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See detailParatextual elements in a papyrus archive from Deir el-Medina. Exploring a marginal scribal practice across genres and time
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2016, June 02)

The aim of this paper is to describe the variety of paratextual elements encountered in the so-called ‘Chester Beatty’ papyrus archive coming from Deir el-Medina (Western Thebes; New Kingdom). Originally ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to describe the variety of paratextual elements encountered in the so-called ‘Chester Beatty’ papyrus archive coming from Deir el-Medina (Western Thebes; New Kingdom). Originally, this archive consisted of over 45 different manuscripts, which passed into various hands among the Necropolis workmen of the New Kingdom during a period of more than 100 years (Černý 1945; Koenig 1981; Pestman 1982; Grandet 2002) and is now scattered among collections and museums around the world (Cairo, Dublin, Geneva, London, Oxford).After some considerations on the history of this archive — from Antiquity until its eventful discovery, both in situ within the village of Deir el-Medina and on the antiquity market between 1928 and 1935 (Posener, in Černý 1978: VI-VII) — this talk will be devoted to the formal description and functional categorization of the paratextual elements encountered in the texts of the archive. This corpus has been selected in order to limit the amount of variation possibly induced by different mediums (the texts are all written on papyrus) and by heterogeneous socio-cultural settings. On the other hand, it allows me to explore a great variety of paratextual elements used by this community across time (from the 19th dynasty until the second part of the 20th dynasty) and genres. [less ▲]

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See detailDébats autour du concept de type en typologie des langues
Lttr13; Badir, Sémir ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg et al

Conference (2016, May 18)

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See detailThe hands of Papyrus Turin 1879: Individualizing handwritings in 20th dynasty hieratic sources
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2016, April 08)

Papyrus Turin 1879 (and other fragments) — the so-called ‘Map of the gold mines’ or ‘Turin map’ — is among the most famous papyri of the Turin collection, but it was neither systematically published, nor ... [more ▼]

Papyrus Turin 1879 (and other fragments) — the so-called ‘Map of the gold mines’ or ‘Turin map’ — is among the most famous papyri of the Turin collection, but it was neither systematically published, nor studied up until today. Most of the egyptological attention was indeed captured by the ‘map’ side (e.g., Goyon 1949; Harrell & Brown 1992, with previous references), but the other side, which contains many hieratic texts belonging to different genres, has never been examined thoroughly (exceptions are Janssen 1994 and Hovestreydt 1997 for col. 1-2 of frag. A, vo). The goal of this talk is twofold. First, I will provide an overview of the texts found on this papyrus, focusing on the types of hieratic hands. A special attention will be devoted to the repertoire of hieratic signs as well as to the amount of variation in terms of signs formation for a single hand. Second, I will explore the possibility of ‘individualizing’ the hands of this papyrus by connecting their features to other hieratic sources of the 20th dynasty. Harrel & Brown’s (1992) suggestions regarding the attribution of these texts to specific scribes will be challenged and an alternative methodology will be suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Egyptianness of the Coptic basic vocabulary: A typological view
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2016, February 18)

The notion of ‘basic vocabulary’ is associated with the linguist and anthropologist Morris Swadesh, who proposed a list of 200 (and later 100) items. These lists, while widely used in historical and ... [more ▼]

The notion of ‘basic vocabulary’ is associated with the linguist and anthropologist Morris Swadesh, who proposed a list of 200 (and later 100) items. These lists, while widely used in historical and comparative linguistics, are based on Swadesh’s intuitions rather than on empirical research. More recently, however, the Leipzig Loanword Typology Project conducted a cross-linguistic survey of loanwords (Haspelmath & Tadmor 2009). One of the results is a 100-item list of basic vocabulary entries — the ‘Leipzig-Jakarta list of basic vocabulary.’ This list is the product of four factors, computed for a database of 1440 meanings in 41 languages: borrowability, representation in the database, analyzability / simplicity, and age. As Tadmor (2009) points out, this is the first list of basic vocabulary items based on extensive cross-linguistic comparison, and it constitutes a ‘full-fledged basic vocabulary’ that ‘comprises the notions normally associated with this concept: stability (our age score), universality (our representation score) and simplicity (our analyzability score), as well as resistance to borrowing (our unborrowed score)’ (2009: 68). In this talk, we examine this list of 100 meanings in order to evaluate the influence of Greek on the Coptic basic vocabulary, or — to put it the other way around — the ‘Egyptian¬ness’ of the Coptic lexicon, which seems to reflect an intense language contact situation. As a first step, Coptic data were collected from Crum (1939), the most extensive Coptic dictionary, for four dialects: Sahidic, Bohairic, Fayyumic, and Akhmimic. All Coptic lexemes associated with a meaning on the list were collected, even if poorly attested. Additionally, a questionnaire was been submitted to Copticists in order to detect Greek loanwords that would also be used for expressing these 100 meanings. Furthermore, we used etymological tools (Černý 1976; Westendorf 1977; Vycichl 1983) in order to attribute an age score (from 0 = Greek loanword to 4 = Old Egyptian) to the lexemes at two levels: the formal level (when is the word first attested in Ancient Egyptian) and the semantic level (when is the Coptic meaning first associated with this word). The vast majority of meanings (ca. 85%) have at least one pre-Coptic Egyptian cognate, most of which are already attested in Old Kingdom texts. As a result of this study, we are able (1) to evaluate the influence of Greek on the basic vocabulary of the main Coptic dialects, (2) to describe the basic vocabulary of Coptic dialects independently and to observe how they differ from one another, (3) to produce a first estimate of the rate of change in basic vocabularies over the course of Egyptian as a whole. [less ▲]

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See detailActualités du modèle darwinien en linguistique
Lttr13; Badir, Sémir ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg et al

in Blanckaert, Claude; Léon, Jacqueline; Samain, Didier (Eds.) Modélisations et sciences humaines. Figurer, interpréter, simuler (2016)

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See detailFigures de l'énonciation : les gestes discursifs du savoir
Lttr13; Badir, Sémir ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg et al

in Biglari, Amir; Salvan, Geneviève (Eds.) Figures en discours (2016)

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See detailA re-examination of O. Cairo JdE 72460 (= O. Cairo SR 1475). Ending the quest for a 19th Dynasty queen’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings
Dorn, Andreas; Polis, Stéphane ULg

in Collombert, Philippe; Lefèvre, Dominique; Polis, Stéphane (Eds.) et al Aere perennius. Mélanges égyptologiques en l'honneur de Pascal Vernus (2016)

In this paper, we offer a new interpretation for O. Cairo JdE 72460. Based on a discussion of the expressions used for measuring distances in the New Kingdom documentation, we explore the various possible ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we offer a new interpretation for O. Cairo JdE 72460. Based on a discussion of the expressions used for measuring distances in the New Kingdom documentation, we explore the various possible translations. We then try to map the abstract relationships between places as well as the related measurements onto actual archeological structures. We come to the conclusion that this ostracon might be linked to work in progress inside KV 5. [less ▲]

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See detailBibliographie de Pascal Vernus (1967-2014)
Lefèvre, Dominique; Polis, Stéphane ULg

in Collombert, Philippe; Lefèvre, Dominique; Polis, Stéphane (Eds.) et al Aere perennius. Mélanges égyptologiques en l'honneur de Pascal Vernus (2016)

Cette bibliographie - divisée en deux sections, les "monographies" et les "articles" - ne reprends que les publications de Pascal Vernus à portée directement scientifique. Les nombreux articles ayant un ... [more ▼]

Cette bibliographie - divisée en deux sections, les "monographies" et les "articles" - ne reprends que les publications de Pascal Vernus à portée directement scientifique. Les nombreux articles ayant un objectif de vulgarisation n'ont pas été retenus. Enfin les compte-rendus d'ouvrages ainsi que les compte-rendus annuels qui ont paru dans l'Annuaire de l'École pratique des Hautes Études n'ont pas été inclus afin de ne pas gonfler une bibliographie déjà riche de près de deux-cents titres. [less ▲]

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See detailAere perennius. Mélanges égyptologiques en l'honneur de Pascal Vernus
Collombert, Philippe; Lefèvre, Dominique; Polis, Stéphane ULg et al

Book published by Peeters (2016)

Ce volume rassemble 45 essais offert en hommage à Pascal Vernus.

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See detailIntroduction. Aere perennius ... regalique situ pyramidum altius
Collombert, Philippe; Lefèvre, Dominique; Polis, Stéphane ULg et al

in Collombert, Philippe; Lefèvre, Dominique; Polis, Stéphane (Eds.) et al Aere perennius. Mélanges égyptologiques en l'honneur de Pascal Vernus (2016)

Préface et introduction du volume : Aere perennius. Mélanges égyptologiques en l'honneur de Pascal Vernus.

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See detailRamses: An annotated corpus of Late Egyptian texts. Background information, recent developments and work in progress
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, November 25)

Background information about the Ramses project and Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be) with a special attention to recent developments that are relevant for digital humanities in general: event ... [more ▼]

Background information about the Ramses project and Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be) with a special attention to recent developments that are relevant for digital humanities in general: event sourcing, TEI interchange format, ontologies and metadata thesauri, linked data. [less ▲]

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See detailDiachronic lexical semantics in Ancient Egyptian–Coptic: The Egyptianness of basic vocabulary in Coptic
Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, November 21)

Coptic, as it comes down to us in written texts, is massively influenced by Greek in the domain of lexicon. The Leipzig-Berlin Dictionary and Database of Greek Loanwords in Coptic project has already ... [more ▼]

Coptic, as it comes down to us in written texts, is massively influenced by Greek in the domain of lexicon. The Leipzig-Berlin Dictionary and Database of Greek Loanwords in Coptic project has already recorded c. 5000 loan word types and c. 60.000 loan word tokens. On this basis, linguists, philologists, and historians often make assumptions about the nature and extent of bilingualism. Some linguists have even proposed that Coptic is a case of ‘code-mixing’ of Egyptian and Greek, which assumes extensive bilingualism among Egyptians in Late Antiquity. In this paper, we tackle this question from another angle, by determining the extent to which Greek influenced Coptic in terms of its *basic vocabulary*. It may be that we can learn more about bilingualism in Late Antique Egypt this way, since overall lexical borrowing need not correlate with lexical borrowing in the domain of basic vocabulary. As a (significant) side effect of this study, we can also describe the rate of replacement of basic vocabulary in Egyptian-Coptic across its 4000 years of attestation, as well as the semantic domains and periods in which lexical replacement was faster or slower. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a TEI compliant interchange format for Ancient Egyptian-Coptic textual resources
Coulon, Laurent; Elwert, Frederik; Morlock, Emmanuelle et al

Conference (2015, October 30)

Sharing digital textual resources is an actual challenge for scholars working on Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (3000 BC-1350 AD). There are two types of reasons for this: first, the different writing systems ... [more ▼]

Sharing digital textual resources is an actual challenge for scholars working on Ancient Egyptian-Coptic (3000 BC-1350 AD). There are two types of reasons for this: first, the different writing systems that have been used throughout the history of this language (hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts, demotic, Coptic) led to various solutions as regards the encoding of texts; second, the diverging aims and scopes of the projects involved in creating annotated corpora of Ancient Egyptian-Coptic generated representation formats with few characteristics in common. As a result, the resources themselves cannot be shared, and no standard tool can be used for encoding, annotating, querying or analyzing these resources. In order to overcome these issues, several leading projects in the field join forces and introduce a TEI compliant interchange data model that has the following characteristics: 1) The ancient Egyptian-Coptic TEI interchange data model represents an agreement on a subset of the EpiDoc schema towards which the textual data of each project can be converted. Project specific annotations are dealt with either using stand-off markup that refers to tokens of transliterated texts (Bański 2010; Pose et al. 2014), or on the basis of data models that are true expansions of the kernel interchange data model. 2) The specialized metadata elements and attributes referring to Egyptological concepts are based on controlled vocabularies that are shared and enriched collaboratively by the projects. 3) These metadata apply either to physical text-bearing objects, inscribed physical features, witnesses (on documents) or texts (Morlock & Santin 2014). As the conceptualization of the relationship between these entities is shared between projects, coherence and precision when describing both the material, philological and linguistic dimensions of textual resources can be obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailSuivre la main du scribe Amennakhte dans la documentation hiératique de la XXe dynastie
Dorn, Andreas; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 30)

Le scribe Amennakhte, fils d’Ipuy, fut un personnage central de la communauté de Deir el-Médineh à la 20e dynastie : élevé au rang de Scribe de la Tombe en l’an 16 de Ramsès III, il occupa ce poste durant ... [more ▼]

Le scribe Amennakhte, fils d’Ipuy, fut un personnage central de la communauté de Deir el-Médineh à la 20e dynastie : élevé au rang de Scribe de la Tombe en l’an 16 de Ramsès III, il occupa ce poste durant plus de trente années, jusqu’à sa mort sous le règne de Ramsès VI. Fait exceptionnel, ce lettré ne nous est pas seulement connu comme rédacteur de textes documentaires afférents à la gestion de l’Institution de la Tombe, mais également comme auteur d’une série de textes relevant de la sphère littéraire au sens large, allant de l’enseignement à la satire en passant par des hymnes et eulogies. Après avoir brièvement présenté l’environnement dans lequel vivait Amennakhte — dont on pense connaître à la fois l’habitation dans le village, la tombe et une hutte qu’il occupa dans la Vallée des Rois — nous axerons notre présentation sur la dimension paléographique du personnage et présenterons les difficultés rencontrées lorsque l’on entend suivre la main du scribe dans la documentation hiératique de la 20e dynastie. Ce sera l’occasion d’un parcours diachronique entre une variété de supports (graffiti incisés, dipinti, ostraca et papyri) et de genres textuels, qui nous permettra d’observer les variations de formes et de ductus potentiellement attribuables à un même scribe. En nous appuyant essentiellement sur le matériel du Museum de Turin et de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Oriental du Caire, cet exposé sera donc l’occasion de présenter les derniers progrès réalisés dans l’identification des mains de scribes de la communauté de Deir el-Médineh. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mains de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte. Reconnecter le littéraire au documentaire
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 29)

Dans cet exposé, je décris la redécouverte par les égyptologues de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte en accordant une attention particulière aux mains hiératiques des scribes qui ont rédigé les témoins connus ... [more ▼]

Dans cet exposé, je décris la redécouverte par les égyptologues de l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte en accordant une attention particulière aux mains hiératiques des scribes qui ont rédigé les témoins connus de ce texte majeur de la 20e dynastie. Cette approche permet d'aboutir à trois conclusions principales. (1) Il n'est pas possible de montrer l'existence d'une véritable "école de mains" qui imiteraient celle du scribe de la Tombe Amennakhte (e.g. Eyre 1979 : 87). (2) Il est possible d'attribuer différents témoins du texte de l'Enseignement à une même main. (3) On peut établir le lien ferme entre des mains ayant copiés l'Enseignement d'Amennakhte et des mains documentaires connues de la première moitié de la 20e dynastie. Ce dernier point permet de revenir sur le mythe égyptologique d'une césure significative entre mains littéraires et mains documentaires : malgré certaines différences, la possibilité de suivre la main d'un scribe entre textes littéraires et documentaires est réelle. Cela n'est évidemment pas sans conséquences pour l'histoire culturelle de la Communauté de Deir el-Médineh. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ propos de l'O. Caire JdE 72460 : faut-il continuer la quête de la tombe d'une reine de la XIXe dynastie dans la Vallée des Rois ?
Dorn, Andreas; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 28)

Cet exposé s'articule en trois parties. (1) Nous proposons d'abord une introduction présentant l'état de l'art sur cet ostracon, dont le texte mentionne des distances entre différents lieux de la ... [more ▼]

Cet exposé s'articule en trois parties. (1) Nous proposons d'abord une introduction présentant l'état de l'art sur cet ostracon, dont le texte mentionne des distances entre différents lieux de la Nécropole thébaine et a été récemment utilisé pour tenter de localiser une tombe perdue, celle d'Isisnofret, dans la Vallée des Rois. (2) Nous proposons ensuite une traduction du texte du recto (ancien verso) et discutons les problèmes d'identification entre endroits mentionnés et structures archéologiques connues. (3) Nous passons ensuite à un examen du texte du verso (ancien recto) et construisons une représentation schématique des relations entre les emplacements mentionnés. Nous essayons alors de voir si cette schématisation abstraite correspond à des lieux connus dans la Vallées des Rois ou dans la Vallée des Reines. Nous concluons par la négative et proposons de renverser la perspective : les structures mentionnées sont à chercher au sein de la Tombe des fils de Ramsès II (KV 5) et non à l'extérieur dans la Vallée des Rois. [less ▲]

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See detailRamses Online. Un outil pour aider à l'édition de textes hiératiques
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 27)

Après une présentation générale des fonctionnalités de Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be), cette intervention vise à montrer comment l'outil en question peut être utilisé pour l'identification de ... [more ▼]

Après une présentation générale des fonctionnalités de Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be), cette intervention vise à montrer comment l'outil en question peut être utilisé pour l'identification de textes littéraires inédits et, plus largement, l'aide à la lecture d'originaux rédigés en hiératique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Hieroglyphic Sign Functions. Suggestions for a Revised Taxonomy
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

in Uljas, S.; Amstutz, H.; Dorn, A. (Eds.) et al Fuzzy Boundaries. Festschrift für Antonio Loprieno. volume I (2015)

The aim of this paper is to suggest a taxonomy that allows for a systematic description of the functions that can be fulfilled by hieroglyphic signs. Taking as a point of departure the insights of several ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to suggest a taxonomy that allows for a systematic description of the functions that can be fulfilled by hieroglyphic signs. Taking as a point of departure the insights of several studies that have been published on the topic since Champollion, we suggest that three key-features – namely, semography, phonemography and autonomy – are needed in order to provide a description of the glottic functions of the ancient Egyptian graphemes. Combining these paradigmatic and syntagmatic features, six core functions can be identified for the hieroglyphic signs: they may behave as pictograms, logograms, phonograms, classifiers, radicograms or interpretants. In a second step, we provide a definition for each function and discuss examples that illustrate the fuzziness between these core semiotic categories. [less ▲]

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See detailRamses goes Online. An annotated corpus of Late Egyptian texts in interaction with the Egyptological community
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge; Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2015, August 27)

The Ramses project was first introduced to Egyptologists in 2008, during the 10th interna-tional congress of Egyptologists held in Rhodes (Winand et al. in press). After eight years of IT developments ... [more ▼]

The Ramses project was first introduced to Egyptologists in 2008, during the 10th interna-tional congress of Egyptologists held in Rhodes (Winand et al. in press). After eight years of IT developments (under the responsibility of S. Rosmorduc) and of annotation of Late Egyptian texts (Polis et al. 2013; Polis & Winand 2013), the data can now progressively be made available online. After an introduction providing general information about the annotated corpus (510 000+ tokens; 65 000+ hieroglyphic spellings; 10 000+ lemmata; 4000+ texts), this paper will focus on three main aspects: 1. Description of the functionalities of the annotating tool (the TextEditor), with a special attention to the metadata that are used for describing the documents and texts that are integrated in the corpus. This section will include proposals regarding the creation of shared thesauri for describing (written) Egyptian material. 2. Discussion of the solution that has been designed for handling the evolution of the database (see already Rosmorduc 2013), both as regards its content — namely, any change that affects texts, lemmata, inflexions, spellings, etc. — and its structure — types and structure of the metadata, evolution of the texts representation format, etc. In a nutshell, the new database will use the technique of event sourcing, where the database is seen as a sequence of editing events, which allows both “time travel” in the database history, and easy fix of editing mistakes. 3. Presentation of the first Online version of Ramses. Several corpora of Late Egyptian texts (the so-called Tomb Robberies, the Late Egyptian Stories, the Late Ramesside letters and a selection of ostraca from Deir el-Medineh) will be made available for the first time at the occasion the 11th International Congress in Florence. The website will of course allow users to browse the annotated texts and lexemes, and to make simple or complex queries. Besides, we will also encourage Egyptologists to interact directly with the data, e.g., by flagging inaccuracies or signaling alternative analysis. [less ▲]

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