References of "Polis, Stéphane"
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See detailDiachronic lexical semantics in Ancient Egyptian–Coptic: The Egyptianness of basic vocabulary in Coptic
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, November 21)

Coptic, as it comes down to us in written texts, is massively influenced by Greek in the domain of lexicon. The Leipzig-Berlin Dictionary and Database of Greek Loanwords in Coptic project has already ... [more ▼]

Coptic, as it comes down to us in written texts, is massively influenced by Greek in the domain of lexicon. The Leipzig-Berlin Dictionary and Database of Greek Loanwords in Coptic project has already recorded c. 5000 loan word types and c. 60.000 loan word tokens. On this basis, linguists, philologists, and historians often make assumptions about the nature and extent of bilingualism. Some linguists have even proposed that Coptic is a case of ‘code-mixing’ of Egyptian and Greek, which assumes extensive bilingualism among Egyptians in Late Antiquity. In this paper, we tackle this question from another angle, by determining the extent to which Greek influenced Coptic in terms of its *basic vocabulary*. It may be that we can learn more about bilingualism in Late Antique Egypt this way, since overall lexical borrowing need not correlate with lexical borrowing in the domain of basic vocabulary. As a (significant) side effect of this study, we can also describe the rate of replacement of basic vocabulary in Egyptian-Coptic across its 4000 years of attestation, as well as the semantic domains and periods in which lexical replacement was faster or slower. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a TEI compliant interchange format for Ancient Egyptian-Coptic textual resources
Coulon, Laurent; Elwert, Frederik; Morlock, Emmanuelle et al

Conference (2015, October 30)

Sharing digital textual resources is an actual challenge for scholars working on Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (3000 BC-1350 AD). There are two types of reasons for this: first, the different writing systems ... [more ▼]

Sharing digital textual resources is an actual challenge for scholars working on Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (3000 BC-1350 AD). There are two types of reasons for this: first, the different writing systems that have been used throughout the history of this language (hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts, demotic, Coptic) led to various solutions as regards the encoding of texts; second, the diverging aims and scopes of the projects involved in creating annotated corpora of Ancient Egyptian-Coptic generated representation formats with few characteristics in common. As a result, the resources themselves cannot be shared, and no standard tool can be used for encoding, annotating, querying or analyzing these resources. In order to overcome these issues, several leading projects in the field join forces and introduce a TEI compliant interchange data model that has the following characteristics: 1) The ancient Egyptian-Coptic TEI interchange data model represents an agreement on a subset of the EpiDoc schema towards which the textual data of each project can be converted. Project specific annotations are dealt with either using stand-off markup that refers to tokens of transliterated texts (Bański 2010; Pose et al. 2014), or on the basis of data models that are true expansions of the kernel interchange data model. 2) The specialized metadata elements and attributes referring to Egyptological concepts are based on controlled vocabularies that are shared and enriched collaboratively by the projects. 3) These metadata apply either to physical text-bearing objects, inscribed physical features, witnesses (on documents) or texts (Morlock & Santin 2014). As the conceptualization of the relationship between these entities is shared between projects, coherence and precision when describing both the material, philological and linguistic dimensions of textual resources can be obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailSuivre la main du scribe Amennakhte dans la documentation hiératique de la XXe dynastie
Dorn, Andreas; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 30)

Le scribe Amennakhte, fils d’Ipuy, fut un personnage central de la communauté de Deir el-Médineh à la 20e dynastie : élevé au rang de Scribe de la Tombe en l’an 16 de Ramsès III, il occupa ce poste durant ... [more ▼]

Le scribe Amennakhte, fils d’Ipuy, fut un personnage central de la communauté de Deir el-Médineh à la 20e dynastie : élevé au rang de Scribe de la Tombe en l’an 16 de Ramsès III, il occupa ce poste durant plus de trente années, jusqu’à sa mort sous le règne de Ramsès VI. Fait exceptionnel, ce lettré ne nous est pas seulement connu comme rédacteur de textes documentaires afférents à la gestion de l’Institution de la Tombe, mais également comme auteur d’une série de textes relevant de la sphère littéraire au sens large, allant de l’enseignement à la satire en passant par des hymnes et eulogies. Après avoir brièvement présenté l’environnement dans lequel vivait Amennakhte — dont on pense connaître à la fois l’habitation dans le village, la tombe et une hutte qu’il occupa dans la Vallée des Rois — nous axerons notre présentation sur la dimension paléographique du personnage et présenterons les difficultés rencontrées lorsque l’on entend suivre la main du scribe dans la documentation hiératique de la 20e dynastie. Ce sera l’occasion d’un parcours diachronique entre une variété de supports (graffiti incisés, dipinti, ostraca et papyri) et de genres textuels, qui nous permettra d’observer les variations de formes et de ductus potentiellement attribuables à un même scribe. En nous appuyant essentiellement sur le matériel du Museum de Turin et de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Oriental du Caire, cet exposé sera donc l’occasion de présenter les derniers progrès réalisés dans l’identification des mains de scribes de la communauté de Deir el-Médineh. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mains de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte. Reconnecter le littéraire au documentaire
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 29)

Dans cet exposé, je décris la redécouverte par les égyptologues de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte en accordant une attention particulière aux mains hiératiques des scribes qui ont rédigé les témoins connus ... [more ▼]

Dans cet exposé, je décris la redécouverte par les égyptologues de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte en accordant une attention particulière aux mains hiératiques des scribes qui ont rédigé les témoins connus de ce texte majeur de la 20e dynastie. Cette approche permet d'aboutir à trois conclusions principales. (1) Il n'est pas possible de montrer l'existence d'une véritable "école de mains" qui imiteraient celle du scribe de la Tombe Amennakhte (e.g. Eyre 1979 : 87). (2) Il est possible d'attribuer différents témoins du texte de l'Enseignement à une même main. (3) On peut établir le lien ferme entre des mains ayant copiés l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte et des mains documentaires connues de la première moitié de la 20e dynastie. Ce dernier point permet de revenir sur le mythe égyptologique d'une césure significative entre mains littéraires et mains documentaires : malgré certaines différences, la possibilité de suivre la main d'un scribe entre textes littéraires et documentaires est réelle. Cela n'est évidemment pas sans conséquences pour l'histoire culturelle de la Communauté de Deir el-Médineh. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ propos de l'O. Caire JdE 72460 : faut-il continuer la quête de la tombe d'une reine de la XIXe dynastie dans la Vallée des Rois ?
Dorn, Andreas; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 28)

Cet exposé s'articule en trois parties. (1) Nous proposons d'abord une introduction présentant l'état de l'art sur cet ostracon, dont le texte mentionne des distances entre différents lieux de la ... [more ▼]

Cet exposé s'articule en trois parties. (1) Nous proposons d'abord une introduction présentant l'état de l'art sur cet ostracon, dont le texte mentionne des distances entre différents lieux de la Nécropole thébaine et a été récemment utilisé pour tenter de localiser une tombe perdue, celle d'Isisnofret, dans la Vallée des Rois. (2) Nous proposons ensuite une traduction du texte du recto (ancien verso) et discutons les problèmes d'identification entre endroits mentionnés et structures archéologiques connues. (3) Nous passons ensuite à un examen du texte du verso (ancien recto) et construisons une représentation schématique des relations entre les emplacements mentionnés. Nous essayons alors de voir si cette schématisation abstraite correspond à des lieux connus dans la Vallées des Rois ou dans la Vallée des Reines. Nous concluons par la négative et proposons de renverser la perspective : les structures mentionnées sont à chercher au sein de la Tombe des fils de Ramsès II (KV 5) et non à l'extérieur dans la Vallée des Rois. [less ▲]

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See detailRamses Online. Un outil pour aider à l'édition de textes hiératiques
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 27)

Après une présentation générale des fonctionnalités de Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be), cette intervention vise à montrer comment l'outil en question peut être utilisé pour l'identification de ... [more ▼]

Après une présentation générale des fonctionnalités de Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be), cette intervention vise à montrer comment l'outil en question peut être utilisé pour l'identification de textes littéraires inédits et, plus largement, l'aide à la lecture d'originaux rédigés en hiératique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Hieroglyphic Sign Functions. Suggestions for a Revised Taxonomy
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

in Uljas, S.; Amstutz, H.; Dorn, A. (Eds.) et al Fuzzy Boundaries. Festschrift für Antonio Loprieno. volume I (2015)

The aim of this paper is to suggest a taxonomy that allows for a systematic description of the functions that can be fulfilled by hieroglyphic signs. Taking as a point of departure the insights of several ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to suggest a taxonomy that allows for a systematic description of the functions that can be fulfilled by hieroglyphic signs. Taking as a point of departure the insights of several studies that have been published on the topic since Champollion, we suggest that three key-features – namely, semography, phonemography and autonomy – are needed in order to provide a description of the glottic functions of the ancient Egyptian graphemes. Combining these paradigmatic and syntagmatic features, six core functions can be identified for the hieroglyphic signs: they may behave as pictograms, logograms, phonograms, classifiers, radicograms or interpretants. In a second step, we provide a definition for each function and discuss examples that illustrate the fuzziness between these core semiotic categories. [less ▲]

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See detailRamses goes Online. An annotated corpus of Late Egyptian texts in interaction with the Egyptological community
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge; Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2015, August 27)

The Ramses project was first introduced to Egyptologists in 2008, during the 10th interna-tional congress of Egyptologists held in Rhodes (Winand et al. in press). After eight years of IT developments ... [more ▼]

The Ramses project was first introduced to Egyptologists in 2008, during the 10th interna-tional congress of Egyptologists held in Rhodes (Winand et al. in press). After eight years of IT developments (under the responsibility of S. Rosmorduc) and of annotation of Late Egyptian texts (Polis et al. 2013; Polis & Winand 2013), the data can now progressively be made available online. After an introduction providing general information about the annotated corpus (510 000+ tokens; 65 000+ hieroglyphic spellings; 10 000+ lemmata; 4000+ texts), this paper will focus on three main aspects: 1. Description of the functionalities of the annotating tool (the TextEditor), with a special attention to the metadata that are used for describing the documents and texts that are integrated in the corpus. This section will include proposals regarding the creation of shared thesauri for describing (written) Egyptian material. 2. Discussion of the solution that has been designed for handling the evolution of the database (see already Rosmorduc 2013), both as regards its content — namely, any change that affects texts, lemmata, inflexions, spellings, etc. — and its structure — types and structure of the metadata, evolution of the texts representation format, etc. In a nutshell, the new database will use the technique of event sourcing, where the database is seen as a sequence of editing events, which allows both “time travel” in the database history, and easy fix of editing mistakes. 3. Presentation of the first Online version of Ramses. Several corpora of Late Egyptian texts (the so-called Tomb Robberies, the Late Egyptian Stories, the Late Ramesside letters and a selection of ostraca from Deir el-Medineh) will be made available for the first time at the occasion the 11th International Congress in Florence. The website will of course allow users to browse the annotated texts and lexemes, and to make simple or complex queries. Besides, we will also encourage Egyptologists to interact directly with the data, e.g., by flagging inaccuracies or signaling alternative analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailA shared repository of hieroglyphic signs: The Thot sign-list
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

Conference (2015, August 27)

The principles to be taken into consideration for building a hieroglyphic sign list have been discussed for quite some time (Schenkel 1977), and recently received renewed and additional attention (Meeks ... [more ▼]

The principles to be taken into consideration for building a hieroglyphic sign list have been discussed for quite some time (Schenkel 1977), and recently received renewed and additional attention (Meeks 2013, Polis & Rosmorduc 2013). The catalogs of hieroglyphic signs (e.g. Buurman et al. 1988, Grimal et al. 1993), however, did not implement these principles, since their goal was rather to allow for the encoding and rendering (either on paper or on screen) of as many hieroglyphs as possible. As a result, hieroglyphic text editors (Gozzoli 2013) will usually do the trick when one aims at displaying hieroglyphic texts, but in its current state, the Manuel de Codage makes the creation of annotated corpora that include hieroglyphs problematic (Nederhof 2013). In this paper, we do not focus on issues pertaining to the relative positioning of hieroglyphs (Nederhof 2002), but on another — more essential — problem, namely the hieroglyphic sign-list itself. Existing sign-lists suffer from the fact that they are (1) unstructured, (2) unreferenced, and (3) non-described. Based on our experience with respect to the encoding of hieroglyphic spellings in the Ramses corpus (Polis et al. 2013; Polis & Winand 2013), we present a beta version of the Thot sign-list, which has the following features (see the discussion in Polis & Rosmorduc 2013): 1. The sign-list is structured: each hieroglyph of the sign-list belongs to one of the three following categories: grapheme, class and shape (from the more abstract to the more concrete, see also Meeks 2013). 2. Signs are referenced: each sign is accompanied by at least one reference to a publication in which the hieroglyph is used in context. For this purpose, the unpublished lists of hieroglyphic signs compiled by Hornung and Schenkel have been instrumental. We are much grateful to both of them for sharing this material with us and allowing us to use it in this context. 3. Signs are described at two levels: a. The functions that each hieroglyph can fulfill (Polis & Rosmorduc in press), with illustrative examples for each function. b. The salient iconic features of each hieroglyph, based on a controlled vocabulary. Practically, the Thot sign-list is a Wiki, i.e., a web application that allows collaborative modification of its content and structure. Thanks to the Semantic Mediawiki extension, one can create links between any signs sharing a given property. The goal is obviously to allow any Egyptologist to enrich the structured sign-list Thot with new signs, references and descriptions. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a typology of hieroglyphic sign functions. Categorization and fluidity in the description of semiotic systems
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 06)

The understanding of the functions of the signs in the hieroglyphic writing system has been an issue ever since knowledge of this script was lost during Late Antiquity. If ancient authors like Horapollo ... [more ▼]

The understanding of the functions of the signs in the hieroglyphic writing system has been an issue ever since knowledge of this script was lost during Late Antiquity. If ancient authors like Horapollo were still aware of the meaning of some hieroglyphs, they were often unable to correctly explain why these signs had such meanings. Jean-François Champollion’s famous Lettre à M. Dacier relative à l’alphabet des hiéroglyphes phonétiques (1822) was to change this state of affair, when the French scholar identified signs “doués de la faculté d’exprimer des sons”. In my lecture, I will review the insights of Egyptologists regarding the functions of hieroglyphs (from Champollion to contemporary scholars, like Kammerzell, Morenz, Schenkel, Vernus and Winand) and argue that the combination of three key-features — namely, semography, phonemography and autonomy — is necessary and sufficient in order to provide a description of the so-called ‘glottic’ functions of the ancient Egyptian graphemes. In a second part of the talk, I provide prototypical examples for each category and discuss interesting cases, which are somehow at the borders between categories, so as to illustrate the diachronic and synchronic gradience of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ramses Project in interaction / Metadata and Thesauri in Ramsès / Towards a TEI pivot-format for Ancient Egyptian texts
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, April)

Three talks about forthcoming developments in the field of Ancient Egyptian corpus annotation.

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See detailDispreferred structures through language change: the diachrony of affix ordering in Ancient Egyptian - Coptic
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, March 23)

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a ... [more ▼]

Given a worldwide preference for suffixes over prefixes, why do some languages nonetheless have a macro-preference for prefixes? In this talk, we show that Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (Afroasiatic) shows a long-term diachronic macro-change from mixed suffixing-prefixing to an overwhel¬ming preference for prefixing. We argue that each of the micro-changes implicated in this macro-change are better understood in terms of regular changes at the level of individual constructions, via, e.g., grammaticalization, rather than in terms of a broad Sapirian ‘drift.’ Crucially, it is the particular constellation of structural features of the language at a particular moment in time, together with regular mechanisms of language change, that give rise to the cross-linguistically unusual ‘macro-preference’ of the language. [less ▲]

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See detailStructuring the lexicon
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Winand, Jean ULg

in Lazaridis, N.; Kousoulis, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Egyptologists. University of the aegean, rhodes 22-29 May 2008 (2015)

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See detailRamses. An Annotated Corpus of Late Egyptian
Winand, Jean ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

in Lazaridis, N.; Kousoulis, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Egyptologists. University of the aegean, rhodes 22-29 May 2008 (2015)

First official presentation of the "Ramses Project", an richly annotated corpus of Late Egyptian [Paper submitted in 2008/2009]

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See detailProhibitive strategies and prohibitive cycles in Ancient Egyptian
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December 11)

In this talk, we present the main prohibitive/negative jussive strategies attested for each state of the language in Ancient Egyptian and we describe the grammaticalization pathways of two prohibitive ... [more ▼]

In this talk, we present the main prohibitive/negative jussive strategies attested for each state of the language in Ancient Egyptian and we describe the grammaticalization pathways of two prohibitive constructions, from Old Egyptian down to Coptic. The paper is structured as follows. In the introduction (§1), a brief review of current typological studies of prohibitives will be given as background information. Then, we start with a description of the two main types of prohibitive constructions that one finds in Coptic, taking into dialectal variety (§2), namely mpr+V(ERB) and mn-V(ERB) “do not V”. Afterwards, we describe the grammaticalization pathway along which the first of these two constructions developed, from Old Egyptian down to Coptic (§3). Additionally, we provide a description of the main prohibitive (as well as negative jussive) strategies that are attested for Earlier (§4) and Later Egyptian (§5), in order to situate more precisely the grammaticalization process of the first strategy within the successive ‘synchronic’ systems of oppositions in the semantic field of prohibition. In a final section (§6), we discuss more in depth the second, more marginal, prohibitive construction of Coptic (mn-V) — investigating Coptic dialectal diversity — and we suggest a diachronic scenario that could account for the appearance and development of this second strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailContexts and inferences: Hypotheses about pragmatics and grammaticalization
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 14)

The goal of the talk is to put on the table for discussion ideas about the interaction between types of context and meaning change characteristic of grammaticalization. Specifically, to ask what – if any ... [more ▼]

The goal of the talk is to put on the table for discussion ideas about the interaction between types of context and meaning change characteristic of grammaticalization. Specifically, to ask what – if any – pragmatic mechanisms facilitate the relaxation of selectional restrictions on grammaticalizing items/constructions, leading from ‘bridging contexts’ to ‘switch contexts’ (Heine 2002), i.e, from utterances with multiple available readings to utterances in which the older reading is unavailable. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet Ramsès : état et perspectives d'un corpus annoté du néo-égyptien au moment de sa mise en ligne
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

Scientific conference (2014, May 10)

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