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See detailScreening of basic properties of amphiphilic molecular structures for colloidal system formation and stability: case of carbohydrate-based surfactants
Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

Conference (2010, March 21)

Carbohydrate-based surfactants (CBS) are amphiphilic molecules with particular interests. These surface-active compounds can be produced from the most abundant renewable materials allowing large product ... [more ▼]

Carbohydrate-based surfactants (CBS) are amphiphilic molecules with particular interests. These surface-active compounds can be produced from the most abundant renewable materials allowing large product concept possibilities. They may occur in a wide range thanks to numerous functional groups. These make possible the design of a quasi-unlimited compounds by (bio)-synthesis of new structures, or by modifying existing natural molecules. This structural diversity can generate a wide range of properties which could be developed in food and non-food applications. Our challenge is to find out the most suitable molecular structures for post)development of CBS according to the specific required properties in various industrial applications. This consists of assessing the interfacial properties of various CBS prepared by chemical, enzymatic, or chemo-enzymatic synthesis routes from the derivatives of bio-renewable materials.The effect of the polar head group, the hydrophobic chains (length, number), and the linker will be presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMILK INGREDIENT ENRICHED IN POLAR LIPIDS AND USES THEREOF
Dalemans, Daniel; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Bodson, Pascal et al

Patent (2010)

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See detailPretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus for oligosaccharides production: delignification degree and characterisation of the hydrolysis products
Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2010, February 04)

The aim of the present study is to compare two delignification methods (formic/acetic acid1 and soaking in aqueous ammonia) on Miscanthus x giganteus and to assess the suitability to produce cellobiose ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study is to compare two delignification methods (formic/acetic acid1 and soaking in aqueous ammonia) on Miscanthus x giganteus and to assess the suitability to produce cellobiose and other oligosaccharides after enzymatic hydrolysis. Oligosaccharides have recently gotten attention for their health benefits. Two methods were compared in order to quantify lignin: the acid detergent lignin method (procedure of Van Soest most commonly employed by animal scientist and agronomists for analysis of forages) and the Klason lignin procedure. Lignin concentrations in raw material determined by both methods were different; Klason lignin value (23.5%) was greater than the acid detergent lignin concentration (12.9%). Possible reasons of these results will be discussed. Pretreatment by the formic/acid mixture showed a better deliginification rate compared to the soaking in aqueous ammonia method. Results were based on Klason lignin. Analysis of the structural carbohydrates revealed that untreated miscanthus was mainly composed of glucose and xylose. Extracted pulps by both delignification methods were hydrolysed by commercial cellulases and hemicellulases. A major challenge is the characterisation of complex mixtures of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In this study, the hydrolysis products were separated and quantified by highperformance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAECPAD). This method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of monosaccharides (glucose and xylose) and disaccharides (cellobiose and xylobiose) formed by the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated miscanthus. The influence of the pretreatments on the oligosaccharides yields will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative and qualitative study of spelt and wheat fibers in varying milling fractions
Escarnot, Emmanuelle ULg; Agneessens, Richard; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 122

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See detailA multistage process to enhance cellobiose production from cellulosic materials
Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Boquel, Pascal; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2010), 160(8), 2300-2307

Cellobiose, a disaccharide, is a valuable product that can be obtained from cellulose hydrolysis. In this study, a simple methodology is presented to enhance the production and improve the selectivity of ... [more ▼]

Cellobiose, a disaccharide, is a valuable product that can be obtained from cellulose hydrolysis. In this study, a simple methodology is presented to enhance the production and improve the selectivity of cellobiose during enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The approach consisted of a multistage removal of filtrate via vacuum filtration and resuspension of the retentate. By this process, the remaining solid was further hydrolyzed without additional enzyme loading. Compared to the continuous hydrolysis process, the production of cellobiose increased by 45%. Increased selectivity of cellobiose is due to the loss of beta-glucosidases in the filtrate, while enhanced productivity is likely due to mitigated product inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dérivés tensioactifs de la glycine bétaïne: méthodes de synthèse et potentialités d'utilisation
Zakanda F. Nsimba; Paquot, Michel ULg; Lelo G.Mvumbi et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(4), 737-748

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See detailApplication of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(2), 561-566

Application of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials. Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural ... [more ▼]

Application of steam explosion for the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic raw materials. Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by steam heating, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds by organic acid formed during the process and shearing forces due to the expansion of the moisture. The process is composed of two distinct stages: vapocracking and explosive decompression. Cumul effects of both phases include modification of the physical properties of the material (specific surface area, water retention capacities, color, cellulose cristallinity rate,.), hydrolysis of hemicellulosic components (mono-and oligosaccharides released) and modification of the chemical structure of lignin. These effects permit the opening of lignocellulosic structures and increase the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of cellulose components in the aim to obtain fermentable sugars used in second generation biofuels or high value-added molecules process. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of homogenization and drying on the thermal stability of microfibrillated cellulose
QUIEVY, N.; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; SCLAVONS, M. et al

in Polymer Degradation and Stability (2010), 95

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See detailCorrigendum to "Quantitative and qualitative study of spelt and wheat fibres in varying milling fractions
Escarnot, Emmanuelle; Agneessens, Richard; Wathelet, Bernard ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 122

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See detailMilk fat globule membrane and buttermilks: from composition to valorization
Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Bodson, Pascal; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(3), 485-500

Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained ... [more ▼]

Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition in proteins and polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). The aim of this review is to take stock of current buttermilk knowledge. Firstly, the milk fat globule membrane composition and structure are described. Secondly, buttermilk and its associated products are defined according to the milk fat making process. Structure and mean composition of these products are summarized from recent dairy research data and related to technological properties, especially the emulsifying properties provided by MFGM components. Finally, new applications are presented, leading to promising valorizations of buttermilk and its derivate products. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of homogenization and drying on the thermal stability of microfibrillated cellulose
QUIEVY, N.; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; SCLAVONS, M. et al

in Polymer Degradation and Stability (2010), 95

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See detailInfluence de la teneur en galactose sur les interactions moléculaires et sur les propriétés physico-chimiques des galactomannanes en solution
Dakia, Patrick Aubin; Wathelet, Bernard ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010)

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See detailLa steam explosion : application en tant que prétraitement de la matière cellulosique
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(Spécial N°2),

Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by steam heating, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds by organic acid formed during the ... [more ▼]

Steam explosion is a thermomechanochemical process which allows the breakdown of lignocellulosic structural components by steam heating, hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds by organic acid formed during the process and shearing forces due to the expansion of the moisture. The process is composed of two distinct stages: vapocracking and explosive decompression. Cumul effects of both phases include modification of the physical properties of the material (specific surface area, water retention capacities, color, cellulose cristallinity rate,…), hydrolysis of hemicellulosic components (mono and oligosaccharides released) and modification of the chemical structure of lignin. These effects permit the opening of lignocellulosic structures and increase the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of cellulose components in the aim to obtain fermentable sugars used in second generation biofuels or high value-added molecules process. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the surface and membrane properties of a bolaform surfactant issued from alkenyl D-xyloside
Deleu, Magali ULg; Damez, Céline; Gatard, Sylvain et al

Poster (2010)

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See detailImpact of the crystallisation pathway of inulin on its mono-hydrate to hemi-hydrate thermal transition
Ronkart, S. N.; Deroanne, C.; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Food Chemistry (2010), 119(1), 317-322

In this paper, we present the thermal properties of two inulins obtained from different crystallisation pathways. One was obtained by fractional precipitation of a saturated inulin solution and the second ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present the thermal properties of two inulins obtained from different crystallisation pathways. One was obtained by fractional precipitation of a saturated inulin solution and the second was from the crystallisation of a solid amorphous mulin. The thermal analyses were conducted by temperature resolved wide angle X-ray scattering (TRWAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Although at room temperature both inulins presented similar X-ray diffractogram patterns characteristic of the mono-hydrate polymorph, they differed considerably by their thermal properties. During heating, a difference in the mono-hydrate to the hemi-hydrate polymorph transition occurred. Thermogravimetric analysis suggested a difference in the water mobility inside the material which had an impact on the thermal properties and hydrate transition of the crystalline inulin. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the glucooligosaccharide profiles produced from maltose by two different transglucosidases from Aspergillus niger
Goffin, Dorothée ULg; Wathelet, Bernard ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010)

Prebiotic isomaltooligosaccharide preparations contain α-D-glucooligosaccharides and their structure is the key factor for their prebiotic potential. The transglucosylation selectivity is known to depend ... [more ▼]

Prebiotic isomaltooligosaccharide preparations contain α-D-glucooligosaccharides and their structure is the key factor for their prebiotic potential. The transglucosylation selectivity is known to depend on the enzyme specificity and moreover, maltose and -glucooligosaccharides can actually act as both glucosyl donor and acceptor in the reaction. Thus, two commercial enzymes, a glycosyl-tranferase and an -glucosidase, were tested alone and in combination on pure maltose to study their specificities and the IMO profile obtained. The reactions were monitored using a step-forward AEC-PAD analytical method which permitted to detect and resolve new unknown IMO. Structural determination of unknown IMO was attempt using their retention times and relative abundance. As a general rule, the -glucosidase has a more expressed hydrolyzing activity leading to products containing less residual digestible -(1-4) linkages such as isomaltose, isomaltotriose, isomaltotetraose, kojibiose and nigerose while the glucosyl-transferase produces important amount of panose. Finally, the combination of the two enzymes leaded to an intermediate IMO profile. IMO syrups composition was thus proved to be dependant on the specificity of the transglucosylating enzyme so that products profiles can be designed using different enzymes and in different proportion. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-assisted transformations of agroresources: an example of green chemistry
Richel, Aurore ULg; Laurent, Pascal ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

Report (2010)

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as a promising renewable alternative. Alongside its traditional involvement in the agro-food, the ... [more ▼]

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as a promising renewable alternative. Alongside its traditional involvement in the agro-food, the biomass has nowadays opened new vistas in the non-food sector. Indeed, original products and structures, potentially biodegradable, are proposed as substitutes for conventional petrochemical derivatives. The steady rise of oil prices, on the one hand, and the implementation of a new European legislation (REACH: Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals), on the other hand, have only help to boost the academic and industrial research in this area. In this context, microwave-mediated synthesis has progressively emerged as a green chemistry technology. Application of microwaves (MW) as a non conventional heating source finds a plethora of illustrations in the field of organic synthesis. Microwaves usually accelerate chemical processes, while offering improved yields and selectivities. MW heating enables reactions under solventless conditions, providing unique chemical pathways, with special advantages such as ease of manipulation and reduction (or prevention) of pollution "at source". Various reactions and processes can be applied to transform lignocellulosic raw materials into valuable fuels and chemicals. Selected examples of strategical modifications of renewable biomass feedstocks via activation by microwave irradiation are proposed herein. [less ▲]

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