References of "Ozer, Pierre"
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See detailEvolution des caractéristiques pluviométriques dans la zone urbaine de Butembo (RDC) de 1957 À 2010
Sahani, Muhindo; Moeyersons, Jan; Vandecasteele, Ine et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop : Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Ecologie Tropicales (2012), 36

In recent years, the city of Butembo faced unprecedented damaging floods. This study aims to analyze the rainfall variations recorded at the meteorological station of the Agricultural and Veterinary ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the city of Butembo faced unprecedented damaging floods. This study aims to analyze the rainfall variations recorded at the meteorological station of the Agricultural and Veterinary Technical Institute (ITAV) in Butembo between 1957 and 2010. It appears that rainfall features have remained relatively stable over the analyzed period.Linear upward trends were observed for the simple day intensity index (SDII) and for the total number of days characterized by precipitation >= 10 mm (P10). In contrast, seven other rainfall indices recorded a decreasing trend: the total annual precipitation (PTOT), the total number of wet days (rainfall >=1 mm) (JP), the total number of days characterized by precipitation >= 20 mm (P20), the maximum daily rainfall (Px1J), the frequency of intense (P95p), extreme (P99p) and very extreme (P99,5p) rainfall. However, none of these trends were statistically significant. Although the floods recurrence became prevalent, the study reports that extreme rainfall events do not reveal exceptional rains in the past few years. Yet, all recent maximum daily rainfalls are considered as normal since their return period is less than six years. This suggests a significant increase in flood risk mainly due to human impacts over the urban area and increasing vulnerability. This study also underlines that the length of the rainy season is shortening, undermining urban agriculture production and therefore food security. [less ▲]

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See detailKinshasa en proie à l’érosion en ravine : inventaire cartographique et impact socioéconomique
Makanzu, Fils; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Moeyersons, Jan et al

in Colloque international "Géomatique et gestion des risques naturels" en hommage au Professeur André Ozer - Livre de résumés (2012)

Kinshasa, l’une des grandes villes de l’Afrique subsaharienne, a vu sa population passer de 404173 habitants en 1957 à près de 8 millions d’habitants en 2007, soit une augmentation d’environ 20 fois en 50 ... [more ▼]

Kinshasa, l’une des grandes villes de l’Afrique subsaharienne, a vu sa population passer de 404173 habitants en 1957 à près de 8 millions d’habitants en 2007, soit une augmentation d’environ 20 fois en 50 ans seulement. La ville s’est entre-temps agrandie, s’étalant de 94 à 443 km² au cours de la même période. A l’aide de la télédétection et d’un SIG, les ravins d’au moins 5 mètres de large ont été cartographiés à partir d’un couple stéréoscopique SPOT 2006/2007 dans la haute ville de Kinshasa. Cet inventaire a permis la détermination de 308 ravins totalisant une longueur cumulée de 95 km qui occupent une superficie de 2 km² et dont la profondeur moyenne et la largeur moyenne sont respectivement de 7 et 21 mètres. La densité de ravinement est de 0,4 km/km². En imperméabilisant le sol et en concentrant de grandes quantités d’eau de ruissellement, l’urbanisation a modifié le drainage naturel du sol et a augmenté l’aléa dans cette région où il existait déjà. Elle serait donc la cause principale de l’érosion en ravine qui déchire les versants sableux de Kinshasa. [less ▲]

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See detailNon, le village de pêcheurs de Phan Thiet n’a pas été victime du changement climatique
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Colloque international "Géomatique et gestion des risques naturels" en hommage au Professeur André Ozer - Livre de résumés (2012)

En janvier 2009, 27 maisons situées sur le littoral sud du Vietnam, dans la ville de Phan Thiet, zone très touristique à 200 kilomètres à l'est de Ho Chi Minh-Ville, se sont effondrées. Une centaine d ... [more ▼]

En janvier 2009, 27 maisons situées sur le littoral sud du Vietnam, dans la ville de Phan Thiet, zone très touristique à 200 kilomètres à l'est de Ho Chi Minh-Ville, se sont effondrées. Une centaine d'autres bâtiments étaient également menacés de disparition. Les médias internationaux ont ainsi relayé l’information « des centaines de soldats, de gardes côtes et de volontaires ont été mobilisés pour amasser des sacs de sable sur place et tenter de limiter les dégâts. En cause, l'érosion du littoral, grignoté par de fortes vagues. Selon les experts, le Vietnam et ses plus de 3.200 km de côtes font partie des zones les plus exposées aux effets du réchauffement climatique, qu'il s'agisse de l'élévation du niveau des mers ou de l'augmentation de la fréquence des typhons et inondations ». Il s’agit donc indéniablement d’une des conséquences du réchauffement climatique. Cet article montre comment, en utilisant la fonction multi dates Google Earth, il est possible de démonter cette argumentation et de mettre en évidence les vraies causes de ce rapide et inéluctable retrait des côtes au niveau de ce village de pêcheurs, à savoir la construction anarchique de la station balnéaire de Mui Ne, quelques kilomètres à l’est. La création de ce désormais haut lieu touristique est extrêmement récente, le premier établissement étant sorti de terre en 1994. Vu le succès croissant des plages de sable blanc, toute la côte a depuis été lotie sur près de cinq kilomètres. Mui Ne a donc modifié son espace pour accueillir les touristes occidentaux. Ainsi, les cocoteraies ont été abattues pour laisser la place à des cocotiers ne faisant plus office que de décor sur la plage, les liserons des sables ont été arrachés pour éloigner les puces de mer, le sable a été égalisé et les infrastructures hôtelières ont recouvert les dunes pour être en contact direct avec la plage. C’est ainsi tout un décor « exotique » qui est créé pour être conforme aux représentations des touristes occidentaux. La suite est connue d’avance : le fragile équilibre littoral est rompu et le bilan sédimentaire devient négatif. Entre 2006 et 2009, la plage d’une trentaine de mètres a totalement disparu. Or, la plage étant la raison d’être de ce lieu, il convient de la préserver à tout prix. Ainsi, les promoteurs immobiliers ont eu recours à la construction d’épis de plus de 100 mètres pour recréer de longues plages, artificielles cette fois, qui interrompent le transit sédimentaire. La dérive littorale est ainsi stoppée ce qui engendre la disparition des plages suivantes et l’effondrement des maisons de pêcheurs. Cette analyse montre clairement la rapide modification des paysages qui résulte d’une conversion économique locale non encadrée répondant aux processus de mondialisation. [less ▲]

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See detailCélébrer Noël en investissant dans des choses qui ont du sens
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Perrin, Dominique ULg

Article for general public (2011)

Le contexte de crises financière et environnementale préoccupantes que nous traversons devrait nous convaincre de modifier nos comportements d’achat. Les fêtes de fin d’année peuvent être l’occasion de ... [more ▼]

Le contexte de crises financière et environnementale préoccupantes que nous traversons devrait nous convaincre de modifier nos comportements d’achat. Les fêtes de fin d’année peuvent être l’occasion de consommer différemment, en considérant d’abord la « valeur » des choses avant leur « prix ». [less ▲]

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See detailProcessus de désertification
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Learning material (2011)

Le cours fait le point sur la controverse actuelle qui entoure les processus de désertification et reprend, point par point, certains processus dirigeant la dégradation environnementale dans les zones ... [more ▼]

Le cours fait le point sur la controverse actuelle qui entoure les processus de désertification et reprend, point par point, certains processus dirigeant la dégradation environnementale dans les zones arides, semi-arides et subhumides sèches de la planète en décortiquant les variations climatiques et les activités humaines. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Noël du peuple
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2011)

Un changement est en marche. On sent les frémissements d'un renouveau des mentalités et des comportements en matière d'achats et de consommation, d'empreinte écologique et de modèle social et économique ... [more ▼]

Un changement est en marche. On sent les frémissements d'un renouveau des mentalités et des comportements en matière d'achats et de consommation, d'empreinte écologique et de modèle social et économique vers lequel nous tendons. Soyons acteurs d'une autre société. Pour les fêtes aussi, manifestons nos valeurs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe tsunami in South-East Asia – a retrospective analysis of the management of an apocalyptic natural disaster
Ozer, Pierre ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg

in Cybergeo : Revue Européenne de Géographie = Cybergeo - European Journal of Geography (2011)

The tsunami that affected the coasts of the Indian ocean on December 26, 2004 claimed close to 226 000 lives, mainly on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which suffered overwhelming devastation. This ... [more ▼]

The tsunami that affected the coasts of the Indian ocean on December 26, 2004 claimed close to 226 000 lives, mainly on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which suffered overwhelming devastation. This article asks whether a tsunami warning system is needed in the Indian Ocean, where the probability of experiencing a similar catastrophe is very small. In addition, other alternatives, including land use planning and education focused on tsunami risk management, are presented. Their application could considerably reduce financial and human losses if a disaster of this nature was to occur again. [less ▲]

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See detailModifications environnementales et santé publique
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Learning material (2011)

Le cours aborde un aspect des impacts des activités anthropiques sur l’environnement : la problématique du changement climatique. Il en justifie l’importance d’une part car elle résulte d’un long ... [more ▼]

Le cours aborde un aspect des impacts des activités anthropiques sur l’environnement : la problématique du changement climatique. Il en justifie l’importance d’une part car elle résulte d’un long processus de dégradation environnementale et, d’autre part, car ses effets sont globaux et se font déjà ressentir partout dans le monde (vagues de chaleur, événements pluviométriques extrêmes, sécheresses, etc.). En fonction du degré de vulnérabilité de nos sociétés, ces effets affectent notamment le domaine de la santé publique, d’autant plus qu’il est désormais acquis que la tendance ne pourra être renversée dans les prochaines décennies, quoi que nous fassions. Le cours explore les effets de ces stress climatiques sur nos sociétés et les différentes réponses internationales qui sont apportées pour tenter d’y remédier. [less ▲]

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See detailTrends in extreme rainfall events in Benin (West Africa), 1960-2000
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Energy, Environment and Climate Change (2011, August 26)

Global dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether the frequency and / or the severity of rainfall extremes changed during the 1960 – 2000 period in the Republic of Benin in West ... [more ▼]

Global dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether the frequency and / or the severity of rainfall extremes changed during the 1960 – 2000 period in the Republic of Benin in West Africa. This period provides the best spatial coverage of homogenous daily series, which can be used for calculating the proportion of global land area exhibiting a significant change in extreme or severe rainfall. We selected 12 indicators of extreme climatic events that are based on daily totals of precipitation. The six first indicators are the annual total precipitation (RTOT); the annual total of wet days (with daily rainfall >= 1mm, Rd); the simple day intensity index (SDII) calculated as the average rainfall from wet days; the annual maximum rainfall recorded during 1, 5, and 30 days (Rx1d, Rx5d, and Rx30d). The other six indices are based on the 95th and 99th percentiles calculated from the daily rainfall data over the 1961-1990 period, that is the 30-year period required by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for the calculation of normals. The 95th percentile defines a very wet day. The 99th percentile corresponds to an extreme rainfall event. Based on these percentiles, three extreme precipitation indices were chosen. Very wet day and extreme rainfall frequency are based on the annual count of days with rainfall >= 95th and 99th percentiles of 1961-1990 (R95p and R99p). Very wet day and extreme rainfall intensity corresponds to the annual total precipitation recorded from days with rainfall >= 95th and 99th percentiles of 1961-1990 (R95pSUM and R99pSUM). Very wet day and extreme rainfall proportion is the percentage of the annual total precipitation recorded from days with rainfall >= 95th and 99th percentiles of 1961-1990 (R95pTOT and R99pTOT) and measures how much of the total rain comes from very wet or extreme events. Only time series which had complete records from 1960 to 2000 were used. A total of 21 stations time series were extracted from national climate archives and collated into the unique dataset described here. National maps showing trends during the 1960-2000 period were produced. Results show that only the annual total precipitation, the annual total of wet days and the annual maximum rainfall recorded during 30 days present a significant decreasing trend while the other nine rainfall indicators appear to remain stable. These results are important findings for Benin since scarce works realized in neighbouring regions of West Africa describe a situation more prone to increases in extreme rainfall (in Nigeria [1]) or the opposite (in Guinea Conakry [2] and in Niger [3]) in a similar context of a clear reduction in the yearly precipitation amount. We call for further research on this topic in West Africa since water management is a major tool for sustainable development and poverty alleviation. [1] M. New, B. Hewitson, D.B. Stephenson, et al., “Evidence of trends in daily climate extremes over southern and West Africa,” J. Geophys. Res., vol. 111, 2006, D14102, doi:10.1029/2005JD006289. [2] E. Aguilar, A. Aziz Barry, M. Brunet, et al., “Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in western central Africa, Guinea Conakry, and Zimbabwe, 1955–2006,” J. Geophys. Res., vol. 114, 2009, D02115, doi: 10.1029/2008JD011010. [3] P. Ozer, Y.C. Hountondji, O. Laminou Manzo, “Evolution des caractéristiques pluviométriques dans l’est du Niger de 1940 à 2007,” GEO-ECO-TROP, Vol. 33, pp. 11-30, 2009. [less ▲]

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See detailLand use and land cover change analysis 1990-2002 in Binh Thuan Province, south central Vietnam
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Energy, Environment and Climate Change (2011, August 26)

Describing the nature and extent of land resources and changes over time has become increasingly important, especially in developing countries. In this study, two Landsat satellite image scenes were ... [more ▼]

Describing the nature and extent of land resources and changes over time has become increasingly important, especially in developing countries. In this study, two Landsat satellite image scenes were examined to identify land use and land cover changes in Binh Thuan province (Vietnam) between 1990 and 2002. Classification accuracies were based upon ground truth data obtained by global positioning system and field collection. A post-classification comparison analysis was used to identify areas that have experienced conversions in land use and land cover. Comparisons of the land cover maps reveal that a steady growth in population has caused extensive changes of land cover throughout the area. The maps also indicate that the loss of woody land (forest) and the extension of wetlands (irrigate area), combined with built-up encroachment, remains one of the most serious environmental problems facing the Binh Thuan Province today. The post-classification change detection analysis showed that critical habitats accounted for nearly 38.5% of the total intensive study area between 1990 and 2002 while 61.5% remained stable. Results also showed over the 12-year span, approximately 1151.2 km² (115.120 ha) forest were converted respectively to brush, irrigated area (wetlands), cropland and built-up. This is an overall average decrease of approximately 9594 hectares of forested area per year. Throughout the study area, districts most affected by forest conversion to another land cover are: Bac Bihn (2798 ha/year), Than Linh (2717 ha/year), Ham Thuan Nam (1601 ha/year) and Ham Thuan Bac (1524 ha/year). Based on the identified causes of these changes, we made policy recommendations for better management of land use and land cover. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of wind energy potential in Niamey, Niger
Garba Abdou, Mahamadou; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Energy, Environment and Climate Change (2011, August 26)

Renewable technologies are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on current ... [more ▼]

Renewable technologies are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on current and future economic and societal needs. Renewable energy technologies provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources. In the Sahel of West Africa, dramatically affected by desertification processes and rainfall shortages, wind energy is often viewed as a technology to mitigate deforestation although its development is extremely limited. The purpose of this study is to assess wind power potential in Niamey, Niger, a country where forest areas have declined by 34.5% over the 1990-2005 period. From 3-hourly meteorological data collected at the Niamey-Airport synoptic station over ten years (1998-2007), we evaluate the wind speed characteristics and the wind power potential at a height of 10 meters above ground level at diurnal, monthly, and yearly scales. We find very large differences in wind speed at the diurnal (2.40 – 5.11 m/s), monthly (2.61 – 4.11 m/s) and yearly (3.21 – 3.73 m/s) scales, with a global average wind speed of 3.42 m/s. We conclude that the wind powered energy is not economically feasible in Niamey due to its low wind potential. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the past (1970-1999) and future (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) evolutions of precipitation and temperature, in the Province of Binh Thuan, South East Vietnam, based on IPCC models
Doutreloup, Sébastien ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Energy, Environment and Climate Change (2011, August)

Natural resource-dependent societies in developing countries are facing increased pressures linked to global climate change. The Province of Binh Thuan, in South East Vietnam, where rainfall is on average ... [more ▼]

Natural resource-dependent societies in developing countries are facing increased pressures linked to global climate change. The Province of Binh Thuan, in South East Vietnam, where rainfall is on average 500 to 700 mm but can drop as low as 350 mm in some years, knows a recent increase of agricultural activities in order to contribute to reduce poverty although the technical efficiency of Binh Thuan is still very low. Within this framework of higher dependency of the local economy on the agricultural sector, there is growing evidence that changes in climate extremes are increasing exposure of currently vulnerable rural populations. In order to assess the future climate of the province of Binh Thuan, only three models able to simulate the current climate in the study area were used out of the 24 selected by the IPCC: CCCMA-T47, INGV and IPSL. The future climate projections (that is 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 compared to historical data 1970-1999) were focused on two targets: [i] assessing changes in climate statistics, and [ii] analysing the beginning and the end of the rainy season. [i] The first analysis indicates an increase of mean temperature of about 1.6°C (over 2046-2065) and 2.5°C (over 2081-2100) and an increase of extreme temperatures and extreme rainfall events. However, no significant changes about the evolution of the annual amount of precipitation were found. [ii] The second analysis indicates that the dry season is likely to be longer in 2046-2065 owing to a delay in the onset of the rainy season (up to 15 days) accompanied by an earlier end of the rainy season (up to 30 days). Although it must be kept in mind that precipitations are the most difficult climate variable to predict, it is likely that increasing water needs to support expending agriculture within the context of climate change in the Province of Binh Thuan will be a challenge. Indeed, extreme rainfall events are likely to increase and unchanged yearly amounts of precipitation should be concentrated in time. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial and environmental impacts of climate change: In the absence of mitigation, will we be able to adapt?
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Energy, Environment and Climate Change (2011, August)

Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as it is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average ... [more ▼]

Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as it is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level. Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increases. Other effects of regional climate changes on natural and human environments are emerging, although many are difficult to discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers. Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases concentrations. In this framework, sea level rise is virtually certain and increasing frequency of heat waves and heavy precipitation events is very likely during the 21st century. This will impact ecosystems, food security, coastal areas, human health, water availability, and economies. Since current (2000-2010) CO2 emissions are near the worst Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario (A1F1) projecting a global average surface warming of 2.4 to 6.4°C and a sea level rise of 26 to 59 cm (excluding any future rapid dynamical change in ice flow) at 2090-2099 relative to 1990-1999. And since it is very likely that the international response will be very weak in the near future (as it has been in the past), giving no chance to a second phase to the Kyoto Protocol that expires in 2012. We thus have to accept that climate change mitigation is behind us and that only adaptation to global warming is the response to reduce vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change effects. However, we know that in the absence of climate change effects, the vulnerability of natural and human systems is extremely high, especially due to the mismanagement of natural resources, the lack of land use planning and the nonexistence of policies focused on natural hazard management. [less ▲]

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See detailAcheter malin... Acheter loin?
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2011)

« Heureux qui comme Ulysse... » faut-il partir loin pour faire un beau voyage ? Comme beaucoup d’entre nous, il m’arrive de rêver de visiter telle ou telle ville européenne ou de m’évader en Méditerranée ... [more ▼]

« Heureux qui comme Ulysse... » faut-il partir loin pour faire un beau voyage ? Comme beaucoup d’entre nous, il m’arrive de rêver de visiter telle ou telle ville européenne ou de m’évader en Méditerranée pour une semaine « all in ». Ainsi, j’ai décidé de faire un petit tour à Gênes au mois de juin et le rêve devient réalité... ou cauchemar environnemental ? [less ▲]

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See detailHuman pressure and the environment in Vietnam: focus on the Binh Thuan Province
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference (2011, March 08)

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See detailVulnerability mapping for sustainable hazard mitigation in the city of Bukavu, South Kivu, DRCongo
Ndyanabo, Sadiki; Vandecasteele, Ine; Moeyersons, Jan et al

Conference (2011, February)

This study presents the natural as well as human factors which are responsible for the environmental degradation and the increasing vulnerability of the population of Bukavu to natural hazards. The city ... [more ▼]

This study presents the natural as well as human factors which are responsible for the environmental degradation and the increasing vulnerability of the population of Bukavu to natural hazards. The city of Bukavu is located within the Albertine rift, a region which is prone to seismic activity. Moreover, the accentuated topography, the lithology and climate regime contribute considerably to the occurrence of both geomorphologic and hydroclimatic hazards. Over the last few decades the city has evolved at an exponential pace, without appropriate urban planning. Between 1970 and 2008 the population increased more than four times within a constant area of about 60 km2. The related change in land use has drastically amplified both the frequency and impact of natural hazards in the city. The zones at high risk of mass movements and flooding have been identified and mapped using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). The changes in land use and population density were also studied, and we propose several approaches to raise the resilience of the population in order to reduce the impact of natural hazards on the city. [less ▲]

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See detailViande, environnement et résistance
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2011)

On le sait, l'Homo sapiens sapiens mange de plus en plus de viande. De 1961 à 2009, la production mondiale de viande est passée de 71 à 282 millions de tonnes. En un demi-siècle, la consommation de viande ... [more ▼]

On le sait, l'Homo sapiens sapiens mange de plus en plus de viande. De 1961 à 2009, la production mondiale de viande est passée de 71 à 282 millions de tonnes. En un demi-siècle, la consommation de viande par habitant a donc quasiment doublé. Et cela ne se fait pas sans dommage sur notre environnement. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Increasing Threat of Natural Hazards in Central Africa: The Case of Urban Megagullies
Vandecasteele, Ine; Makanzu, Fils; Ntombi, Akheem et al

Conference (2011, January 11)

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See detailEffets du réchauffement global sur les variables climatiques et hydrologiques au Bénin: Analyse de l’année 2010 par rapport aux données historiques
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Afouda, Abel; Hountondji, Yvon ULg et al

Scientific conference (2010, December 22)

Le Bénin a été affecté par des inondations de grande ampleur durant l'hivernage 2010, affectant plus de 350 000 personnes, causant près de 100 000 sans-abri et tuant à 43 reprises. L'objectif de cette ... [more ▼]

Le Bénin a été affecté par des inondations de grande ampleur durant l'hivernage 2010, affectant plus de 350 000 personnes, causant près de 100 000 sans-abri et tuant à 43 reprises. L'objectif de cette recherche est de voir si ces inondations revêtent un caractère exceptionnel ou non du point de vue de l'aléa. Pour ce faire, nous caractérisons les précipitations du réseau synoptique du Bénin sur la période 1940-2009 à partir de différents indices et analysons ensuite l'année 2010. [...] [less ▲]

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