References of "Ozer, Pierre"
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See detailCatastrophe naturelle: Quand la communication se noie (c onfrontation Bénin / Tubize)
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

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See detailLa lasagne pur-sang et la société low-cost
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Piet, Grégory ULg; Thoreau, François ULg

Article for general public (2013)

Pour satisfaire des consommateurs en quête de toujours plus de pouvoir d’achat, la Commission européenne soutient des gros producteurs low-cost pour une nourriture low-cost (avec des contrôles limités ... [more ▼]

Pour satisfaire des consommateurs en quête de toujours plus de pouvoir d’achat, la Commission européenne soutient des gros producteurs low-cost pour une nourriture low-cost (avec des contrôles limités). Stop! Et vive l’agriculture locale. [less ▲]

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See detailDesert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Doumbia, Seydou et al

in International Journal of Biometeorology (2013), 57

High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between ... [more ▼]

High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database (N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else. [less ▲]

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See detailSaharan dust impacts on air quality: What are the potential health risks in West Africa?
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Human & Ecological Risk Assessment (2013), 19

Despite the proximity of the Sahara, very few studies about dust impact on air quality and human health have been conducted in West Africa. The lack of data is a major constraint on our understanding of ... [more ▼]

Despite the proximity of the Sahara, very few studies about dust impact on air quality and human health have been conducted in West Africa. The lack of data is a major constraint on our understanding of the impacts on human health in this area. We analyzed PM10 concentrations and horizontal visibility recorded in four West African stations. The pollution levels often exceed the standards defined by many countries/regulatory authorities and have been associated with serious health risks outside Africa. Over the Sahelian stations, 45.6% of the days between November 2006 and March 2007 were likely to impact human health and the studied Sudanian population was exposed to potential health effects every 5 days. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse écogéographique de la fragmentation du couvert végétal au nord Bénin : paramètres dendrométriques et phytoécologiques comme indicateurs in situ de la dégradation des peuplements ligneux
Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; Gaoué, Orou Gandé; Sokpon, Nestor et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop : Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Ecologie Tropicales (2013), 37(1), 53-70

In order to access the state of ligneous cover in the north of Benin Republic, in situ measurements were made in woody vegetation (non-protected areas) in three eco-geographical zones selected following a ... [more ▼]

In order to access the state of ligneous cover in the north of Benin Republic, in situ measurements were made in woody vegetation (non-protected areas) in three eco-geographical zones selected following a climatic gradient. Ecological and structural characterization of different plant communities was conducted to identify the main functional groups of the woody stands and to assess their level of degradation. Multivariate analysis technics were used to analyze the data. The results show that basal area and species richness of stands are the parameters that allow a clear differentiation of the status of woody areas at the level of ecogeographical zones. The productivity gradient opposes a disturbance gradient suggesting a severe degradation of ligneous area in the Sudano-Sahelian and North-Sudanian zones compared to those of the southern Sudanese zone. Our study showed that woody cover degradation and reduction across the studied area are mainly explained by uncontrolled utilization of forest resources and an evolution in farming systems. In addition is grafted the energy crisis that affects populations in semi-arid area that use exclusively wood and charcoal as the main sources of domestic energy. [less ▲]

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See detailLa barrière mécanique anti-érosive influence la colonisation des dunes par les espèces végétales
Laminou Manzo, Ousmane; Zaman Allah, Mainassara; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Tropicultura (2013), 31(4), 260-271

Le Sud-est du Niger est soumis au phénomène d’érosion éolienne. Dans la zone de Gouré, les cuvettes oasiennes, principales sources de productions agricoles et de revenus, sont menacées de disparition à ... [more ▼]

Le Sud-est du Niger est soumis au phénomène d’érosion éolienne. Dans la zone de Gouré, les cuvettes oasiennes, principales sources de productions agricoles et de revenus, sont menacées de disparition à cause de l’ensablement. Plusieurs méthodes de fixation des dunes ont été testées mais les résultats restent mitigés. Dans cette étude, une barrière mécanique, à base des palissades confectionnées avec des branchages de Leptadenia pyrotechnica est utilisée pour évaluer son efficacité dans la lutte contre l’érosion du sol et dans la restauration de la végétation. Trois années après la mise en place de cette barrière anti-érosive, une végétation spontanée de 58 espèces appartenant à 20 familles dont 17 pérennes, s’était installée à l’intérieur du clayonnage, soit 42 espèces de plus que dans les zones non traitées. Au fil des ans, la composition floristique s’est progressivement stabilisée, témoignant ainsi d’une réduction notable des perturbations du milieu engendrées par le vent. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Extreme Precipitation and Temperature Changes in Djibouti City (1966–2011)
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Mahamoud, Ayan

in Journal of Climatology (2013), 2013(Article ID 928501), 8

A dataset of 23 derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether the frequency of rainfall and temperature extremes has changed over the last decades in Djibouti City, eastern Africa. Results show ... [more ▼]

A dataset of 23 derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether the frequency of rainfall and temperature extremes has changed over the last decades in Djibouti City, eastern Africa. Results show that all precipitation indices have declined over the last decades, although only the very wet day frequency and the very wet day proportion present a significant decline. Annual total precipitation has decreased by 17.4% per decade from 1980 to 2011 and recent mean yearly rainfall (44mm on average from 2007 to 2011) meets a 73% deficit compared to the 30-year (1981–2010) average (164 mm). The average temperature increase is +0.28∘C per decade.Extremely warm days (maximum temperature ≥45.0∘C) have become 15 times more frequent than in the past while extremely cool nights (minimum temperature ≤8.6∘C) have almost disappeared. Current rainfall shortages and increasing temperature extremes are impacting local people who urgently need adaptation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailPlaidoyer universitaire pour le rail
Arnsperger, Christian; Cassiers, Isabelle; Crutzen, Nathalie ULg et al

Article for general public (2012)

[Chapeau] Le réseau ferré en Wallonie s’apparentera bientôt à un train touristique reliant deux gares Calatrava plutôt que d’assurer à chacun le droit à sa mobilité.

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See detailChangement climatique 2012
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Scientific conference (2012, December 03)

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See detailArticuler risques, planification d'urgence et gestion de crise
Brunet, Sébastien ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

Book published by de boeck (2012)

Une maison explose en plein coeur de la ville de Liège, piégeant plusieurs victimes sous les décombres... C'est le déclenchement de nombreuses actions menées dans l'urgence par des professionnels du ... [more ▼]

Une maison explose en plein coeur de la ville de Liège, piégeant plusieurs victimes sous les décombres... C'est le déclenchement de nombreuses actions menées dans l'urgence par des professionnels du risque et de la gestion de crise. Partant de l'analyse de cet événement et de ses enseignements, cet ouvrage, fruit de rencontres entre chercheurs et professionnels, tente d'articuler risques, planification d'urgence et gestion de crise. La diversité des phénomènes auxquels nos sociétés sont confrontées est grande et l'organisation de l'action publique dans ce domaine nécessite la coordination d'acteurs et d'institutions aux compétences et horizons différents. Cet ouvrage a pour ambition de décortiquer cette réalité en l'éclairant ici avec des considérations théoriques et là avec des exemples concrets issus de l'expérience de terrain. [less ▲]

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See detailLes risques naturels
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Brunet, Sébastien; Fallon, Catherine; Ozer, Pierre (Eds.) et al Articuler risques, planification d'urgence et gestion de crise (2012)

Un aléa important, ici un séisme, devient une catastrophe naturelle majeure car la vulnérabilité sociétale et technique se conjugue à une très faible capacité de réponse (ou résilience) sur les court ... [more ▼]

Un aléa important, ici un séisme, devient une catastrophe naturelle majeure car la vulnérabilité sociétale et technique se conjugue à une très faible capacité de réponse (ou résilience) sur les court, moyen et long termes face à une crise. Les pages qui suivent décortiquent comment un risque naturel se transforme en catastrophe et les différentes possibilités qui s’offrent à nos sociétés pour réduire tant l’aléa que la vulnérabilité. [less ▲]

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See detailRIO+20
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2012)

Rio +20; invité sur le plateau : Pierre Ozer, Chargé de recherches ULG dans le département de science et gestion environnement

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See detailRecent precipitation and temperature changes in Djibouti City
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Mahamoud, Ayan

Conference (2012, May 29)

A dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether the frequency and / or the severity of rainfall and temperature extremes changed over the last decades in the city of Djibouti in East ... [more ▼]

A dataset of derived indicators has been compiled to clarify whether the frequency and / or the severity of rainfall and temperature extremes changed over the last decades in the city of Djibouti in East Africa. This study uses the only current available coverage of homogenous daily series which can be used for calculating any significant change in rainfall and temperature in recent years. It covers the 1980–2011 period for precipitation and the 1966–2011 period for what regards maximum, minimum and mean temperature. We used a set of 23 indicators of extreme climatic events. Results show that the annual total precipitation, the annual total of wet days (with daily rainfall >= 1mm) and the frequency of very wet days (defined as the 95th percentile) have strongly declined over the last 32 years. Yet, since 2007, mean yearly rainfall meets a 73% deficit when compared to the 30-year average, a situation that is much worst than what was observed in the early 1980s. For what regards temperatures, the average increase recorded during the 1966–2011 period is of +0.28°C per decade, a far higher value than the global rising temperature. Heatwaves characterized by daily maximum temperatures ≥ 45°C (that is the 99th percentile) have become 15 times more frequent than in the past (comparing the 1966–75 and 2002–2011 periods) while extremely cool nights (<18.7°C, that is the 1st percentile in minimum temperature) have almost disappeared. Although the database should be extended to improve the global picture of recent climate changes in Djibouti, it seems very likely that rainfall shortages and increasing temperature extremes have already impacted the people of the Republic of Djibouti, especially the water availability and health sectors. Adaptation strategies are urgently needed since the global warming process is not likely to decline in the next decades. [less ▲]

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See detailClimat: nous n'avons pas de temps à perdre
Berger, A; Callens, I; Bouckaert, T et al

Article for general public (2012)

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See detailEnergie et climat : historique et perspectives
Ozer, Pierre ULg

in La ville : air, eau, terre, feu. Éléments pour un Plan Régional de Développement Durable économe en ressources (2012)

On le sait, la Conférence de Copenhague a été un échec. En effet, quelques chefs d'Etat –à savoir les européens et américains pour le monde industrialisé– et la Chine, l'Inde, le Brésil et l'Afrique du ... [more ▼]

On le sait, la Conférence de Copenhague a été un échec. En effet, quelques chefs d'Etat –à savoir les européens et américains pour le monde industrialisé– et la Chine, l'Inde, le Brésil et l'Afrique du Sud pour les pays émergents ont doublé le processus de négociations des Nations Unies (dans l'obscurantisme le plus total et sans concertation avec les pays en développement) pour arriver à une note qui tient sur deux pages. Ce texte ne comporte plus de trace d'engagement de réduction de GES pour 2020 ou 2050, pas même volontaire. Une aide financière sera dégagée pour aider les pays pauvres à faire face aux conséquences du changement climatique. Quel sera le montant de cette aide ? Sera-t-elle additionnelle ou détournée des fonds d'aide au développement ? De qui viendra-t-elle et à qui profitera-t-elle ? Et pour quoi faire ? Nul ne le sait. Quant à la réduction de la déforestation et aux contraintes d'émissions de GES pour les secteurs aérien et maritime (annoncés comme des conditions sine qua non d'accord par les européens), pas un mot... Autant dire que le résultat final de ce grand rendez-vous n'est guère étincelant... Directement après ladite Conférence, j’écrivais dans une carte blanche « A quoi sert la science, si le politique se borne à cultiver, pour des raisons économiques dans le court terme, la science de l'inconscience ? » (Ozer 2010). Arriverons-nous à trouver un accord dans les mois ou les années à venir ? Ou devrons-nous subir brutalement les conséquences de ce changement climatique ? Car on peut négocier à l’infini entre délégations, mais on ne négociera jamais avec la physique de l’atmosphère. [less ▲]

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See detailLand Cover Dynamics (1990-2002) in Binh Thuan Province, Southern Central Vietnam
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in International Journal of Asian Social Science (2012), 2(3), 336-349

This paper describes the use of satellite imageries and GIS data for identifying key environmental characteristics of Binh Thuan Province in south central Vietnam and for detecting the major changes ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the use of satellite imageries and GIS data for identifying key environmental characteristics of Binh Thuan Province in south central Vietnam and for detecting the major changes patterns within this region. Landsat TM (1990) and Landsat ETM+ (2002) imageries were used to classify the study area into seven land use and land cover (LULC) classes. A post-classification comparison analysis was used to quantify and illustrate the various LULC conversions that took place over the 12-year span of time. Results showed that a steady growth in population has caused extensive changes of land cover throughout the area. The maps also indicate that the loss of woody land (forest) and the extension of wetlands (irrigated area), combined with built-up encroachment, remains one of the most serious environmental problems facing the Binh Thuan Province today. The post-classification change detection analysis showed that critical habitats accounted for nearly 38.5% of the intensive study area between 1990 and 2002 while 61.5% remained stable. Results also showed over the 12-year span, approximately 1151.2 km² (115.120 ha) forest were converted respectively to brush, irrigated area (wetlands), cropland and built-up. This is an overall average decrease of 9594 hectares of forested area per year. Throughout the study area, districts most affected by forest conversion to another land cover are: Bac Bihn (2798 ha/year), Than Linh (2717 ha/year), Ham Thuan Nam (1601 ha/year) and Ham Thuan Bac (1524 ha/year). Based on the identified causes of these changes, we made policy recommendations for better management of land use and land cover. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of global climate change and desertification on the environment and society in Southern Centre of Vietnam (a case study in Binh Thuan province). Climate today and tomorrow: state of play and perception.
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Report (2012)

The Province of Binh Thuan is the driest area of Vietnam. It is felt as being affected by desertification processes that are mainly resulting from the ongoing „climate change‟, especially shortening ... [more ▼]

The Province of Binh Thuan is the driest area of Vietnam. It is felt as being affected by desertification processes that are mainly resulting from the ongoing „climate change‟, especially shortening rainfall. But has climate, and especially precipitations, really changed in recent years? Or is the recent increase of agricultural activities with higher water needs may explain such perception of a changing climate? In the collection of four papers presented hereafter, we try to answer to these questions. Yet, the first paper investigates recent trends in precipitation and temperatures using daily data from the weather station of Phan Thiet. It appears that the area did not experience any significant precipitation decrease (rainfall have, at the contrary, globally increased) but a very significant increase in temperature. The second paper focuses on future climate projections (that is 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 compared to historical data 1970-1999). It shows that the Province of Binh Thuan will face an increase of mean temperature of about 1.6°C (over 2046-2065) and 2.5°C (over 2081-2100) and an increase of extreme temperatures and extreme rainfall events. However, no significant changes about the evolution of the annual amount of precipitation were found. It also indicates that the dry season is likely to be longer in 2046-2065 owing to a delay in the onset of the rainy season (up to 15 days) accompanied by an earlier end of the rainy season (up to 30 days). The third paper explores recent land use and land cover changes in the Province of Binh Thuan. Comparisons of the land cover maps reveal that a steady growth in population has caused extensive changes of land cover throughout the area. The maps also indicate that the loss of woody land (forest) and the extension of irrigated area, combined with built-up encroachment, remains one of the most serious environmental problems today. Yet, results showed over the 12-year span, approximately 115,120 ha of forests were converted respectively to brush, irrigated area, cropland and built-up. This is an overall average decrease of approximately 9,594 ha of forested area per year. Based on the identified causes of these changes, we made policy recommendations for better management of land use and land cover. Such results show that water needs are always increasing due to the extension of irrigated areas. The last paper concludes with a case study of a fishing village disappearing as a result of shoreline erosion. It shows that the term “climate change” is misused probably because it is easier to blame a global issue rather than the local mismanagement of natural resources, the lack of land use planning and the nonexistence of policies focused on natural hazard management in the uncontrolled construction the seaside resort of Mui Ne. This reflexion about the wrong perception of climate change which may cause several economic problems could be extended to water availability which may not be sufficient to support recent developments of irrigated agriculture. Understanding current problems may help developing adaptation strategies in the next decades. Further research is needed to understand such perception of climate change, especially when knowing that future climate may be really affected by an increase of extreme rainfall events and an extended dry season. [less ▲]

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See detailChangement climatique: Etat des lieux 2012
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Scientific conference (2012, January 30)

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See detailCLIMAT: DES BOULEVERSEMENTS CONSTATES (2012)
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Scientific conference (2012, January 17)

17 janvier 2012 : Climat, des bouleversements constatés Docteur en géographie à l’Université de Liège, spécialisé sur les problèmes liés à la désertification, aux catastrophes naturelles et à leur gestion ... [more ▼]

17 janvier 2012 : Climat, des bouleversements constatés Docteur en géographie à l’Université de Liège, spécialisé sur les problèmes liés à la désertification, aux catastrophes naturelles et à leur gestion, et à de nombreux aléas climatiques, Pierre OZER exposera l’évolution du climat, en faisant le lien entre les travaux du GIEC (Groupe d’experts Intergouvernemental sur l’Evolution du Climat) et de l’UNFCCC (Convention Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques). A travers cette démonstration il montrera le poids de ces travaux au cours des négociations internationales (passées, actuelles et à venir). [less ▲]

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See detailChangement climatique, géomorphologie littorale, désertification
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Learning material (2012)

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