Cannabis use initiation among adolescents: the predictive role of peers, alcohol, expectancies and internalizing factors.
Schmits, Emilie ; Mathys, Cécile ; Quertemont, Etienne
Conference (2014, September 05)
Theoretical background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers. Initiation is influenced by environmental factors and personal characteristics, events or experiences. An early ... [more ▼]
Theoretical background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers. Initiation is influenced by environmental factors and personal characteristics, events or experiences. An early initiation increases the risks of problems related to cannabis use (e.g. negative psychosocial effects, delinquent behaviors, mental disorders). Prevent initiation, through the identification of risk/protective factors and their interaction, seems crucial in terms of public health. Research question and significance: This study aimed to examine the progression of use, to identify protective and risk factors of cannabis initiation (including peers, alcohol, expectancies and internalizing factors) and to specifically focus on the influence of social anxiety and its moderators/mediators. Methods: A questionnaire was administered twice to 877 teenagers (49.94% female, M=15.61) with one year interval. Sex, age, demographic variables, peer cannabis use, cannabis-related variables (lifetime, frequency, problems and expectancies), alcohol use, social anxiety, trait-anxiety and depression were assessed through validated scales. Logistic regressions, mediation and moderation analyzes were performed. Results: During the follow-up period, 12.89% of the young participants initiated cannabis use. Several factors significantly predict initiation: alcohol use, peer users, perceptual enhancement and craving effect expectancies. Others factors significantly protect from initiation: negative behavioral effect expectancies and social anxiety. Gender, age, relaxation/social facilitation and cognitive impairment effect expectancies, trait-anxiety and depression do not significantly influence cannabis use initiation. In moderated mediation model, after controlling for relevant variables, social anxiety protected from initiation trough the mediating role of perceptual enhancement and craving effect expectancies. The number of peer users and alcohol use do not moderate this mediation. Negative behavioral effect expectancies do not significantly mediate the relation between social anxiety and cannabis initiation. Interpretation of findings: Through low positive expectancies, adolescents with social anxiety symptoms are less likely to initiate cannabis use than the others, whatever the number of peer users and the alcohol use. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protective characteristics of relevant factors, in an overall and evolutionary approach including internalizing factors. Results support the identification of internalizing profile of adolescents concerned by prevention or treatment and the importance of social anxiety and expectancies in intervention. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 93 (10 ULg)
Are expectancies and peers involved in the relation between depressive mood, anxiety and cannabis use in adolescence?
Schmits, Emilie ; Quertemont, Etienne ; Boulard, Aurore
Poster (2014, July 15)
Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers and depression is one of the most common psychopathologies in adolescence. The specific symptom of depressive mood is present in ... [more ▼]
Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers and depression is one of the most common psychopathologies in adolescence. The specific symptom of depressive mood is present in 30% to 40% of adolescents in regular school settings. Links between cannabis use and depression have been highlighted, especially in adolescence. But questions remain about the strength of the association between lifetime cannabis use, depressive mood and anxiety, and about the mechanism underpinning the link. Aim: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between depressive mood and lifetime cannabis use in adolescents, particularly through the mediating role of anxiety and cannabis use effect expectancies, and the moderating role of peer cannabis use. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 1,246 Belgian teenagers aged 16–17 years. ANOVA, chi-square, logistic regressions and mediation/moderation analyses were carried out to model lifetime cannabis use. Results: Depressive mood was positively correlated with lifetime cannabis use. Social anxiety, trait-anxiety and cognitive impairment effect expectancies mediated the effect of depression on lifetime cannabis use. The direct effect of depression on lifetime cannabis use increased when mediators were introduced into the relation, revealing their suppressive effects. The number of peer cannabis users moderated this model. Conclusion: Findings are discussed in terms of potential risk factors (depressive mood) or protective factors (anxiety and expectancies) for lifetime cannabis use, including the self-medication hypothesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (17 ULg)
Assessing the role of age and consumption levels on alcohol sedative and stimulant expectancies
Vilenne, Aurélie ; Quertemont, Etienne
Poster (2014, July 14)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg)
A longitudinal perspective of alcohol use among adolescents: the predictive role of peers and internalizing factors.
Schmits, Emilie ; Glowacz, Fabienne ; Quertemont, Etienne
Poster (2014, July 09)
Alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance among teenagers. Consumption is influenced by environmental factors and personal characteristics, events or experiences. High use can lead to ... [more ▼]
Alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance among teenagers. Consumption is influenced by environmental factors and personal characteristics, events or experiences. High use can lead to substantial problems, especially after an early consumption. Detecting and preventing an increase of alcohol use among teenagers, through the identification of risk and protective factors, seems essential in terms of public health. This study aimed to examine the progression of use in young teenagers, to identify protective and risk factors of alcohol use (including peers and internalizing factors) and to specifically focus on the influence of social anxiety. A questionnaire was administered twice to 877 teenagers (49.94% female, M=15.61) with one year interval (T1 and T2). Sex, age, alcohol use, number of friends, social comparison, trait-anxiety, social anxiety and depression were assessed through validated scales. T-test for paired sample and hierarchical regressions were performed. During the follow-up year, the average alcohol use significantly increased. A positive social comparison at T1 significantly predicted alcohol use at T2. The more teenagers positively compared themselves to their friends and felt popular, the more they consume alcohol. A similar significant effect was demonstrated for depression. The more young people manifested depressive affects at T1, the more they used alcohol at T2. However, social anxiety significantly protected from this substance use. More social anxiety at T1 was associated with less alcohol consumption at T2. The number of friends and trait-anxiety at T1 did not significantly influence alcohol use at T2. A positive social comparison and depressive affects could be considered as risk factors, whereas social anxiety could be defined as protective factor. At this developmental period, young people suffering from social anxiety symptoms subsequently use less alcohol, maybe due to the lack of contact with this substance usually socially consumed, whereas more popular and integrated teenagers are more at risk. The present results challenge the tension-reduction model according to which alcohol is consumed to reduce anxious affects and to facilitate social relationships. However, results suggest that alcohol might be used to reduce unpleasant depressive affects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (6 ULg)
Near-death experiences in non-life-threatening events and coma of different etiologies.
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ; ; Thonnard, Marie et al
in Frontiers in human neuroscience (2014), 8(203),
BACKGROUND: Near death experiences (NDEs) are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. However, the definition and causes of ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Near death experiences (NDEs) are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical significance. However, the definition and causes of the phenomenon as well as the identification of NDE experiencers is still a matter of debate. To date, the most widely used standardized tool to identify and characterize NDEs in research is the Greyson NDE scale. Using this scale, retrospective and prospective studies have been trying to estimate their incidence in various populations but few studies have attempted to associate the experiences' intensity and content to etiology. METHODS: This retrospective investigation assessed the intensity and the most frequently recounted features of self-reported NDEs after a non-life-threatening event (i.e., "NDE-like" experience) or after a pathological coma (i.e., "real NDE") and according to the etiology of the acute brain insult. We also compared our retrospectively acquired data in anoxic coma with historical data from the published literature on prospective post-anoxic studies using the Greyson NDE scale. RESULTS: From our 190 reports who met the criteria for NDE (i.e., Greyson NDE scale total score >7/32), intensity (i.e., Greyson NDE scale total score) and content (i.e., Greyson NDE scale features) did not differ between "NDE-like" (n = 50) and "real NDE" (n = 140) groups, nor within the "real NDE" group depending on the cause of coma (anoxic/traumatic/other). The most frequently reported feature was peacefulness (89-93%). Only 2 patients (1%) recounted a negative experience. The overall NDE core features' frequencies were higher in our retrospective anoxic cohort when compared to historical published prospective data. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that "real NDEs" after coma of different etiologies are similar to "NDE-like" experiences occurring after non-life threatening events. Subjects reporting NDEs retrospectively tend to have experienced a different content compared to the prospective experiencers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (11 ULg)
Relationship between impulsivity and sensation seeking and the stimulant effects of alcohol
Vilenne, Aurélie ; Quertemont, Etienne
Poster (2014, May 27)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Evolution over three years of substance use and internalizing factors in schooled adolescents
Schmits, Emilie ; Quertemont, Etienne
Poster (2014, May 27)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Consommation de cannabis : dynamiques d'engagement et de maintien à la lumière des attentes implicites et explicites. Quelles perspectives de prévention ?
Schmits, Emilie ; Glowacz, Fabienne ; Quertemont, Etienne
Conference (2014, May 20)Detailed reference viewed: 40 (6 ULg)
Consommation de cannabis et d’alcool chez les jeunes adultes : Quels liens avec l’anxiété, l’anxiété sociale et la dépression ?
Schmits, Emilie ; ; Quertemont, Etienne et al
Poster (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 66 (11 ULg)
Consommation de cannabis chez les adolescents : Quel outil pour une détection précoce ?
Schmits, Emilie ; Quertemont, Etienne ; Mathys, Cécile
Poster (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 36 (7 ULg)
Alcohol abuse and ERP components in Go/No-go tasks using alcohol-related stimuli: Impact of alcohol avoidance.
Kreusch, Fanny ; Quertemont, Etienne ; Vilenne, Aurélie et al
in International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (2014), 94(1), 92-9
Alcohol addictive behaviors are associated with a combination of deficits in executive functions, such as a weak response inhibition, and potent automatic appetitive responses to alcohol-related cues. The ... [more ▼]
Alcohol addictive behaviors are associated with a combination of deficits in executive functions, such as a weak response inhibition, and potent automatic appetitive responses to alcohol-related cues. The aim of the present study was to investigate behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with specific response inhibition for alcohol-related cues. Thirty participants (15 heavy drinkers and 15 light drinkers) took part in the study. Response inhibition was assessed by a classical letter Go/No-go task and by a modified alcohol Go/No-go task. Participants were also classified as high and low alcohol avoiders. Results showed that heavy drinkers made more false alarms in the letter Go/No-go task. In the alcohol Go/No-go task, an absence of N200 amplitude anteriorization was found in heavy drinkers as compared to light drinkers. Participants with a high level of alcohol avoidance exhibited more false alarms, and higher N200 amplitude for the No-go trials as compared to the Go trials for alcohol-related cues. Higher P300 amplitude was observed in low alcohol avoiders for No-go as compared to Go trials. Therefore, a context involving alcohol-related cues disturbed inhibition capacities of high alcohol avoiders. These results suggest that the level of alcohol avoidance must be taken into account in studies investigating alcohol-related cognitive biases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (9 ULg)
Stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol: Lessons from rodent and primate models
Brabant, Christian ; ; Quertemont, Etienne
in Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior (2014), 122
In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increasesmotor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally ... [more ▼]
In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increasesmotor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally related to alcoholism.Moreover, a common biological mechanism in the mesolimbic dopamine system has been proposed to mediate the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol. Numerous studies have examined whether alcohol-induced hyperactivity is related to alcoholism using a great variety of animal models and several animal species. However, there is no review that has summarized this extensive literature. In this article, we present the various experimental models that have been used to study the relationship between the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol in rodents and primates. Furthermore, we discuss whether the theories hypothesizing a causal link between alcohol-induced hyperactivity and alcoholism are supported by published results. The reviewed findings indicate that animal species that are stimulated by alcohol also exhibit alcohol preference. Additionally, the role of dopamine in alcohol-induced hyperactivity is well established since blocking dopaminergic activity suppresses the stimulant effects of alcohol. However, dopamine transmission plays a much more complex function in the motivational properties of alcohol and the neuronal mechanisms involved in alcohol stimulation and reward are distinct. Overall, the current review provides mixed support for theories suggesting that the stimulant effects of alcohol are related to alcoholism and highlights the importance of animal models as a way to gain insight into alcoholism. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (7 ULg)
The self-report Version of the LSAS-CA: Psychometric Properties of the French Version in a non-clinical adolescent sample
Schmits, Emilie ; ; Quertemont, Etienne
in Psychologica Belgica (2014), 54(2), 181-198
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most popular measures of social anxiety in adults. The LSAS has been adapted for clinical assessment of children and adolescents (LSAS-CA). The ... [more ▼]
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most popular measures of social anxiety in adults. The LSAS has been adapted for clinical assessment of children and adolescents (LSAS-CA). The psychometric properties of the self-report version of the LSAS-CA (LSAS-CA-SR) have been investigated in a Spanish population. However, no study to date has adapted and validated this scale in French. The purpose of this study was to develop a French version of the LSAS-CA-SR and to assess its score reliability and structural validity in a French-speaking community sample. The sample was made up of 1,343 teenagers from secondary schools, aged between 14 and 18 years. Confirmatory factor analyses established the structural validity of the French version of the LSAS-CA-SR and good psychometric properties, including reliable internal consistency, were observed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 140 (5 ULg)
Higher long-lasting ethanol sensitization after adolescent ethanol exposure in mice
; Didone, Vincent ; Tirelli, Ezio et al
in Psychopharmacology (2014), 231
Rationale. Due to their maturing brain, adolescents are suggested to be more vulnerable to the long-term consequences of chronic alcohol use. Increased sensitization to the stimulant effects of ethanol is ... [more ▼]
Rationale. Due to their maturing brain, adolescents are suggested to be more vulnerable to the long-term consequences of chronic alcohol use. Increased sensitization to the stimulant effects of ethanol is a possible consequence of ethanol exposure during adolescence. Objectives. The aim of this study was to characterize the long-term alterations in the stimulant effects of ethanol and in the rate of ethanol sensitization in mice pre-exposed to ethanol during adolescence in comparison to mice pre-exposed to ethanol in adulthood. Methods. Adolescent and adult female SWISS mice were injected with saline or ethanol (2.5 or 4 g/kg) during 14 consecutive days. After a three weeks period of ethanol abstinence, mice were tested as adults before and after a second exposure to daily repeated ethanol injections. Results. All mice pre-exposed to ethanol as adults or adolescents showed higher stimulant effects when re-exposed to ethanol three weeks later. However, this enhanced sensitivity to the stimulant effects of ethanol was of significantly higher magnitude in mice repeatedly injected with high ethanol doses (4g/kg) during adolescence. Furthermore, the increased expression of ethanol stimulant effects in these mice was maintained even after a second procedure of ethanol sensitization. Conclusions. Adolescence is a critical period for the development of a sensitization to ethanol stimulant properties providing that high intermittent ethanol doses are administered. These results might contribute to explain the relationship between age at first alcohol use and risks of later alcohol problems and highlight the dangers of repeated consumption of high alcohol amounts in young adolescents. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (21 ULg)
Projet TADAM: RAPPORT FINAL 2007-2013
Demaret, Isabelle ; ; et al
Background: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts resistant to other treatment. A new trial compared HAT and methadone treatment with HAT limited to 12 months in ... [more ▼]
Background: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts resistant to other treatment. A new trial compared HAT and methadone treatment with HAT limited to 12 months in order to assess its feasibility and efficacy in Belgium. Methods: TADAM (Treatment Assisted by Diacetylmorphine) was an open label randomised controlled trial. The experimental treatment was based upon the Swiss model of HAT developed in 1994. The primary efficacy criterion was determined by an improvement in street heroin use or in (physical or mental) health or a decrease in criminal involvement. Participants were assessed every 3 months. Self-reported data were complemented with toxicological analyses and criminal proceedings. Findings: 74 participants were randomised in the trial: 36 in the experimental group and 38 in the control group. The experimental group counted 30% of responders more than the control group at 3 months (p<0.05), 6 months (p<0.05), and 9 months (p<0.01). At 12 months, the number of responders was still higher in the experimental group (11%) but the difference was no longer significant (p=0.35). Street heroin use increased in the experimental group at the 12-month assessment just before the end of HAT. Conclusion: HAT is feasible and effective. However, HAT should not have a predetermined duration for heroin users for which heroin addiction became a chronic relapsing disease. Other data: In addition to the outcomes of the randomised controlled trial, the report contains other exploratory data and analysis: satisfaction of in treatment, criminological data, opinion of heroin users not included in the trial, opinion of caregivers and field workers (in the HAT centre, in the partner centres, and in other centres in the addiction field), impact of the HAT centre on its neighbourhood and a socio-economic evaluation. Funding: The TADAM trial was funded at 80% by the Federal Minister of Social Affairs and Public Health. It was also funded the City and the University of Liège. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 227 (51 ULg)
Retirement and the onset of Alzheimer's disease: The ICTUS study
Grotz, Catherine ; ; et al
Conference (2013, October 03)Detailed reference viewed: 45 (6 ULg)
Response inhibition toward alcohol-related cues using an alcohol go/no-go task in problem and non-problem drinkers
Kreusch, Fanny ; Vilenne, Aurélie ; Quertemont, Etienne
in Addictive Behaviors (2013), 38(10), 25202528Detailed reference viewed: 101 (48 ULg)
Assessing the sedative and stimulant effects of alcohol in a balanced placebo design
Vilenne, Aurélie ; Kreusch, Fanny ; Quertemont, Etienne
Poster (2013, September 10)Detailed reference viewed: 57 (13 ULg)
Relationship between novelty seeking and stimulant effects of ethanol: Is novelty seeking a stable trait?
Nyssen, Laura ; Quertemont, Etienne
Poster (2013, September 10)Detailed reference viewed: 45 (9 ULg)
Mediating role of alcohol in the relation between social anxiety, depression and cannabis among adolescents.
Schmits, Emilie ; Quertemont, Etienne
Poster (2013, September 09)Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg)