References of "Polis, Stéphane"
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See detailA shared repository of hieroglyphic signs: The Thot sign-list
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

Conference (2015, August 27)

The principles to be taken into consideration for building a hieroglyphic sign list have been discussed for quite some time (Schenkel 1977), and recently received renewed and additional attention (Meeks ... [more ▼]

The principles to be taken into consideration for building a hieroglyphic sign list have been discussed for quite some time (Schenkel 1977), and recently received renewed and additional attention (Meeks 2013, Polis & Rosmorduc 2013). The catalogs of hieroglyphic signs (e.g. Buurman et al. 1988, Grimal et al. 1993), however, did not implement these principles, since their goal was rather to allow for the encoding and rendering (either on paper or on screen) of as many hieroglyphs as possible. As a result, hieroglyphic text editors (Gozzoli 2013) will usually do the trick when one aims at displaying hieroglyphic texts, but in its current state, the Manuel de Codage makes the creation of annotated corpora that include hieroglyphs problematic (Nederhof 2013). In this paper, we do not focus on issues pertaining to the relative positioning of hieroglyphs (Nederhof 2002), but on another — more essential — problem, namely the hieroglyphic sign-list itself. Existing sign-lists suffer from the fact that they are (1) unstructured, (2) unreferenced, and (3) non-described. Based on our experience with respect to the encoding of hieroglyphic spellings in the Ramses corpus (Polis et al. 2013; Polis & Winand 2013), we present a beta version of the Thot sign-list, which has the following features (see the discussion in Polis & Rosmorduc 2013): 1. The sign-list is structured: each hieroglyph of the sign-list belongs to one of the three following categories: grapheme, class and shape (from the more abstract to the more concrete, see also Meeks 2013). 2. Signs are referenced: each sign is accompanied by at least one reference to a publication in which the hieroglyph is used in context. For this purpose, the unpublished lists of hieroglyphic signs compiled by Hornung and Schenkel have been instrumental. We are much grateful to both of them for sharing this material with us and allowing us to use it in this context. 3. Signs are described at two levels: a. The functions that each hieroglyph can fulfill (Polis & Rosmorduc in press), with illustrative examples for each function. b. The salient iconic features of each hieroglyph, based on a controlled vocabulary. Practically, the Thot sign-list is a Wiki, i.e., a web application that allows collaborative modification of its content and structure. Thanks to the Semantic Mediawiki extension, one can create links between any signs sharing a given property. The goal is obviously to allow any Egyptologist to enrich the structured sign-list Thot with new signs, references and descriptions. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a typology of hieroglyphic sign functions. Categorization and fluidity in the description of semiotic systems
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 06)

The understanding of the functions of the signs in the hieroglyphic writing system has been an issue ever since knowledge of this script was lost during Late Antiquity. If ancient authors like Horapollo ... [more ▼]

The understanding of the functions of the signs in the hieroglyphic writing system has been an issue ever since knowledge of this script was lost during Late Antiquity. If ancient authors like Horapollo were still aware of the meaning of some hieroglyphs, they were often unable to correctly explain why these signs had such meanings. Jean-François Champollion’s famous Lettre à M. Dacier relative à l’alphabet des hiéroglyphes phonétiques (1822) was to change this state of affair, when the French scholar identified signs “doués de la faculté d’exprimer des sons”. In my lecture, I will review the insights of Egyptologists regarding the functions of hieroglyphs (from Champollion to contemporary scholars, like Kammerzell, Morenz, Schenkel, Vernus and Winand) and argue that the combination of three key-features — namely, semography, phonemography and autonomy — is necessary and sufficient in order to provide a description of the so-called ‘glottic’ functions of the ancient Egyptian graphemes. In a second part of the talk, I provide prototypical examples for each category and discuss interesting cases, which are somehow at the borders between categories, so as to illustrate the diachronic and synchronic gradience of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ramses Project in interaction / Metadata and Thesauri in Ramsès / Towards a TEI pivot-format for Ancient Egyptian texts
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, April)

Three talks about forthcoming developments in the field of Ancient Egyptian corpus annotation.

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See detailDispreferred structures through language change: the diachrony of affix ordering in Ancient Egyptian - Coptic
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, March 23)

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a ... [more ▼]

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a long-term diachronic macro-change from mixed suffixing-prefixing to an overwhel¬ming preference for prefixing. We argue that each of the micro-changes implicated in this macro-change are better understood in terms of regular changes at the level of individual constructions, via, e.g., grammaticalization, rather than in terms of a broad Sapirian ‘drift.’ Crucially, it is the particular constellation of structural features of the language at a particular moment in time, together with regular mechanisms of language change, that give rise to the cross-linguistically unusual ‘macro-preference’ of the language. [less ▲]

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See detailStructuring the lexicon
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Winand, Jean ULg

in Lazaridis, N.; Kousoulis, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Egyptologists. University of the aegean, rhodes 22-29 May 2008 (2015)

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See detailRamses. An Annotated Corpus of Late Egyptian
Winand, Jean ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

in Lazaridis, N.; Kousoulis, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Egyptologists. University of the aegean, rhodes 22-29 May 2008 (2015)

First official presentation of the "Ramses Project", an richly annotated corpus of Late Egyptian [Paper submitted in 2008/2009]

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See detailProhibitive strategies and prohibitive cycles in Ancient Egyptian
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 11)

In this talk, we present the main prohibitive/negative jussive strategies attested for each state of the language in Ancient Egyptian and we describe the grammaticalization pathways of two prohibitive ... [more ▼]

In this talk, we present the main prohibitive/negative jussive strategies attested for each state of the language in Ancient Egyptian and we describe the grammaticalization pathways of two prohibitive constructions, from Old Egyptian down to Coptic. The paper is structured as follows. In the introduction (§1), a brief review of current typological studies of prohibitives will be given as background information. Then, we start with a description of the two main types of prohibitive constructions that one finds in Coptic, taking into dialectal variety (§2), namely mpr+V(ERB) and mn-V(ERB) “do not V”. Afterwards, we describe the grammaticalization pathway along which the first of these two constructions developed, from Old Egyptian down to Coptic (§3). Additionally, we provide a description of the main prohibitive (as well as negative jussive) strategies that are attested for Earlier (§4) and Later Egyptian (§5), in order to situate more precisely the grammaticalization process of the first strategy within the successive ‘synchronic’ systems of oppositions in the semantic field of prohibition. In a final section (§6), we discuss more in depth the second, more marginal, prohibitive construction of Coptic (mn-V) — investigating Coptic dialectal diversity — and we suggest a diachronic scenario that could account for the appearance and development of this second strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailContexts and inferences: Hypotheses about pragmatics and grammaticalization
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 14)

The goal of the talk is to put on the table for discussion ideas about the interaction between types of context and meaning change characteristic of grammaticalization. Specifically, to ask what – if any ... [more ▼]

The goal of the talk is to put on the table for discussion ideas about the interaction between types of context and meaning change characteristic of grammaticalization. Specifically, to ask what – if any – pragmatic mechanisms facilitate the relaxation of selectional restrictions on grammaticalizing items/constructions, leading from ‘bridging contexts’ to ‘switch contexts’ (Heine 2002), i.e, from utterances with multiple available readings to utterances in which the older reading is unavailable. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet Ramsès : état et perspectives d'un corpus annoté du néo-égyptien au moment de sa mise en ligne
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

Scientific conference (2014, May 10)

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See detailLes chants de harpistes et de luthistes : émergence du littéraire dans l'art funéraire
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2014, March 25)

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See detailPredicative Possession in Late Egyptian (with special attention to incipient grammaticalization processes)
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, February)

In this talk, I provide a description of the various types of constructions used for expressing clausal (‘predicative’) possession in Late Egyptian. The corpus is comprehensively defined to include both ... [more ▼]

In this talk, I provide a description of the various types of constructions used for expressing clausal (‘predicative’) possession in Late Egyptian. The corpus is comprehensively defined to include both literary and non-literary texts from the reign of Thutmose 3 (c. 1450 BC) down to abnormal hieratic texts (c. 600 BC), excluding most of the texts in Égyptien de tradition (i.e. purposely imitating various registers of EEg). The talk is structured in three sections that reflect both functional and structural features: (1) The adjectival predicate pattern or the marked expression of ownership; (2) The comitative strategy or the unmarked expression of possession; (3) Other types of predicative possession in Late Egyptian. [less ▲]

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See detailActualités du modèle darwinien en linguistique
[Lttr13]; Badir, Sémir ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg et al

Conference (2014, January 24)

Qu’est-ce qui fait courir le linguiste d’aujourd’hui ? Nul ne croit plus que l’on peut donner une réponse à cette question selon un régime monologique, quand bien même les réponses de ce type se donnent ... [more ▼]

Qu’est-ce qui fait courir le linguiste d’aujourd’hui ? Nul ne croit plus que l’on peut donner une réponse à cette question selon un régime monologique, quand bien même les réponses de ce type se donnent encore souvent à lire de manière explicite dans les travaux des linguistes. Il y a forcément un faisceau de raisons — empiriques, théoriques et praxéologiques, — qui poussent le linguiste à agir — à lire, étudier, questionner, analyser, écrire — dans telle(s) direction(s) plutôt que dans telles autres. Notre manière de comprendre l’argumentaire du colloque est de se dire que l’on ne modélise pas gratuitement. Quelles sont les raisons de cette activité modélisante et comment comprendre les formes qu’elle prend ? Ce qu’on appelle aujourd’hui « biolinguistique » (biolinguistics) ou « linguistique évolutionniste » (evolutionary linguistics), parmi d’autres appellations moins assises, constitue quelque chose comme un nœud de convergences à partir duquel ces raisons peuvent être examinées et étudiées. Il s’agira de faire d’abord une présentation de surface du champ actuel de la biolinguistique, au sein duquel nous avons sélectionné quatre auteurs, que nous soumettrons à l’analyse. Celle-ci aura pour objectif de dégager les types de modélisation qu’ils mettent en œuvre. Dans un second temps, on montrera qu’au-delà de la diversité des opérations modélisantes, des motifs scientifiques mais aussi extra-scientifiques (praxéologiques) lient ces travaux par ce que ces auteurs appellent eux-mêmes un « programme ». Enfin, on arguera que ce programme peut se lire en fonction de ce que nous appellerons un imaginaire de la discipline linguistique. [less ▲]

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See detailContexts and Inferences. The grammaticalization of the Later Egyptian Allative Future
Grossman, Eitan; Lescuyer, Guillaume ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg

in Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane; Stauder, Andréas (Eds.) et al On Forms and Functions: Studies in Ancient Egyptian Grammar (2014)

The goal of this paper is to describe the gradual emergence of an innovative future construction in the extant Late Egyptian and Demotic textual material and to discuss the grammaticalization of this ... [more ▼]

The goal of this paper is to describe the gradual emergence of an innovative future construction in the extant Late Egyptian and Demotic textual material and to discuss the grammaticalization of this construction down to Coptic, where it became a regular future form known as the “First Future” or “Future I”. We propose that, during the grammaticalization process, the selectional restrictions of the construction are relaxed due to the spread of speaker-oriented inferences. As a consequence, new types of subject and predicates can appear and innovative grammatical meanings associated with future time reference, e.g., prediction, become increasingly entrenched. In a final section, we briefly comment on the future cycles in Ancient Egyptian and propose that the comparative notion of allative future is not only useful for comparing specific patterns across languages, but also within a single language with a lengthy attested history. [less ▲]

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See detailForms and Functions in Ancient Egyptian: A short introduction
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

in Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane; Stauder, Andréas (Eds.) et al On Forms and Functions: Studies in Ancient Egyptian Grammar (2014)

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See detailThe Verb ib and the Construction ib=f r sDm. On modal semantics, graphemic contrast, and gradience in grammar
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Stauder, Andréas

in Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane; Stauder, Andréas (Eds.) et al On Forms and Functions: Studies in Ancient Egyptian Grammar (2014)

Based on graphemic, morphological, syntactic, and semantic evidence, the paper shows that a clear-cut distinction can be made between a verb ib expressing an epistemic judgment (“to think”) and a non ... [more ▼]

Based on graphemic, morphological, syntactic, and semantic evidence, the paper shows that a clear-cut distinction can be made between a verb ib expressing an epistemic judgment (“to think”) and a non-verbal predicative construction ib=f r sDm (literally “his heart is towards hearing”), expressing volition (“to want”). In a second step, the volitional construction ib=f r sDm is shown to occasionally display features of syntactic gradience, reflecting its quasi-verbal semantics (“volitive agent-oriented moda-lity”): in particular, this construction can combine with a marker of passive voice, a verbal category that is otherwise alien to non-verbal constructions. Problematic late occurrences of the construction ib=f r sDm are discussed in turn: in some of these, ib=f may have been subjected to alternative construals as a verb. [less ▲]

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