expérimentales récoltées dans de nombreuses études animales et humaines indiquent que le cannabis présente toutes les caractéristiques associées aux ... [more ▼]

En dépit de controverses récurrentes, les données expérimentales récoltées dans de nombreuses études animales et humaines indiquent que le cannabis présente toutes les caractéristiques associées aux autres drogues toxicomanogènes. Le cannabis induit manifestement une dépendance psychologique primaire chez l’homme et les modèles animaux ont démontré qu’il possède des propriétés renforçantes, quoique de moindre intensité que celles d’autres drogues comme la cocaïne ou les opiacés. La consommation chronique de cannabis produit une tolérance envers certains de ses effets, ce qui est susceptible d’entraîner un accroissement des doses utilisées par un utilisateur régulier. On reconnaît aussi au cannabis la capacité d’induire une véritable dépendance physiologique chez les plus gros consommateurs. Cette dépendance physiologique se manifeste par un syndrome de sevrage typique lors de l’arrêt de la consommation. Toutefois, il est clair que la dépendance au cannabis (aussi bien psychologique que physiologique) est moins sévère que celle induite par d’autres drogues majeures comme l’alcool, la cocaïne ou les opiacés. De plus, elle ne concerne qu’une petite fraction des consommateurs de cannabis. Depuis de nombreuses années, on s’interroge sur le risque d’escalade vers la consommation de drogues « plus dures » que produirait la consommation de cannabis. Les études scientifiques ont clairement démontré qu’il existe un lien statistique significatif entre usage de cannabis et consommation d’autres drogues illicites. Toutefois, la nature de cette relation statistique reste controversée. Selon les tenants de « la théorie de la porte d’entrée », le cannabis conduit directement, par des mécanismes biologiques, psychologiques ou sociaux, à une augmentation du risque de consommer des drogues telles que la cocaïne ou l’héroïne. Au contraire, les adeptes de « la théorie du facteur commun » soutiennent que les consommations de cannabis, d’héroïne ou de cocaïne sont expliqués par des facteurs généraux identiques, conduisant ainsi à une relation statistique qui ne serait qu’apparente et en aucun cas de nature causale. A l’heure actuelle, les données expérimentales disponibles ne permettent pas de trancher définitivement entre ces deux théories explicatives. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets du cannabis sur la santé psychologique
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Seutin, Vincent; Scuvée, Jacqueline; Quertemont, Etienne (Eds.) Regards croisés sur le cannabis (2010)

Les individus intoxiqués au cannabis rapportent généralement des effets subjectifs plaisants, même si des symptômes désagréables ne sont pas à exclure chez certaines personnes ou à certaines occasions ... [more ▼]

Les individus intoxiqués au cannabis rapportent généralement des effets subjectifs plaisants, même si des symptômes désagréables ne sont pas à exclure chez certaines personnes ou à certaines occasions. L’intoxication cannabique aiguë perturbe différents processus cognitifs plus ou moins intensément. Les effets les plus nets sont probablement les altérations de la mémoire qui surviennent lors de l’intoxication cannabique, et en particulier la perturbation de la consolidation de nouveaux souvenirs. Toutefois, on observe également lors de l’intoxication cannabique une altération de la flexibilité mentale et comportementale rendant les comportements plus rigides et plus impulsifs. Enfin, le cannabis perturbe clairement l’estimation subjective de l’écoulement du temps, donnant ainsi l’impression d’un ralentissement du temps. Ces derniers effets expliquent d’ailleurs en partie l’accroissement lors d’une intoxication cannabique des risques d’accidents de conduite automobile. En conclusion, et compte tenu des difficultés méthodologiques mentionnées précédemment, on peut affirmer que les gros consommateurs de cannabis, surtout ceux qui ont fumé du cannabis quotidiennement pendant de longues périodes couvrant parfois des années, présentent un fonctionnement cognitif légèrement altéré. Les déficits cognitifs identifiés sont plutôt de faible magnitude, touchent généralement la mémoire et disparaissent le plus souvent après quelques semaines d’abstinence. Il semble donc que le cannabis produit des altérations cognitives essentiellement durant les périodes de consommation. Les effets observés dans les semaines qui suivent l’arrêt de la consommation chez les gros consommateurs sont vraisemblablement liés au syndrome de sevrage cannabique ou à la présence résiduelle de cannabis dans l’organisme. Le fait que les déficits cognitifs identifiés chez les consommateurs chroniques de cannabis abstinents ressemblent fortement aux effets de l’intoxication cannabique (légers troubles de la mémoire, réduction de la flexibilité mentale et impulsivité), renforce l’idée qu’il pourrait s’agir d’effets résiduels du cannabis qui mettent plus longtemps à se résorber chez les très gros consommateurs. A ce jour, les études scientifiques n’ont donc pas encore démontré de manière incontestable l’existence de troubles cognitifs persistants, voire permanents, chez les consommateurs réguliers de cannabis devenus abstinents depuis plusieurs mois, mais ils ne les ont pas exclus non plus. Une conclusion prudente serait dès lors que les déficits cognitifs persistants induits par la consommation régulière de grosses quantités de cannabis sont relativement limités et transitoires. Ceci n’exclut pas la survenue d’autres problèmes à long terme, comme par exemple le développement d’une addiction au cannabis, des difficultés sociales ou relationnelles ou d’autres effets sur la santé. D’autres études, méthodologiquement mieux contrôlées, seront cependant nécessaires pour conclure définitivement sur la question de l’existence d’altérations cognitives persistantes suite à la consommation chronique de cannabis. Compte tenu des résultats parfois contradictoires de la littérature scientifique, il n’est pas aisé de tirer des conclusions fermes à propos des effets du cannabis sur la santé psychologique et particulièrement sur les effets persistants susceptibles de se perpétuer au-delà des périodes d’intoxication. Alors que le tableau de l’intoxication/ivresse cannabique est relativement clair, les effets persistants d’une consommation abusive de cannabis sont l’objet d’âpres débats. On peut néanmoins tirer les conclusions suivantes. Les études les plus récentes concordent pour affirmer que l’abus de cannabis, surtout durant l’adolescence, est susceptible de provoquer des troubles psychotiques ou, de manière encore plus évidente, de les précipiter chez des individus fragiles. L’abus chronique de cannabis semble aussi favoriser les troubles de l’humeur, tels que dépression et trouble bipolaire. L’existence d’un syndrome amotivationnel qui serait induit par l’abus chronique de cannabis est plus controversée, même s’il est observé dans certaines études. Ce syndrome amotivationnel supposé est en partie lié à différents troubles cognitifs induits par le cannabis. S’il est avéré que la consommation chronique de cannabis provoque effectivement des altérations du fonctionnement cognitif et tout particulièrement de la mémoire, il reste à déterminer si ces déficits cognitifs persistent au-delà des périodes d’intoxications ou s’ils s’estompent progressivement après l’arrêt de l’abus de cannabis. [less ▲]

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See detailRegards croisés sur le cannabis
Seutin, Vincent ULg; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Book published by Mardaga (2010)

Multidisciplinary book which presents an up to date review of scientific data available on cannabis (neurobiology, toxicology, epidemiology, public health and treatment options

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See detailPsychostatistique descriptive et inférentielle Partim 1 - Exercices
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailPsychostatistique descriptive et inférentielle Partim 1 - Théorie
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailPsychostatistique descriptive et inférentielle Partim 2 - Théorie
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Learning material (2009)

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