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See detailMultihormonal regulation of the human prolactin gene expression from 5000 bp of its upstream sequence
Berwaer, M.; Monget, P.; Peers, Bernard ULg et al

in Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology (1991), 80(1-3), 53-64

We have cloned DNA sequences extending up to 6000 bp upstream from the first exon of the human prolactin (hPRL) gene. 5000 bp of these upstream sequences were fused to a CAT reporter gene and shown to ... [more ▼]

We have cloned DNA sequences extending up to 6000 bp upstream from the first exon of the human prolactin (hPRL) gene. 5000 bp of these upstream sequences were fused to a CAT reporter gene and shown to provide tissue-specific transient expression in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Multihormonal response was found in this transient expression assay, leading to significant 2- to 5-fold induction by addition of 8-chlorophenylthio-cyclic AMP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, phorbol myristate acetate, a calcium channel agonist (Bay K-8644) and triiodothyronine. A 3-fold inhibition was observed in the presence of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone. The sequence of the hPRL promoter was determined up to coordinate -3470. Computer similarity search between the rat and human sequences showed two highly conserved regions corresponding to the proximal and distal tissue specific enhancers described in both PRL promoters. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptional induction of the human prolactin gene by cAMP requires two cis-acting elements and at least the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1
Peers, Bernard ULg; Monget, Philippe; Nalda, M. Asuncion et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1991), 266(27), 18127-34

To identify the cis-acting elements responsible for cAMP stimulation of human prolactin (hPRL) promoter activity, pituitary GC cells were transfected with 5'-deleted hPRL promoters fused to the ... [more ▼]

To identify the cis-acting elements responsible for cAMP stimulation of human prolactin (hPRL) promoter activity, pituitary GC cells were transfected with 5'-deleted hPRL promoters fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. The proximal regulatory region (coordinates -250 to -42) was sufficient to confer strong cAMP stimulation (+/- 25 fold). Further 5' and 3' deletions performed within this proximal region demonstrated that two types of cis-acting elements are involved in the cAMP regulation: (i) the binding sites of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1, and (ii) the sequence between coordinates -115 and -85 (named fragment A), which contains a TGACG motif. We show by gel-shift and Southwestern experiments that fragment A binds Pit-1 monomer and also a ubiquitous factor that is neither cAMP-responsive element-binding protein nor activator protein-1. Strong cAMP induction was observed when fragment A was juxtaposed to a Pit-1 binding site. That Pit-1 plays an important role was supported further by the finding that the hPRL proximal region conferred cAMP regulation when linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter only in pituitary GC cells and not in other heterologous cells, which do not express Pit-1. Furthermore, we observed that concatenated Pit-1 binding sites were able to confer cAMP responsiveness to the thymidine kinase promoter in GC cells. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of an unusual thyroid response unit in the promoter of the human placental lactogen gene
Voz, Marianne ULg; Peers, Bernard ULg; Belayew, Alexandra et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1991), 266(20), 13397-404

The human placental lactogen B (hCS-B) promoter activity is strongly stimulated by thyroid hormones in the rat pituitary GC cell line. The minimal DNA sequence required for stimulation, as determined by ... [more ▼]

The human placental lactogen B (hCS-B) promoter activity is strongly stimulated by thyroid hormones in the rat pituitary GC cell line. The minimal DNA sequence required for stimulation, as determined by transfection with 5' and 3' deletion mutants, spans 67 base pairs, from coordinate -97 to -31. DNase I footprinting experiments show that this thyroid response unit includes two adjacent binding sites: one for the thyroid receptor (-67/-41), the other for the pituitary-specific factor GHF1 (-95/-68). Neither region alone is sufficient to confer thyroid responsiveness. The thyroid receptor binding element (TBE) does not contain any repeats or palindromes but is composed of two different domains, one of which is very similar to the half-palindromic motif described by Glass et al. (Glass, C.K., Holloway, J.M., Devary, O.L., and Rosenfeld, M.G. (1988) Cell 54, 313-323). The other is very rich in purine. The normal human growth hormone (hGH-N) promoter, which is 94% similar to the hCS-B promoter, differs from its hCS-B counterpart precisely in this TBE. This difference may explain the opposite 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) regulation of these two genes. [less ▲]

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See detailPit-1 binding sequences permit calcium regulation of human prolactin gene expression
Hoggard, Nigel; Davis, Julian R E; Berwaer, Monique et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (1991), 5(11), 1748-54

This study examines the regulation of the human PRL (hPRL) gene promoter by intracellular calcium. Deletants of the 5'-flanking region of the hPRL gene and constructs consisting of the thymidine kinase ... [more ▼]

This study examines the regulation of the human PRL (hPRL) gene promoter by intracellular calcium. Deletants of the 5'-flanking region of the hPRL gene and constructs consisting of the thymidine kinase promoter linked to the first or second proximal Pit-1 binding site were fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene. With the complete 5-kilobase pair (kbp) hPRL promoter sequence the calcium channel agonist Bay K8644 induced a significant 2-fold increase in CAT reporter gene expression and the antagonist verapamil a 4.5-fold reduction, using GH3 cells cultured in physiological levels of calcium. The transcriptional response to calcium influx was similar with a series of 5'-deleted hPRL-CAT constructs including those that comprised the proximal (up to 740 bp) or distal (-1300- to -1700-bp) sequences alone. When treating cells cultured in low calcium conditions the induction with the hPRL promoter increased to 5-fold on the addition of exogenous calcium and Bay K8644. The pituitary-specific expression of the hPRL gene is conferred by the interaction of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1 with several binding sites located in the 5'-flanking DNA, of which three are located in the proximal region. This suggested that Pit-1 binding sites may be involved in the calcium response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailRegulatory elements controlling pituitary-specific expression of the human prolactin gene
Peers, Bernard ULg; Voz, Marianne ULg; Monget, Philippe et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (1990), 10(9), 4690-700

We have performed transfection and DNase I footprinting experiments to investigate pituitary-specific expression of the human prolactin (hPRL) gene. When fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase ... [more ▼]

We have performed transfection and DNase I footprinting experiments to investigate pituitary-specific expression of the human prolactin (hPRL) gene. When fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, 5,000 base pairs of the 5'-flanking sequences of the hPRL gene were able to drive high cat gene expression in prolactin-expressing GH3B6 cells specifically. Deletion analysis indicated that this pituitary-specific expression was controlled by three main positive regulatory regions. The first was located just upstream from the TATA box between coordinates -40 and -250 (proximal region). We have previously shown that three motifs of this region bind the pituitary-specific Pit-1 factor. The second positive region was located in the vicinity of coordinates -1300 to -1750 (distal region). DNase I footprinting assays revealed that eight DNA motifs of this distal region bound protein Pit-1 and that two other motifs were recognized by ubiquitous factors, one of which seems to belong to the AP-1 (jun) family. The third positive region was located further upstream, between -3500 and -5000 (superdistal region). This region appears to enhance transcription only in the presence of the distal region. [less ▲]

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See detailPituitary-specific factor binding to the human prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen genes
Lemaigre, F. P.; Peers, Bernard ULg; Lafontaine, D. A. et al

in DNA (1989), 8(3), 149-59

The human genes coding for growth hormone (GH), chorionic somatomammotropin (placental lactogen, CS), and prolactin (Prl) are related evolutionarily but are expressed in phenotypically distinct cell types ... [more ▼]

The human genes coding for growth hormone (GH), chorionic somatomammotropin (placental lactogen, CS), and prolactin (Prl) are related evolutionarily but are expressed in phenotypically distinct cell types despite their nucleotide sequence homology. We show here that the promoters of the human Prl and CS genes contain cis-acting sequences that confer pituitary-specific expression in a cell-free transcription assay. Similar data are obtained with the human GH gene, consistent with earlier work by others. Footprinting analysis shows that neighboring sequences in each of these three promoters are protected from deoxyribonuclease I digestion by rat pituitary cell extracts. Footprinting competition experiments and gel retardation assays with synthetic oligonucleotides suggest that a single factor is responsible for the pituitary-specific footprints seen on the human Prl, CS, and GH genes. They also suggest that this factor is identical or closely related to the trans-acting factor GHF-1/Pit-1. Similarities with and differences from the rat GH and Prl genes are discussed. [less ▲]

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