References of "PIERARD, Gérald"
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See detailA Hand Immersion Test under Laboratory-Controlled Usage Conditions: The Need for Sensitive and Controlled Assessment Methods
Paye, Marc ULg; Gomes, G.; Zerweck, C. R. et al

in Contact Dermatitis (1999), 40(3), 133-8

Exaggerated test conditions were frequently used to investigate the cutaneous tolerance of detergent products in the past. As the sensitivity of newly designed biometric methods is steadily improving, the ... [more ▼]

Exaggerated test conditions were frequently used to investigate the cutaneous tolerance of detergent products in the past. As the sensitivity of newly designed biometric methods is steadily improving, the trend towards more realistic test conditions should be encouraged. A hand immersion test under laboratory-controlled usage conditions is presently described, fulfilling such principles. Panelists soaked their hands in 2 different hand dishwashing liquids, 2x daily for 10 min each (with successive in-solution/out-of-solution cycles) for 4 consecutive days. Products were at usual dilution for dishwashing liquids and were randomized between the dominant and non-dominant hands of panelists. Visual scoring of erythema and dryness developing on the whole hands (scoring scales including interdigital areas and joints) during the week did not allow discrimination between the 2 products. However the dominant hands were significantly more susceptible to alterations than the non-dominant hands, regardless of product attribution. In contrast, skin electrical measurements (Corneometer CM800 and Skicon 200) on the dorsum of the hands (muscle mass between thumb and index) and squamometry analysis of tape stripping (harvested from the same site) yielded significant differences between the 2 products. In conclusion, a hand immersion test under realistic conditions has been described, which discriminates between products when sensitive assessment methods are used to explore skin sites partially protected from daily-life skin aggressions. [less ▲]

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See detailBreaking the Relentless Course of Hallopeau's Acrodermatitis by Dapsone
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Tassoudji, Nazli ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in European Journal of Dermatology (1999), 9(2), 126-128

We report the case of a 74-year-old man who suffered for four years from recurrent generalized pustular eruptions associated with acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH). Initial therapy using topical ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a 74-year-old man who suffered for four years from recurrent generalized pustular eruptions associated with acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH). Initial therapy using topical corticosteroids, tars and PUVA failed to improve the acral lesions. The disease was also unresponsive to systemic therapy using corticosteroids, methotrexate, etretinate, acitretine and cyclosporin A. Serious side-effects were experienced with these drugs. A marked improvement of the generalized pustules was observed under treatment combining etretinate and methotrexate, without having any effect on the acropustulosis. During hospitalization, a topical tar therapy cleared the pustular rash. Again no effect was observed on the acral lesions. Disulone (DDS) therapy, initiated at a dose of 200 mg/day, completely cleared ACH after 4 weeks. The disease relapsed when the dose was reduced to 100 mg/day. Increasing the DDS to 150 mg/day was rapidly followed by a new clearance of the acral lesions. After a 3-month treatment, the patient has remained lesion free and no DDS-related side-effects have occurred. In conclusion, sulfones may be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in drug-resistant ACH. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics. Comment je traite ... le zona
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(2), 71-75

The treatment of herpes zoster relies on the intravenous or oral administration of antiviral drugs. Oral aciclovir for shingles is hindered by its low bioavailability. New antiviral drugs with improved ... [more ▼]

The treatment of herpes zoster relies on the intravenous or oral administration of antiviral drugs. Oral aciclovir for shingles is hindered by its low bioavailability. New antiviral drugs with improved oral bioavailability (famciclovir and valaciclovir) allow a better efficacy. The opportuneness of treating herpes zoster is different in the immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and during childhood and pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailChronic Herpes Simplex Virus Type I Glossitis in an Immunocompromised Man
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in British Journal of Dermatology (1999), 140(2), 343-346

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the tongue commonly accompanies acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. However, recurrent infection of the tongue is exceptional and is restricted ... [more ▼]

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the tongue commonly accompanies acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. However, recurrent infection of the tongue is exceptional and is restricted to immunocompromised individuals. A 57-year-old man with corticosteroid-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sciatica presented with a chronic median glossitis due to HSV-1. The main clinical and histological feature was massive necrosis of the entire mucosa. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a considerable amount of HSV gB, gC and gD envelope glycoproteins dispersed in the chorion. In contrast, HSV-1 DNA was detected only in a limited number of epithelial cells using in situ hybridization. The extent of necrosis and the pattern of viral DNA and envelope protein distribution represent unique features of median herpetic glossitis, which are not found in more common types of HSV infection. [less ▲]

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See detailEemco Guidance to the in Vivo Assessment of Tensile Functional Properties of the Skin. Part 1: Relevance to the Structures and Ageing of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissues
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (1999), 12(6, Nov-Dec), 352-62

From an engineering point of view, the skin and subcutaneous tissue represent an integrated load-transmitting structure. It is subjected to intrinsic and environmental influences. An attempt to use a four ... [more ▼]

From an engineering point of view, the skin and subcutaneous tissue represent an integrated load-transmitting structure. It is subjected to intrinsic and environmental influences. An attempt to use a four-layered model is offered to explain how the integument withstands and transmits loads through deforming appropriately. The stratum corneum, the association between the living epidermis and papillary dermis, the reticular dermis and the hypodermis have each their own intimate structures whose tensile functions are ideally balanced to respond adequately to the casual mechanical demands. A series of physiological variables, ageing and skin diseases alter the tensile functions of the organ. In the overall analysis, truly comprehensive multidisciplinary approaches in this field have brought advances in the understanding of functional skin biology. The assessment of tensile functions of skin also provides incentives for progress in skin care. [less ▲]

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See detailFractal Quantification of the Microvasculature Heterogeneity in Cutaneous Melanoma
Heymans, O.; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Brouers, François ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (1999), 198(2), 212-7

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in angiogenesis research have led to the introduction of new prognosis factors. Although the vessel count is effective in breast cancer, the prognosis of primary cutaneous ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in angiogenesis research have led to the introduction of new prognosis factors. Although the vessel count is effective in breast cancer, the prognosis of primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM) does not seems to be directly influenced by this parameter. However, the microscopic examination of PCM suggests variability in the repartition of the microvasculature. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To explore the possibility of extracting information about the vessel distribution by performing a textural analysis on the grey level of histological sections by means of fractal characterization by both Fourier spectrum and multifractal analysis. RESULTS: Three different patterns of vasculature were identified according to the vessel density and distribution. CONCLUSION: It is possible to differentiate and quantify clearly the differences in the microvessel profile organization using the fractal and multifractal methods. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunohistochemical study of the rectus sheath and transversalis facia in adult groin hernias
PANS, Alain ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg

in Hernia : the Journal of Hernias & Abdominal Wall Surgery (1999), 3

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See detailHumoral and cellular immune response to a crude exo-antigen and purified keratinase of Microsporum canis in experimentally infected guinea pigs.
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Leclipteux, T.; Focant, Charles ULg et al

in Medical Mycology (1999), 37(2), 123-129

In order to understand better the host-parasite relationship and to compare with previous observations in Microsporum canis naturally infected cats, the humoral and cellular immune responses to both a ... [more ▼]

In order to understand better the host-parasite relationship and to compare with previous observations in Microsporum canis naturally infected cats, the humoral and cellular immune responses to both a crude exo-antigen and a 31.5 kDa purified keratinase were evaluated in 12 M. canis experimentally infected guinea pigs. Humoral and cellular responses were assessed by ELISA from days 0 to 56 postinfection (PI) and by measurement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses on days 14 and 57 PI, respectively. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining was performed and demonstrated that the keratinase was produced in infected guinea pig skin, as previously reported in cats. Despite a marked interindividual variation, all the guinea pigs produced specific IgG to the crude exo-antigen from day 21 PI onwards, but no anti-keratinase IgG was detected. Strongly positive DTH responses to the exo-antigen were observed on both dates, whereas the keratinase elicited no and weak DTH on days 14 and 57 PI, respectively. These results are in agreement with those previously described for naturally infected cats, and indicate that the 31.5 kDa keratinase is not a major antigen in M. canis infection. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphotypes et postures de vie et de mort chez les trilobites.
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Verviétoise d'Histoire Naturelle (1999), 56

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See detailLe zona chez l'enfant
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Tassoudji, Nazli ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin (1999), 2(1), 7-8

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See detailLes mélanomes cutanés, un spectre de cancers émergents chez la femme en région wallonne
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg; Cornil, F. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(5), 495-499

The Mosan Study Group of Pigmented Neoplasms was founded about 15 years ago. It has collected more than 20.000 cutaneous malignancies including melanoms and basal and squamous cell carcinomas. The ... [more ▼]

The Mosan Study Group of Pigmented Neoplasms was founded about 15 years ago. It has collected more than 20.000 cutaneous malignancies including melanoms and basal and squamous cell carcinomas. The incidence of these cancers in on the rise in Wallonia. In particular, malignant melanoms represent a spectrum of emerging cancers characterized by a proteiform biological outcome. They mostly affect young women. The major risk factor appears to be iterative and unwise ultraviolet exposures. The prevention of malenomas is basically founded on such a dogma and accordingly relies on sunscreens. However, controversies about their beneficial effects are rife and fueled by axiomas and contradictory sophisms. At the exception of surgery, the therapeutic options for the diverse types of melanomas do not yet fulfill the scope of evidence-based medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus in a Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Frere, P.; Rakic, L. et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (1999), 199(4), 361-364

Simultaneous reactivation of distinct Herpesviridae with development of clinical manifestations is exceptional. We report a 48-year-old woman suffering from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. As the ... [more ▼]

Simultaneous reactivation of distinct Herpesviridae with development of clinical manifestations is exceptional. We report a 48-year-old woman suffering from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. As the disease remained refractory to corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and splenectomy, a cure of vinblastine was administered. An atypical stomatitis developed few days later. Immunohistochemistry on a Tzanck smear and a biopsy evidenced a Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The patient presented simultaneously a single necrotic lesion on the abdomen. Immunohistochemistry on a skin biopsy revealed the presence of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gE, gB and IE63 proteins. Intravenous aciclovir was initiated. The present case of simultaneous clinical infections by HSV-I and VZV underlines the importance of complementary viral identification testing in the event of unusual clinical presentations. [less ▲]

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See detailPurification and Characterization of a 315 Kda Keratinolytic Subtilisin-Like Serine Protease from Microsporum Canis and Evidence of Its Secretion in Naturally Infected Cats
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Swinnen, M.; Bouchara, J. P. et al

in Medical Mycology (1998), 36(6), 395-404

A keratinolytic protease, secreted as the major component by a feline clinical isolate of Microsporum canis cultivated in a minimal medium containing cat keratin, was purified by affinity chromatography ... [more ▼]

A keratinolytic protease, secreted as the major component by a feline clinical isolate of Microsporum canis cultivated in a minimal medium containing cat keratin, was purified by affinity chromatography on bacitracin agarose and gel filtration. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was 31.5 kDa and the pI was 11.8. The enzyme was not glycosylated and its first 15 N-terminal amino acids showed numerous similarities with other fungal subtilisins. The optimum pH was around 9 while inactivation of the enzyme was reversible at pH 4, but not at pH 11. The enzyme was stable at 37 degrees C with an apparent optimum temperature around 55 degrees C. PMSF, soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) and chymostatin strongly inhibited the proteinase. The highest affinity (Km of 0.37 mM) and physiological efficiency (k(cat)/Km) were obtained for the synthetic substrate N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. These results indicate that the keratinase belongs to the subtilisin-like serine protease family. Purified rabbit immunoglobulins G prepared against the keratinase and used in an immunohistochemical test allowed the detection of the keratinase produced by the fungus invading hair structures in naturally infected cats. The in vitro keratinolytic activity of the enzyme and its production in vivo suggest that it may contribute to pathogenicity. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of the Immunohistochemical Expression of Melanoma-Associated Antigens and Density of Cd45r0+ Activated T Lymphocytes and L1-Protein Positive Macrophages in Primary Cutaneous Melanomas
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Letawe, C.; Nikkels, Arjen ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Medicine (1998), 2(6), 721-724

There is ample evidence for spontaneous antimelanoma immune reactivity mediated by melanocyte-differentiation-antigens (MDAs). Our aim was to determine whether MDA immunoreactivity is associated with ... [more ▼]

There is ample evidence for spontaneous antimelanoma immune reactivity mediated by melanocyte-differentiation-antigens (MDAs). Our aim was to determine whether MDA immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and macrophages (TIM). A retrospective study was conducted in 30 medium and high grade primary cutaneous melanomas (PCM) as identified by CART-analysis. All of the cases had developed clinical evidence for metastasis within 3 years following surgical excision of the PCM. We used immunohistochemistry and computerized image analysis to quantify MDAs positive cells (Melan A/MART-1, gp100/Pmel 17/HMB45, tyrosinase), CD45R0-positive TIL and LI-protein-positive TIM. A stochastic relationship was present between the MDA immuno-reactivities and the densities in TIL and TIM. An inverse relationship was yielded between TIL and TIM. No specific pattern of PCM immunoreactivity for MDAs, TIL and TIM was found to predict metastases. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma clinics. Comment je traite ... ou préviens une douleur par "patches"
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(10), 586-7

There exists two distinct types of patches aiming at increasing the pain threshold either systematically or locally. The first type of analgesic patch is a real transdermal delivery system releasing ... [more ▼]

There exists two distinct types of patches aiming at increasing the pain threshold either systematically or locally. The first type of analgesic patch is a real transdermal delivery system releasing fentanyl. Such potent opioid drug exerts a systemic effect. The other type of patch associates lidocain and prilocain to induce a local anesthesia of the skin without inducing a systemic effect. [less ▲]

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See detailZoonoses cutanées transmises par les chiens et les chats
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(9), 532-536

Pets like dogs and cats are responsible for a series of zoonotic disorders. Some of these diseases are inflicted by bites, scratches or licking. Others result from a close contact with fur, or are ... [more ▼]

Pets like dogs and cats are responsible for a series of zoonotic disorders. Some of these diseases are inflicted by bites, scratches or licking. Others result from a close contact with fur, or are transmitted by ectoparasites or by the contaminated environment. Some systemic infectious and parasitic diseases are transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa. Such situation may lead to endemic problems in some communities. [less ▲]

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See detailRelativité et géodiversité des vérités médico-économiques
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(5), 252-4

The economic gestion of health care is difficult to handle. It covers several aspects which cannot pride to be accurate sciences. It strikes difficulties such as the geodiversity of problems to be solved ... [more ▼]

The economic gestion of health care is difficult to handle. It covers several aspects which cannot pride to be accurate sciences. It strikes difficulties such as the geodiversity of problems to be solved and the nuances in the application of principles of social equity and medical ethics. The health-care analysis is also exposed to some politician interpretations biased by doctrinal a priori. Most often, a confrontation ensues between the political cenacle and the professionals directly involved in health-care. [less ▲]

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See detailLe coût des diagnostics empiriques et intuitifs. Regard critque sur l'épreuve thérapeutique et sur les pratiques non conventionnelles
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(5), 249-51

Some health care-related practices are probably on the rise as a response to the political economy. In particular, the therapeutic prescription looking for a diagnostic information allows to escape from a ... [more ▼]

Some health care-related practices are probably on the rise as a response to the political economy. In particular, the therapeutic prescription looking for a diagnostic information allows to escape from a possible overcharge linked to proper diagnostic methods. The cost of such practice is not negligible. In fact, the best way to handle the problem is to reinstate some simple and cheap diagnostic tests in the daily practice of clinicians. The opening of the health care disciplines to new categories of non-physician workers is about to create further problems with regard to the health economics. The unsettled diagnosis and the therapeutic limitation to a quasi-placebo effect will never be positive factors in the global gestion of pathologies. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... un phénomène de Raynaud
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(3), 119-20

Raynaud's phenomenon is a paroxysmal vasospasm affecting the extremities, particularly the fingers. The idiopathic type is the most frequently encountered and the secondary types have multiple origins ... [more ▼]

Raynaud's phenomenon is a paroxysmal vasospasm affecting the extremities, particularly the fingers. The idiopathic type is the most frequently encountered and the secondary types have multiple origins. The mainstay of treatment relies on hygieno-dietetic measures. When they fail, calcium antagonists, sustained-release transdermal glyceryl trinitrate and a few other vasoactive drugs may prove to be effective. However, side effects may limit their prescription. [less ▲]

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See detailAnneaux, cibles ou cocardes
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(3), 117-118

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