References of "Pirard, Eric"
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See detailElectromagnetic Investigation of the Pb-Zn deposit of Lontzen, Belgium
Evrard, Maxime ULg; Pirard, Eric ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

in First International Conference: MINING IN EUROPE, ABTSRACT volume (2016, May)

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See detailLa quadrature de l'économie circulaire
Pirard, Eric ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 25)

La quadrature du cercle économique est une source d’inspiration et d’innovation pour tous les ingénieurs au Nord comme au Sud. Essayer de la résoudre, c’est contribuer sans conteste à une utilisation plus ... [more ▼]

La quadrature du cercle économique est une source d’inspiration et d’innovation pour tous les ingénieurs au Nord comme au Sud. Essayer de la résoudre, c’est contribuer sans conteste à une utilisation plus efficiente des ressources de notre planète. Mais pour cela, il est indispensable de bien comprendre l’ensemble de la chaîne de valeurs de la matière et d’éviter les leurres et les slogans simplistes comme « zero waste » ou « closing the loop » [less ▲]

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See detailThe materials lifecycle : A steering wheel for Europe's Raw Materials Academy.
Pirard, Eric ULg; Greberg, Jenny

in TMS 2016 Supplemental Proceedings (2016, February)

EIT Raw Materials is a major European initiative supported by more than 120 core and associate partners from industry, research and academia. Among the core missions of this network is the establishment ... [more ▼]

EIT Raw Materials is a major European initiative supported by more than 120 core and associate partners from industry, research and academia. Among the core missions of this network is the establishment of a Raw Materials RM Academy to educate T-shaped professionals that will contribute to the development of a sustainable and resource efficient Europe. Every T-shaped professional should combine an in depth knowledge of his own discipline with a sound understanding of the challenges of the full raw materials value chain and with a mindset for innovation and entrepreneurship. The main objective of the RM Academy is to connect all T-shaped professionals to help create the circular economy steering wheel. Therefore, the RM Academy has the following missions: - Label and support educational programs. - Promote a permanent offer of cross-disciplinary programmes, workshops and courses. - Train T-shaped professionals into T-shaped entrepreneurs. - Promote lifelong learning initiatives. - Stimulate wider society learning initiatives aiming at raising social and political awareness. - Closely collaborate with industry - Enable a high degree of mobility of students and professionals [less ▲]

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See detailL'odyssée des métaux : de la mine au GSM
Pirard, Eric ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 21)

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See detailCritical metals in sphalerites from Belgian MVT deposits
Goffin, Vincent; Evrard, Maxime ULg; Pirard, Eric ULg

in André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Cathelineau, Michel; Muchez, Philippe (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 13th SGA Biennial Meeting (2015, August)

Belgium hosts a series of well documented low temperature, carbonate hosted, lead-zinc veins and lenses clearly categorized as MVT deposits. This paper revisits the distribution of trace elements in ... [more ▼]

Belgium hosts a series of well documented low temperature, carbonate hosted, lead-zinc veins and lenses clearly categorized as MVT deposits. This paper revisits the distribution of trace elements in sphalerites from Belgian deposits with a special focus on Ge, Ga and In. By comparing with a database of worldwide deposits, this paper shows that Belgian sphalerites do not display a classical substitution pattern involving Cu+. Instead, multivariate analysis points towards similarities with the Tres Marias deposit in Mexico, although the explanation of coupled substitution with Fe++ does not seem to apply in the present case. From the limited set of sphalerites analysed in this paper, the following rithmetic means are obtained: m(Ge) = 302 ppm, m(Ga) = 2.2 ppm and m(In) < 0.06 ppm. These average values should not hide the fact that a wide variability does exist from one deposit to the other and within zoned colloform sphalerites of the same deposit. Further nd systematic work is required to better evaluate the resource and understand the mechanisms responsible for Ge incorporation into sphalerite. [less ▲]

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See detailGeophysical Investigation of the Pb-Zn deposit of Plombières, Belgium
Evrard, Maxime ULg; Pirard, Eric ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

in André-mayer, anne-Sylvie; Cathelineau, Michel; Muchez, Philippe (Eds.) et al Mineral resources in a sustainable worl, proceeding, volume 5 (2015, August)

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See detailAdvanced characterisation to investigate the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ores granulation
Jaimes Contreras, Rafael Antonio; van Loo, Frédéric; Douce, Jean-François et al

Speech/Talk (2015)

The objective of this paper is to study the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ore granulation considering in particular the layering mechanisms in wet granulation for different ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to study the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ore granulation considering in particular the layering mechanisms in wet granulation for different iron ore types. For that purpose, the granulation behaviour of single iron ore binary mixtures and more complex mixtures (iron ores and return fines) has been studied at laboratory scale using pilot drums. A particular interest is paid to the influence of morphology and wettability of iron ores. [less ▲]

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See detailThe limits of sustainable metal resources availability
Pirard, Eric ULg

Conference (2015, May 11)

The sustainable availability of raw materials used in manufacturing advanced products is a question that consumers will raise more and more in the future. In order to answer this legitimate request, it is ... [more ▼]

The sustainable availability of raw materials used in manufacturing advanced products is a question that consumers will raise more and more in the future. In order to answer this legitimate request, it is mandatory to define characterization factors capable of taking into account the geological scarcity of an element and also the social and environmental impact of its exploitation and beneficiation. But the specificities of metals also raise the question of their availability from recycling of end-of-life products. It makes no doubt that many products have a dispersive action because of their very low metal contents or because of the complex form under which the metal has been incorporated. The metal availability from recycling will need recycling indices to be developed and specific actions to be taken to fight against improper applications causing harmful resource degradation for the future generations [less ▲]

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See detailRessources Métalliques et Economie Circulaire
Pirard, Eric ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailOn the Shape Simulation of Aggregate and Cement Particles in a DEM System
He, Huan; Stroeven, Piet; Pirard, Eric ULg et al

in Advances in Materials Science and Engineering (2015)

Aggregate occupies at least three-quarters of the volume of concrete, so its impact on concrete’s properties is significant. Both size and shape of aggregate influence workability, mechanical properties ... [more ▼]

Aggregate occupies at least three-quarters of the volume of concrete, so its impact on concrete’s properties is significant. Both size and shape of aggregate influence workability, mechanical properties, and durability of concrete. On the other hand, the shape of cement particles plays also an important role in the hydration process due to surface dissolution in the hardening process. Additionally, grain dispersion, shape, and size govern the pore percolation process that is of crucial importance for concrete durability. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is commonly employed for simulation of concrete structure. To be able to do so, the assessed grain shape should be implemented. The approaches for aggregate and cement structure simulation by a concurrent algorithm-based DEM system are discussed in this paper. Both aggregate and cement grains were experimentally analyzed by X-ray tomography method recently. The results provide a real experimental database, for example, surface area versus volume distribution, for simulation of particles in concrete technology. Optimum solutions are obtained by different simplified shapes proposed for aggregate and cement, respectively. In this way, more reliable concepts for aggregate structure and fresh cement paste can be simulated by a DEM system. [less ▲]

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See detailRouvrir une mine à Plombières. Une utopie ?
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Simons, Marc (Ed.) Plomb'hier à bonnes mines. (2014)

Plombières, Ferrières, Goldgrübe,… autant de noms qui dans nos régions renvoient aux sept métaux connus depuis l’Antiquité. Sept métaux comme les sept planètes ou les sept jours de la semaine à l’image ... [more ▼]

Plombières, Ferrières, Goldgrübe,… autant de noms qui dans nos régions renvoient aux sept métaux connus depuis l’Antiquité. Sept métaux comme les sept planètes ou les sept jours de la semaine à l’image d’un monde parfait. Pourtant, si pendant des siècles, ces métaux ont suffi à satisfaire nos besoins technologiques, il n’en va plus de même aujourd’hui : l’éolienne a remplacé le moulin à vent et l’ordinateur s’est substitué à la craie ! Avec la production de 900.000 t de zinc et 100.000 t de plomb, les gisements de Moresnet ont eu une importance historique majeure dans le développement d’une véritable industrie du zinc. Ils ont aussi joué un rôle important dans la découverte d’éléments rares comme le gallium. Notre société ne peut plus se passer de ces métaux, jamais leur exploitation n’a été aussi intense et ce malgré l’existence et le développement constant du recyclage. Les mines de nos régions ont fermé il y a près d’un siècle, faute de technologies adéquates pour localiser de nouvelles ressources ou pour réaliser une exhaure efficace. Très vite, il s’est avéré plus simple et plus rentable de faire venir le minerai de régions lointaines comme l’Afrique, l’Australie et aujourd’hui la Chine. Pourtant, rien ne dit qu’il ne reste pas des quantités significatives de zinc et de plomb dans notre sous-sol. Pour des raisons stratégiques évidentes, l’Europe souhaite que nous réévaluions nos ressources et nos réserves avec les moyens les plus modernes. Une mise en exploitation n’est pas pour autant à l’ordre du jour. Elle ne pourra de toute façon résulter que de la volonté concertée de tous les acteurs d’une région unis autour d’un même objectif. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Geometallurgy Teachable? A challenge for the new Erasmus Mundus EMerald
Pirard, Eric ULg

Conference (2014, September 05)

designate any kind of advanced ore characterisation prior to mineral processing operations while in fact it should clearly refer to a multidisciplinary integration of geological, mining, metallurgical ... [more ▼]

designate any kind of advanced ore characterisation prior to mineral processing operations while in fact it should clearly refer to a multidisciplinary integration of geological, mining, metallurgical, environmental and economic information into a single orebody model. In order to instil the best available geometallurgical practices in the professional world, it seems essential to break the traditional cleavages among disciplines and educate a new generation of engineers. The Erasmus Mundus EMerald “Master in Georesources Engineering” program initiated by four European universities under the coordination of University of Liege, has been designed to exactly tackle this challenge. It is not surprising that this program has been set up by universities having a long tradition in mixing a double perspective of geology and engineering (Nancy; Lulea; Liege and Freiberg). Geometallurgy requires both an excellent understanding of the natural variability and complexity of an ore and a comprehensive overview of the techniques available to extract and concentrate any valuable material. The course program has been designed to achieve a right balance between knowledge of mineral resources (geology, resource characterisation, reserve estimation, modelling) and processing (comminution, preconcentration, leaching, waste disposal,...). It also includes a broader view on life cycle analysis and urban mining. A series of professional seminars, suggested by an industrial advisory board, shed light on strategic issues, economic and environmental challenges, corporate social responsibilities, etc. Mobility and multicultural experience is an added-value of the Erasmus Mundus experience which definitely contributes to breeding engineers for tomorrow. [less ▲]

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See detailMineralogy of fine particles in slurry from multispectral imaging
Leroy, Sophie ULg; Dislaire, Godefroid ULg; Barnabé, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2014, September 02)

Quantitative mineralogy of fine particles in slurry from multispectral imaging Sophie Leroy, Godefroid Dislaire, Pierre Barnabé and Eric Pirard Mineral processing especially in its final stages relies ... [more ▼]

Quantitative mineralogy of fine particles in slurry from multispectral imaging Sophie Leroy, Godefroid Dislaire, Pierre Barnabé and Eric Pirard Mineral processing especially in its final stages relies heavily on the differential behavior of particles in pulps. In order to monitor hydrocyclones and flotation cells in almost real time, it is important to develop at line particle characterization providing information on particle distribution but also mineralogy. A sampling device has been elaborated based on a flow cell with variable wall spacing linked to a high pressure peristaltic pump. This setup allows for dispersion and dilution of the mineral slurry into the cell. Depending on the ore or gangue minerals to be controlled, particles can be imaged either in diffuse reflectance or in transmittance mode. A simple multispectral imaging module has been designed to acquire images at eight different wavelengths. The design is based on a series of dichroic filters thereby avoiding any moving part and enabling a very fast acquisition of multispectral images. Imaging artifacts due, among others, to specular reflectance from the glass window are minimized. Multispectral classification is used to outline particles appearing in the field of view and to qualify their main mineral component. In particular, areas reflecting a meaningful and discriminative spectrum are identified and compared to a multispectral database. The database is continuously enriched through testing of pure mineral particles under similar pulp conditions (dilution, grain size,…). Results of final classification are compared to the modal analysis obtained from polished blocks and conventional reflected light microscopy. The technology developed in this work sets the basis for at line monitoring of ore slurries with reasonably simple mineralogy. Extension of the spectral range is being considered for future developments. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom geometallurgy to ecometallurgy:Building mines for the future
Pirard, Eric ULg

Conference (2014, September 02)

geometallurgy will become the central pivot of a successful mining operation. Recently, Europe has awakened from a long period of lethargy in the raw materials sector. A series of important initiatives ... [more ▼]

geometallurgy will become the central pivot of a successful mining operation. Recently, Europe has awakened from a long period of lethargy in the raw materials sector. A series of important initiatives inspired by the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) have paved the way for more intense cooperation between industry, research centres and universities. Among these, the establishment of a Knowledge Innovation Community (KIC) in 2015 will definitely boost innovation and education in the sector. Interestingly, EIP addresses the whole value chain and considers mining, recycling and substitution as essential pillars of the raw materials policy. This vision strengthens the role of geometallurgy but also brings up the need for a close dialogue between mineralogists, metallurgists and product designers. Microelectronics and nanotechnologies are ubiquitous in our technologies and have greatly improved their functionality, but they have also made recycling and efficient recovery of metals a tough technical challenge. Our urban mines formed by the accumulation of end-of-life products should be scrutinized from now on using an ecometallurgical approach whereby important questions should be addressed such as: 1. Metal concentrations: Is the metal grade high enough to pay for recycling? Does the manufacturer help to maintain grades above a technological cut-off? 2. Metal speciation: Under which form (alloy, salt, organic compound,…) is the metal present? Is there a processing technology available to separate these species? 3. Metal paragenesis: What are the metal assemblages found in the product? Will it be feasible to separate those metals and at what costs? Are there penalty or contaminating elements associated? 4. Textural assemblage: How will the product behave during dismantling? Is it realistic to liberate a given component? What comminution strategy will be needed to achieve phase liberation? 5. Reserve estimation: What are the tonnages expected for this kind of product? Can selective collection be organised? 6. Homogeneity: What will the next generation of products look like? Should one expect strong differences in concentration, speciation, paragenesis, etc.? Will this kind of product be blended with others during collection? How will this impact on downstream recycling? Ecometallurgy, as introduced here, is essentially about establishing a dialogue with product designers and material scientists to make sure that, once unearthed, metals will remain easily and sustainably available for the future generations. Geologists and mineralogists, even though generally kept away from the synthetic materials, could greatly contribute to this progress by bringing their expertise in dealing with complex and variable orebodies of the future. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of X-ray microtomography to investigate the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ores granulation
Contreras, Rafael; Evrard, Maxime ULg; Van loo, Frederic et al

in PSA 2014 Manchester- Abstracts (2014, September)

In modern ironmaking, granulation is the first step of the sintering process. It is typically carried out in continuous drum granulators using water as a binder, and involves multiple components besides ... [more ▼]

In modern ironmaking, granulation is the first step of the sintering process. It is typically carried out in continuous drum granulators using water as a binder, and involves multiple components besides iron ores, such as return fines and other recycled materials (dusts, mill scale, sludges), solid fuel (coke breeze or anthracite) and fluxes (limestone, lime, olivine, dunite or dolomite) (Ball, 1973). As it is necessary to maintain a consistent quality of the granules (size distribution, porosity, strength, etc.) despite of the varying iron ore origins, the question arises as to how the properties of the iron ore particles (size and shape) influence the granulation process. The granulation process is partly influenced by the characteristic of the feed and partly by the action of cohesive force inside the drum granulator (Newitt et al. 1958). The objective of this paper is to study the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ore granulation considering in particular the mechanisms ruling wet granulation for two iron ores and to know the factors which determine the texture, shape, porosity and mechanical strength of the granules. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of X-ray microtomography to investigate the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ores granulation
Evrard, Maxime ULg; Contreras, Rafael; Pirard, Eric ULg

Conference (2014, September)

In modern ironmaking, granulation is the first step of the sintering process. It is typically carried out in continuous drum granulators using water as a binder, and involves multiple components besides ... [more ▼]

In modern ironmaking, granulation is the first step of the sintering process. It is typically carried out in continuous drum granulators using water as a binder, and involves multiple components besides iron ores, such as return fines and other recycled materials (dusts, mill scale, sludges), solid fuel (coke breeze or anthracite) and fluxes (limestone, lime, olivine, dunite or dolomite) (Ball, 1973). As it is necessary to maintain a consistent quality of the granules (size distribution, porosity, strength, etc.) despite of the varying iron ore origins, the question arises as to how the properties of the iron ore particles (size and shape) influence the granulation process. The granulation process is partly influenced by the characteristic of the feed and partly by the action of cohesive force inside the drum granulator (Newitt et al. 1958). The objective of this paper is to study the effect of raw material properties on the kinetics of iron ore granulation considering in particular the mechanisms ruling wet granulation for two iron ores and to know the factors which determine the texture, shape, porosity and mechanical strength of the granules. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging and understanding of iron ore granulation using X-ray mictrotomography
Evrard, Maxime ULg; Contreras, Rafael; Pirard, Eric ULg

Conference (2014, September)

Imaging and understanding of iron ore granulation using X-ray microtomography. Evrard M., Contreras R., Pirard E. Most iron ores cannot be directly fed into blast furnaces because their particle size ... [more ▼]

Imaging and understanding of iron ore granulation using X-ray microtomography. Evrard M., Contreras R., Pirard E. Most iron ores cannot be directly fed into blast furnaces because their particle size distribution will negatively impact the blast furnace permeability and hence the overall efficiency of the ore reduction process. The finest fraction (typ. < 6.3 mm) has to undergo a sintering process, wherein a mixture of iron ore, coke and flux (limestone, olivine,…) is heated, partially molten and transformed into pieces of sintered material with adequate size, porosity and strength characteristics to be fed into the blast furnace. The preparation of an adequate mixture involves a granulation process which is the subject of this study. Sintering and hence granulation of iron ores, is particularly important in Europe where iron ores show a downward trend in quality (finer particles, broader size range, lower grades with higher variability). In addition an increasing fraction of non-sintered material (return fines) is being added to the mix to optimize the resource efficiency while maintaining sinter quality. For most practitioners, microgranules (or micropellets) are considered as being composed of a nucleus (a particle in the range of 1 to 2 mm) surrounded by layers of the finest ore particles (typically the < 250 µm fraction). A series of experiments and 3D imaging tests have been performed in this study to better understand the granulation mechanisms. Microgranules are formed by mixing iron ore with water in a small rotating drum. Several parameters can be tuned during the granulation process: size and proportion of nucleating particles, size and proportion of fines, water addition, rotating speed, total duration,… Simple experiments using a single ore type (dominantly goethitic or hematitic) and water additions have been carried out systematically to better understand the kinetics of granulation. X-ray microtomography and subsequent 3D image analysis is used to identify and quantify the number of nuclei (when present), to measure the porosity and identify layering or cracks in the microgranule. Compared to previous studies on iron ore pellets (Farber et al. 2002; Shatokha et al. 2009; Shatokha et al. 2010), this work focuses on imaging prior to sintering. It also uses higher resolution micro-CT and definitely brings a better insight into granulation as compared to data from 2D imaging of polished blocks: less artefacts in apparent porosity due to sample preparation; good discrimination among components of the granule; clear identification of the nuclei; etc. This work is part of a larger European project (IMSIMI - Improved Sintering Mix) aiming at an optimal use of challenging input materials through carefully monitored preparation phases (mixing, granulation, etc.) and better understanding of their impact on the sintering process. Farber L., Tardos G., Michaels JN.,2002. Use of X-ray tomograzphy to study the porosity and morphology of granules. Powder Technology vol. 132, p 57-63. Shatokha V., Korobeynikov I., Maire E., Adrien J., 2009. Application of 3D X-ray tomography to investigation of structure of sinter mixture granules. Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 36 (6), p 416-420. Shatokha V., Korobeynikov I., Maire E., Gremillard L., Adrien J.,2010. Iron ore sinter porosity characterisation with application of 3D X-ray tomography. Ironmaking and Steelmaking, vol. 37(5), p313-319. [less ▲]

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