References of "Noels, Ludovic"
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See detailImposing periodic boundary condition on arbitrary meshes by polynomial interpolation
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Béchet, Eric ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg et al

in Computational Materials Science (2012), 55

In order to predict the effective properties of heterogeneous materials using the finite element approach, a boundary value problem (BVP) may be defined on a representative volume element (RVE) with ... [more ▼]

In order to predict the effective properties of heterogeneous materials using the finite element approach, a boundary value problem (BVP) may be defined on a representative volume element (RVE) with appropriate boundary conditions, among which periodic boundary condition is the most efficient in terms of convergence rate. The classical method to impose the periodic boundary condition requires the identical meshes on opposite RVE boundaries. This condition is not always easy to satisfy for arbitrary meshes. This work develops a new method based on polynomial interpolation that avoids the need of matching mesh condition on opposite RVE boundaries. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-linear mechanical solvers for GMSH
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Becker; Nguyen, Van Dung ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, March)

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See detailSerial FEM/XFEM-Based Update of Preoperative Brain Images Using Intraoperative MRI
Vigneron, Lara; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Warfield, Simon et al

in International Journal of Biomedical Imaging (2012), 2012

Current neuronavigation systems cannot adapt to changing intraoperative conditions over time. To overcome this limitation, we present an experimental end-to-end system capable of updating 3D preoperative ... [more ▼]

Current neuronavigation systems cannot adapt to changing intraoperative conditions over time. To overcome this limitation, we present an experimental end-to-end system capable of updating 3D preoperative images in the presence of brain shift and successive resections. The heart of our system is a nonrigid registration technique using a biomechanical model, driven by the deformations of key surfaces tracked in successive intraoperative images. The biomechanical model is deformed using FEM or XFEM, depending on the type of deformation under consideration, namely brain shift or resection. We describe the operation of our system on two patient cases, each comprising ¯ve intraoperative MR images, and demonstrate that our approach significantly improves the alignment of nonrigidly registered images. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiscale mean-field homogenization method for fiber-reinforced composites with gradient-enhanced damage models
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, L et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2012), 233-236

In this work, a gradient-enhanced homogenization procedure is proposed for fiber reinforced materials. In this approach, the fiber is assumed to remain linear elastic while the matrix material is modeled ... [more ▼]

In this work, a gradient-enhanced homogenization procedure is proposed for fiber reinforced materials. In this approach, the fiber is assumed to remain linear elastic while the matrix material is modeled as elasto-plastic coupled with a damage law described by a non-local constitutive model. Toward this end, the mean-field homogenization is based on the knowledge of the macroscopic deformation tensors, internal variables and their gradients, which are applied to a micro-structural representative volume element (RVE). The macro-stress is then obtained from a homogenization procedure. The methodology holds for 2-phase composites with moderate fiber volume ratios, and for which, at the RVE size, the matrix can be considered as homogeneous isotropic and the ellipsoidal fibers can be considered as homogeneous transversely isotropic. Under these assumptions, the method is successfully applied to simulate the damage process occurring in unidirectional carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composites submitted to different loading conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-local damage-enhanced MFH for multiscale simulations of composites
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

in Proceedings of the XII SEM International Conference & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (2012)

In this work, a gradient-enhanced mean-field homogenization (MFH) procedure is proposed for fiber reinforced materials. In this approach, the fibers are assumed to remain linear elastic while the matrix ... [more ▼]

In this work, a gradient-enhanced mean-field homogenization (MFH) procedure is proposed for fiber reinforced materials. In this approach, the fibers are assumed to remain linear elastic while the matrix material obeys an elasto-plastic behavior enhanced by a damage model. As classical finite element simulations face the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization when strain softening of materials is involved, we develop the mean-field homogenization in a non-local way. Toward this end we use the so-called non-local implicit approach, reformulated in an anisotropic way to describe the damage in the matrix. As a result we have a multi-scale model that can be used to study the damage process at the meso-scale, and in particular the damaging of plies in a composite stack, in an efficient computational way. As a demonstration a stack with a hole is studied and it is shown that the model predicts the damaging process in bands oriented with the fiber directions. [less ▲]

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See detailStiction failure in microswitches due to elasto-plastic adhesive contact
Wu, Ling ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Proceedings of the XII SEM International Conference & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (2012)

Undesirable stiction, which results from contact between surfaces, is a major failure mode in micro-switches. Indeed the adhesive forces can become so important that the two surfaces remain permanently ... [more ▼]

Undesirable stiction, which results from contact between surfaces, is a major failure mode in micro-switches. Indeed the adhesive forces can become so important that the two surfaces remain permanently glued, limiting the life-time of the MEMS. This is especially true when contact happens between surfaces where elasto-plastic asperities deform permanently until the surfaces reach plastic accommodation, increasing the surface forces. To predict this behavior, a micro adhesive-contact model is developed, which accounts for the surfaces topography evolutions during elasto-plastic contacts. This model can be used at a higher scale to study the MEMS behavior, and thus its life-time. The MEMS devices studied here are assumed to work in a dry environment. In these operating conditions only the Van der Waals forces have to be considered for adhesion. For illustration purpose, an electrostatic-structural analysis is performed on a micro-switch. To determine the degree of plasticity involved, the impact energy of the movable electrode at pull-in is estimated. Thus the maximal adhesive force is predicted using the developed model. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the elasto-plastic adhesive contact on Micro-Switches
Wu, Ling ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Hogge, Michel; Van Keer, Roger; Dick, Erik (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanded COmputational Methods in Engineering (ACOMEN2011) (2011, November)

Undesirable stiction, which results from contact between surfaces, is a major failure mode in micro,electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In previous works, a statistical rough surfaces interaction,model ... [more ▼]

Undesirable stiction, which results from contact between surfaces, is a major failure mode in micro,electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In previous works, a statistical rough surfaces interaction,model, based on Maugis and Kim formulations has been presented to estimate the adhesive forces in MEMS switches. In this model, only elastic adhesive contact has been considered. However, during the impact between rough surfaces, at pull-in process for example, plastic deformations of the rough surfaces cannot be always neglected especially for the MEMS with metallic contact surfaces. In the present work, a new micro-model predicting the adhesive-contact force on a single elasticplastic asperity interacting with a rigid plane is presented. This model will be used later on for the interaction between two elastic-plastic rough surfaces. The MEMS devices studied here are assumed to work in a dry environment. In these operating conditions only the Van der Waals forces have to be considered for adhesion. [less ▲]

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See detailA two-scale model predicting the mechanical sliding and opening behavior of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline solids
Péron-Lührs, Vincent ULg; Jérusalem, Antoine; Sansoz, Frédéric et al

in Hogge, Michel; Van Keer, Roger; Dick, Erik (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanded COmputational Methods in Engineering (ACOMEN2011) (2011, November)

In polycrystalline materials with nanosized grains smaller than 100 nm, the deformation mechanisms taking place at grain boundaries (GBs) become dominant compared to intragranular crystal plasticity ... [more ▼]

In polycrystalline materials with nanosized grains smaller than 100 nm, the deformation mechanisms taking place at grain boundaries (GBs) become dominant compared to intragranular crystal plasticity. Recent studies have revealed that more accurate mechanical properties can be obtained by choosing the relevant GB character distribution (GBCD). We use here a numerical multiscale approach (an extension of a previous work [1]) to predict the mechanical behavior of nanostructured metals according to their GBCD composed of either high angle GBs (HAB) or low angle GBs (LAB). The quasicontinuum method (QC) is used to obtain the GB mechanical response at the nanoscale under simple shear (sliding part) and tensile load (opening part). These QC results are then used in a finite element code (direct numerical simulation-DNS) as GB constitutive models. This two-scale framework does not suffer from length scales limitations conventionally encountered when considering the two scales separately. [less ▲]

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See detailFull discontinuous Galerkin formulation of shell in large deformations with fracture mechanic applications
Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Hogge, Michel; Van Keer, Roger; Dick, Erik (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanded COmputational Methods in Engineering (ACOMEN2011) (2011, November)

Different methods have been developed to model tearing prediction, as e.g., the combination between the cohesive principle and the finite element method. Unfortunately, this method has some well known ... [more ▼]

Different methods have been developed to model tearing prediction, as e.g., the combination between the cohesive principle and the finite element method. Unfortunately, this method has some well known issues that can be fixed by recourse to discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Such a formulation allows to insert very easily an extrinsic cohesive element at onset of fracture without any mesh modification. This promising technique has been recently developed by the authors for linear shell. Although promising numerical results were obtained, it is difficult to compare the method with experiments due to the large plastic deformation present in material before the fracture apparition. Thus, the method is extent herein to elasto-plastic finite deformations. The simulations of some benchmarks prove the ability of this new framework to model accurately the continuum part of the deformation and the crack propagation. [less ▲]

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See detailHomogenization of fibre reinforced composite with gradient enhanced damage model
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

in Hogge, Michel; Van Keer, Roger; Dick, Erik (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanded COmputational Methods in Engineering (ACOMEN2011) (2011, November)

Classical finite element simulations face the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization when the strain softening of materials is involved. Thus, when using continuum damage model or ... [more ▼]

Classical finite element simulations face the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization when the strain softening of materials is involved. Thus, when using continuum damage model or plasticity softening model, numerical convergence will not be obtained with the refinement of the finite element discretization when strain localization occurs. Gradient-enhanced softening and non-local continua models have been proposed by several researchers in order to solve this problem. In such approaches, high-order spatial gradients of state variables are incorporated in the macroscopic constitutive equations. However, when dealing with complex heterogeneous materials, a direct simulation of the macroscopic structures is unreachable, motivating the development of non-local homogenization schemes. In this work, a non-local homogenization procedure is proposed for fiber reinforced materials. In this approach, the fiber is assumed to remain linear elastic while the matrix material is modeled as elasto-plastic coupled with a damage law described by a non-local constitutive model. Toward this end, the mean-field homogenization is based on the knowledge of the macroscopic deformation tensors, internal variables and their gradients, which are applied to a micro- structural representative volume element (RVE). Macro-stress is then obtained from a homogenization process. [less ▲]

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See detailVectorial Incremental Nonconservative Consistent Hysteresis model
François-Lavet, Vincent ULg; Henrotte, François; Stainier, Laurent ULg et al

in Hogge, Michel; Van Keer, Roger; Malengier, Benny (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanded COmputational Methods in Engineering (ACOMEN2011) (2011, November)

This paper proposes a macroscopic model for ferromagnetic hysteresis that is well-suited for finite element implementation. The model is readily vectorial and relies on a consistent thermodynamic ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a macroscopic model for ferromagnetic hysteresis that is well-suited for finite element implementation. The model is readily vectorial and relies on a consistent thermodynamic formulation. In particular, the stored magnetic energy and the dissipated energy are known at all times, and not solely after the completion of closed hysteresis loops as is usually the case. The obtained incremental formulation is variationally consistent, i.e., all internal variables follow from the minimization of a thermodynamic potential. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanded COmputational Methods in Engineering (ACOMEN2011)
Hogge, Michel ULg; Van Keer, Roger; Dick, Erik et al

Book published by Université de Liège - Dépôt légal: D/2011/0480/31 (2011)

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See detailImposing periodic boundary condition on arbitrary meshes by polynomial interpolation
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Béchet, Eric ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg et al

in Hogge, Michel; Van Keer, Roger; Dick, Erik (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanded COmputational Methods in Engineering (ACOMEN2011) (2011, November)

In order to predict the effective properties of heterogeneous materials using the finite element approach, a boundary value problem (BVP) may be defined on a representative volume element (RVE) with ... [more ▼]

In order to predict the effective properties of heterogeneous materials using the finite element approach, a boundary value problem (BVP) may be defined on a representative volume element (RVE) with appropriate boundary conditions, among which periodic boundary condition is the most efficient in terms of convergence rate. The classical method to impose the periodic boundary condition requires identical meshes on opposite RVE boundaries. This condition is not always easy to satisfy for arbitrary meshes. This work develops a new method based on polynomial interpolation that avoids the need of the identical mesh condition on opposite RVE boundaries. [less ▲]

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See detailA one Field Full Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Kirchhoff-Love Shells Applied to Fracture Mechanics
Becker, Gauthier ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2011), 200(45-46), 3223-3241

In order to model fracture, the cohesive zone method can be coupled in a very efficient way with the Finite Element method. Nevertheless, there are some drawbacks with the classical insertion of cohesive ... [more ▼]

In order to model fracture, the cohesive zone method can be coupled in a very efficient way with the Finite Element method. Nevertheless, there are some drawbacks with the classical insertion of cohesive elements. It is well known that, on one the hand, if these elements are present before fracture there is a modification of the structure stiffness, and that, on the other hand, their insertion during the simulation requires very complex implementation, especially with parallel codes. These drawbacks can be avoided by combining the cohesive method with the use of a discontinuous Galerkin formulation. In such a formulation, all the elements are discontinuous and the continuity is weakly ensured in a stable and consistent way by inserting extra terms on the boundary of elements. The recourse to interface elements allows to substitute them by cohesive elements at the onset of fracture. The purpose of this paper is to develop this formulation for Kirchhoff-Love plates and shells. It is achieved by the establishment of a full DG formulation of shell combined with a cohesive model, which is adapted to the special thickness discretization of shell formulation. In fact, this cohesive model is applied on resulting reduced stresses which are the basis of thin structures formulations. Finally, numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailProjects in Fracture Simulations
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Becker, Gauthier; Wu, Ling ULg et al

Scientific conference (2011, September)

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See detailA Micro-Macroapproach to Predict Stiction due to Surface Contact in Microelectromechanical Systems
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Rochus, Véronique et al

in IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems (2011), 20(4), 976-990

Stiction, which results from contact between surfaces, is a major failure mode in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Indeed microscopic structures tend to adhere to each other when their surfaces ... [more ▼]

Stiction, which results from contact between surfaces, is a major failure mode in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Indeed microscopic structures tend to adhere to each other when their surfaces enter into contact and when the restoring forces are unable to overcome the interfacial forces. Since incidental contacts cannot be completely excluded and since contacts between moving parts can be part of the normal operation of some types of MEMS, stiction prediction is an important consideration when designing micro and nano-devices. In this paper a micro-macro multi-scale approach is developed in order to predict possible stiction. At the lower scale, the unloading adhesive contact-distance curves of two interacting rough surfaces are established based on a previously presented model [L. Wu et al., J. Appl. Phys. 106, 113502, 2009]. In this model, dry conditions are assumed and only the van der Waals forces as adhesion source are accounted for. The resulting unloading adhesive contact-distance curves are dependant on the material and on surface properties, such as, elastic modulus, surface energy and on the rough surfaces topography parameters; the standard deviation of asperity heights and the asperities density. At the higher scale, a finite element analysis is considered to determine the residual cantilever beam configuration due to the adhesive forces once contact happened. Toward this end, the adhesive contact-distance curve computed previously is integrated on the surface of the finite elements as a contact law. Effects of design parameters can then be studied for given material and surface properties. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti‐scale modelling of fibre reinforced composite with non‐local damage variable
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2011, July)

Classical finite element simulations face the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization when the strain softening of materials is involved. Thus, when using continuum damage model or ... [more ▼]

Classical finite element simulations face the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization when the strain softening of materials is involved. Thus, when using continuum damage model or plasticity softening model, numerical convergence will not be obtained with the refinement of the finite element discretization when strain localization occurs. Gradient-enhanced softening and non-local continua models have been proposed by several researchers in order to solve this problem. In such approaches, the spatial gradients of state variables are incorporated in the macroscopic constitutive equation [1, 2]. However, when dealing with complex heterogeneous materials, a direct simulation of the macroscopic structures is unreachable, motivating the development of non-local homogenization schemes [3]. In our work, a gradient-enhanced homogenization procedure is proposed for fiber reinforced materials. In the approach, the fiber is assumed to remain linear elastic while the matrix material is modeled as elasto-plastic [4] coupled with damage and is described by a non-local constitutive model [5]. Toward this end, the mean-field homogenization is based on the knowledge of the macroscopic deformation tensors, internal variables and their gradients, which are applied to a micro-structural representative volume element (RVE). Macro-stress is then obtained from a homogenization process. This procedure is applied to simulate damage process occurring in unidirectional carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composites submitted to different loading histories. [less ▲]

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See detailA shell fracture framework based on a full discontinuous Galerkin formulation combined with an extrinsic cohesive law
Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2011, June 06)

The cohesive method can be combined easily with Finite Element method to simulate a fracture problem which can contains fracture initiation and propagation. Nevertheless, the insertion of cohesive ... [more ▼]

The cohesive method can be combined easily with Finite Element method to simulate a fracture problem which can contains fracture initiation and propagation. Nevertheless, the insertion of cohesive elements is not straightforward. Indeed, the two classical approaches suffer from severe limitations. On one hand, in the intrinsic approach, as the cohesive element is inserted at the beginning, this element has to model the continuum stage of deformation before fracture. This is ensured by an initial slope in the cohesive law which leads to a stiffness modification and to an alteration of propagation of wave. On the other hand, the introduction of the cohesive element during the simulation in extrinsic approach requests a dynamic modification of mesh. This operation is very difficult to implement especially in the case of a parallel implementation which is almost mandatory due to the very important number of degrees of freedom inherent to a fine mesh used to track the crack path. A solution to these limitations, pioneered by J. Mergheim and R. Radovitzky is to recourse to a discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Indeed this one used discontinuous test functions and integration at the interface of elements to discretize a structure with discontinuous elements. The integration on the boundary of elements allows ensuring weakly the continuity of displacements in a stable and consistent manner. As interface elements are present they can be easily substituted by cohesive elements when a fracture criterion is reached. The interest of the method has been recently proved by R. Radovitzky etal. for 3D elements and by the authors for Euler-Bernoulli beams. An extension of the formulation to Kirchhoff-Love shell is presented here. A novel extrinsic cohesive law is developed to model a through the thickness fracture. In fact, as in thin bodies formulation the thickness is not “discretized” this operation is not straightforward. Indeed, as the fracture occurs only in tension, in a pure bending case the position of neutral axis has to be move to propagate the fracture. To avoid this complicated step, it is suggested to integrate on the thickness the cohesive law which is then applies on resultant efforts. The coupling between the openings in displacement and rotation is performed in a way which guarantees a proper release of energy for any loading. Furthermore, the combination between fracture modes I and II is realized as suggested by M. Ortiz etal. Some numerical quasi-static and dynamic benchmarks are simulated to show the interest and the good performance of the presented framework. [less ▲]

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See detailA fracture framework for Euler Bernoulli beams based on a full discontinuous Galerkin formulation/extrinsic cohesive law combination
Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2011), 85(10), 12271251

A new full Discontinuous Galerkin discretization of Euler Bernoulli beam is presented. The main interest of this framework is its ability to simulate fracture problems by inserting a cohesive zone model ... [more ▼]

A new full Discontinuous Galerkin discretization of Euler Bernoulli beam is presented. The main interest of this framework is its ability to simulate fracture problems by inserting a cohesive zone model in the formulation. With a classical Continuous Galerkin method the use of the cohesive zone model is di cult because as insert a cohesive element between bulk elements is not straightforward. On one hand if the cohesive element is inserted at the beginning of the simulation there is a modification of the structure stiffness and on the other hand inserting the cohesive element during the simulation requires modification of the mesh during computation. These drawbacks are avoided with the presented formulation as the structure is discretized in a stable and consistent way with full discontinuous elements and inserting cohesive elements during the simulation becomes straightforward. A new cohesive law based on the resultant stresses (bending moment and membrane) of the thin structure discretization is also presented. This model allows propagating fracture while avoiding through-the-thickness integration of the cohesive law. Tests are performed to show that the proposed model releases, during the fracture process, an energy quantity equal to the fracture energy for any combination of tension-bending loadings. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite Element Computation of Nonlinear Normal Modes
Renson, Ludovic ULg; Deliège, Geoffrey ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg et al

in Fifth International Conference on Advanced COmputational Methods in ENgineering (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (7 ULg)