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See detailMultifunctional role of matrix metalloproteinases in multiple myeloma: a study in the 5T2MM mouse model
Van Valckenborgh, Els; Croucher, Peter I.; De Raeve, Hendrik et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2004), 165(3), 869-878

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play a role in cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and bone degradation, all important events in the pathogenesis of cancer. Multiple myeloma is ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play a role in cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and bone degradation, all important events in the pathogenesis of cancer. Multiple myeloma is a B-cell cancer characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, increased angiogenesis, and the development of osteolytic bone disease. The role of MMPs in the development of multiple myeloma is poorly understood. Using SC-964, a potent inhibitor of several MMPs (MMP-2, -3, -8, -9, and -13), we investigated the role of MMPs in the 5T2MM murine model. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of mRNA for MMP-2, -8, -9, and -13 in 5T2MM-diseased bone marrow. Mice bearing 5T2MM cells were given access to food containing SC-964. The concentration of SC-964 measured in the plasma of mice after 11 days of treatment was able to inhibit MMP-9 activity in gelatin zymography. Treatment of 5T2MM-bearing mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden, a significant decrease in angiogenesis, and partially protective effect against the development of osteolytic bone disease. The direct role of MMPs in these different processes was confirmed by in vitro experiments. All these results support the multifunctional role of MMPs in the development of multiple myeloma. [less ▲]

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See detailDiet-induced obesity and reduced skin cancer susceptibility in matrix metalloproteinase-19 deficient mice
Pendas, A. M.; Folgueras, A. R.; LLano, E. et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2004), 24(12), 5304-13

Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19) is a member of the MMP family of endopeptidases that, in contrast to most MMPs, is widely expressed in human tissues under normal quiescent conditions. MMP-19 has been ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19) is a member of the MMP family of endopeptidases that, in contrast to most MMPs, is widely expressed in human tissues under normal quiescent conditions. MMP-19 has been found to be associated with ovulation and angiogenic processes and is deregulated in diverse pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. To gain further insights into the in vivo functions of this protease, we have generated mutant mice deficient in Mmp19. These mice are viable and fertile and do not display any obvious abnormalities. However, Mmp19-null mice develop a diet-induced obesity due to adipocyte hypertrophy and exhibit decreased susceptibility to skin tumors induced by chemical carcinogens. Based on these results, we suggest that this enzyme plays an in vivo role in some of the tissue remodeling events associated with adipogenesis, as well as in pathological processes such as tumor progression [less ▲]

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See detailPlasmin-activated doxorubicin prodrugs containing a spacer reduce tumor growth and angiogenesis without systemic toxicity
Devy, L.; de Groot, F. M.; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

in FASEB Journal (2004), 18(3), 565-567

To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced ... [more ▼]

To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced in many cancers. ST-9905, which contains an elongated self-elimination spacer, is activated more rapidly in vitro by plasmin than is ST-9802. Prodrug activation in vitro depended on the level of urokinase produced by tumor cells and was inhibited by aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor. Comparison of equimolar concentrations of ST-9905, ST-9802, and Dox in EF43.fgf-4 and MCF7 models revealed that both prodrugs, in sharp contrast to Dox, displayed antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities without discernible toxicity. Although MCF7 cells are poor urokinase producers in vitro, prodrug efficacy in this model may be explained by production of plasmin by tumor-infiltrating host cells. Mice treated with equitoxic concentrations (maximum tolerated doses) of prodrugs showed 100% survival and negligible body weight loss, in contrast to results after Dox treatment. ST-9905 was substantially more effective than ST9802 and induced similar tumor growth inhibition as Dox but without apparent toxicity. This finding may be explained by the elongated spacer, which facilitates enzymatic prodrug activation. These data validate both the use of elongated spacers in vivo and the concept of targeting anticancer prodrugs to tumor-associated plasmin. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of the soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor in preeclamptic patients: Pathophysiological consequences
Tsatsaris, V.; Goffin, Frédéric ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2003), 88(11), 5555-5563

Several growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and placental growth factor (PlGF) are involved in the placental vascular development. We investigated whether dysregulation in ... [more ▼]

Several growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and placental growth factor (PlGF) are involved in the placental vascular development. We investigated whether dysregulation in the VEGF family may explain the defective uteroplacental vascularization characterizing preeclampsia. We compared pregnancies complicated by early onset severe preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation to normal pregnancies. Maternal plasma, placentas, and placental bed biopsies were collected. The mRNA levels of VEGF-A, PlGF, and their receptors were quantified in placentas and placental beds. Levels of VEGF-A, PlGF, and soluble VEGF receptor (VEGFR) were assessed in maternal plasma. In compromised pregnancies, elevated levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 mRNAs may reflect the hypoxic status of the placenta. On contrast, the membrane-bound VEGFR-1 was decreased in the placental bed of preeclamptic patients. Preeclampsia was associated with low levels of circulating PlGF and increased levels of total VEGF-A and soluble VEGFR-1. Free VEGF-A was undetectable in maternal blood. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that VEGF-A and PlGF were localized in trophoblastic cells. Altogether, our results suggest two different pathophysiological mechanisms associated with preeclampsia. The first one is related to an overproduction of competitive soluble VEGFR-1 that may lead to suppression of VEGF-A and PlGF effects. The second one is the down-regulation of its membrane bound form (VEGFR-1) in the placental bed, which may result in the defective uteroplacental development. [less ▲]

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See detailPathogenic role of matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and therapeutic relevance of matrix metalloproteases inhibitors
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Guéders, Maud ULg; Rocks, Natacha ULg et al

in Cellular and Molecular Biology (2003), 49(6), 875-884

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an at least 23 member family of calcium and zinc dependent enzymes implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an at least 23 member family of calcium and zinc dependent enzymes implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are diseases associated with an inflammation of the airways and lung parenchyma. In this review, we focus on the role played by MMPs in the pathogenesis of inflammation, airway remodelling and alveolar destruction, depicting the observational studies in humans and the experimental studies in animal models. During the course of asthma, MM P-2,-8,-9 and TIMP-1 are expressed at baseline and the allergen exposure or exacerbations of the disease lead to an increase of MMP-9 secretion being at this time much higher than that of TIMP-1, allowing temporarily a matrix damage, possibly followed by abnormal repair. Animal models suggest a predominant role for MMP-9 and MMP-12 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation and link an absence of MMP-2 to an increased parenchymal inflammation. In COPD and emphysema, human studies indicate an over-secretion of MMP-2,-8,-9 and animal models point out MMP-1 and MMP-12 as being key players in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Taken together, these data identify specific MW inhibition as appropriate target for therapeutic intervention in asthma or COPD/emphysema. They also strongly argue against the widespread use of large spectrum non specific inhibitors that could be detrimental. [less ▲]

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See detailMatrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated dendritic cell recruitment into the airways is a critical step in a mouse model of asthma
Vermaelen, K. Y.; Cataldo, Didier ULg; Tournoy, K. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2003), 171(2), 1016-1022

Dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be strategically implicated in allergic diseases, including asthma. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mediates transmigration of inflammatory leukocytes across basement ... [more ▼]

Dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be strategically implicated in allergic diseases, including asthma. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mediates transmigration of inflammatory leukocytes across basement membranes. This study investigated the role of MMP-9 in airway DC trafficking during allergen-induced airway inflammation. MMP-9 gene deletion affected the trafficking of pulmonary DCs in a specific way: only the inflammatory transmigration of DCs into the airway lumen was impaired, whereas DC-mediated transport of airway Ag to the thoracic lymph nodes remained unaffected. In parallel, the local production of the Th2-attracting chemokine CC chemokine ligand 17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, which was highly concentrated in purified lung DCs, fell short in the airways of allergen-exposed MMP-9(-/-) mice. This was accompanied by markedly reduced peribronchial eosinophilic infiltrates and impaired allergen-specific IgE production. We conclude that the specific absence of MMP-9 activity inhibits the development of allergic airway inflammation by impairing the recruitment of DCs into the airways and the local production of DC-derived proallergic chemokines. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activity by vacuolar H+-ATPases
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Peyrollier, K.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Biochemical Journal (2003), 373(Pt 1), 19-24

Membrane-type I matrix metalloprotemase (MT1-MMP) is a key enzyme in normal development and malignant processes. The regulation of MT1-MMP activity on the cell surface is a complex process involving ... [more ▼]

Membrane-type I matrix metalloprotemase (MT1-MMP) is a key enzyme in normal development and malignant processes. The regulation of MT1-MMP activity on the cell surface is a complex process involving autocatalytic processing, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP) binding and constitutive internalization. However, the fate of internalized MT1-MMP is not known. Acidification of intracellular vacuolar compartments is essential for membrane trafficking, protein sorting and degradation. This acidification is controlled by vacuolar H+-ATPases, which can be selectively inhibited by bafilomycin-A(1). Here, we treated human tumour cell lines expressing MT1-MMP with bafilomycin-A(1), and analysed its effects on MT1-MMP activity, internalization and processing. We show that the activity of MT1-MMP on the cell surface is constitutively down-regulated through a vacuolar HI-ATPase-dependent degradation process. Blockade of this degradation caused the accumulation of TIMP-free active MT1-MMP molecules on the cell surface, although internalization was not affected. As a consequence of this impaired degradation, pro-MMP-2 activation was strongly enhanced. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity of MT1-MMP on the cell surface is regulated through a vacuolar H+-ATPase-dependent degradation process. [less ▲]

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See detailPlacental growth factor, a member of the VEGF family, contributes to the development of choroidal neovascularization
Rakic, Jean-Marie ULg; Lambert, Vincent ULg; Devy, Laetitia et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2003), 44(7), 3186-3193

PURPOSE. VEGF has been shown to be necessary, but not sufficient alone, for the development of subretinal pathologic angiogenesis. In the current study, the influence of placental growth factor (PIGF), a ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE. VEGF has been shown to be necessary, but not sufficient alone, for the development of subretinal pathologic angiogenesis. In the current study, the influence of placental growth factor (PIGF), a member of the VEGF family, in human and experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was investigated. METHODS. The presence of VEGF family member mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR in neovascular membranes extracted during surgery. The spatial and temporal pattern of VEGF isoforms and PIGF mRNA expression were explored by using the laser capture catapulting technique and RT-PCR in a murine laser-induced model and in vitro. PIGF expression was also studied in human donor eyes. The influence of endogenous PIGF was evaluated in deficient mice (PlGF(-/-)) and by antibody-mediated neutralization of the PIGF receptor. RESULTS. Human neovascular membranes consistently expressed VEGF-A, -B, and -C; PlGF; and VEGFR-1 and -2. The VEGF(120) isoform mRNA was primarily induced in early stages of angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. PIGF mRNA expression was present in the intact choroid and significantly upregulated during the course of experimental CNV. Both deficient PIGF expression in PIGF(-/-) mice and PIGF receptor neutralization in wild-type mice prevented the development of choroidal neovascularization induced by laser. CONCLUSIONS. These observations demonstrate the participation of PIGF in experimental CNV. They identify therefore PIGF as an additional promising target for ocular antiangiogenic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailDose-dependent modulation of choroidal neovascularization by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1: Implications for clinical trials
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Carmeliet, Peter et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2003), 44(6), 2791-2797

PURPOSE. To explain the conflicting reports about the influence of plasminogen activator inhibitor type (PAI-1) on pathologic angiogenesis, such as occurs during the exudative form of age-related macular ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE. To explain the conflicting reports about the influence of plasminogen activator inhibitor type (PAI-1) on pathologic angiogenesis, such as occurs during the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration. METHODS. The expression of PAI-1 mRNA was analyzed in human and murine choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by RTPCR. The influences of increasing doses of recombinant PAI-1 were evaluated by daily intraperitoneal injections in PAI-1-1-and wild-type animals with a model of laser-induced CNV. The double mechanism of action of PAI-1 (proteolytic activity inhibition versus vitronectin binding) was explored by immunohistochemical localization of fibrinogen/fibrin and by injection of recombinant PAI-1 protein defective for vitronectin binding or with adenoviral vectors bearing a mutated binding-deficient PAI-1 gene. RESULTS. PAI-1 expression was present in human CNV and strongly induced in the course of experimental subretinal neovascularization. Daily injections of recombinant PAI-1 proteins in control and PAI-1(-/-) animals demonstrated that PAI-1 could exhibit both pro- and antiangiogenic effects, dependent on the dose. PAI-1 mutants defective for vitronectin binding were used to show that PAI-1 promotes choroidal pathologic angiogenesis merely through its antiproteolytic activity. CONCLUSIONS. These observations may help to reconcile reports with opposite results regarding the effects of PAI-1 on angiogenesis and certainly warn against uncontrolled use of PAL I modulating drugs in clinical trials. [less ▲]

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See detailSevere inhibition of choroidal neovascularization in mice with a combined deficiency of MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Wielockx, B.; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2003, May), 44(Suppl. 2), 410

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See detailRestricted expression of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase by myofibroblasts adjacent to human breast cancer cells
Bisson, C.; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Polette, M. et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2003), 105(1), 7-13

The membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a protease originally identified in breast carcinoma, is characterized by its capacity to activate other MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-13) and to degrade ... [more ▼]

The membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a protease originally identified in breast carcinoma, is characterized by its capacity to activate other MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-13) and to degrade extracellular matrix. Our study was undertaken to localize and identify the MT1-MMP expressing cells in human breast adenocarcinomas. A textural analysis of images obtained by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed precisely the co-expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSM actin) and MT1-MMP in myofibroblasts. MT1-MMP expression is confined to myofibroblasts in close contact with tumor cells. In sharp contrast, the expression of MMP-2 was more widely distributed in both alphaSM actin positive and negative cells close to and at distance from cancer cell clusters. Our in vitro observations are consistent with the higher level of MT1-MMP expression and of MMP-2 activation observed in alphaSM actin positive fibroblasts derived from breast tumors, as compared to normal breast fibroblasts. Collectively, these results implicate myofibroblasts as major producer of MT1-MMP in breast cancer and emphasize the importance of stromal-epithelial cell interactions in their progression. [less ▲]

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See detail3-Bromophenyl 6-acetoxymethyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxylate inhibits cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumour growth in vivo
Kempen, I.; Papapostolou, D.; Thierry, N. et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2003), 88(7), 1111-1118

In search for new anticancer agents, we have evaluated the antiinvasive and antimigrative properties of recently developed synthetic coumarin derivatives among which two compounds revealed important ... [more ▼]

In search for new anticancer agents, we have evaluated the antiinvasive and antimigrative properties of recently developed synthetic coumarin derivatives among which two compounds revealed important activity: 3-chlorophenyl 6-acetoxymethyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxylate and 3-bromophenyl 6-acetoxymethyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxylate, Both drugs were able to inhibit cell invasion markedly in a Boyden chamber assay, the bromo derivative being more potent than the reference matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor GI 129471. In vivo, tumour growth was reduced when nude mice grafted with HT 1080 or MDA-MB231 cells were treated i.p. 3 days week(-1) with the bromo coumarin derivative. These effects were not associated with the inhibition of urokinase, plasmin, MMP-2 or MMP-9. The mechanism of action of the drugs remains to be elucidated. However, these two coumarin derivatives may serve as new lead compounds of an original class of antitumour agents. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of a progestogen on normal human breast epithelial cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo
Desreux, Joëlle ULg; Kebers, F.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland ) (2003), 12(2), 142-149

Many investigators have reported cyclic proliferation of normal human breast epithelial cells. A delicate balance between proliferation and apoptosis (programmed cell death) ensures breast homeostasis ... [more ▼]

Many investigators have reported cyclic proliferation of normal human breast epithelial cells. A delicate balance between proliferation and apoptosis (programmed cell death) ensures breast homeostasis. Both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle are characterized by proliferation, whereas apoptosis occurs only at the end of the latter phase. In this study, we observed that the withdrawal of a synthetic progestin (nomegestrol acetate or NOMAC), but not continuous treatment with it, induced apoptosis of normal human breast epithelial cells in vitro and in women who applied NOMAC gel to their breasts. Furthermore, this apoptotic response was specific to normal breast cells, since withdrawal of NOMAC did not induce apoptosis of tumoral T47D cells in vitro or of fibroadenoma cells in women. These observations open up new perspectives in the prevention of hyperplasia and breast cancer. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMice without uPA, tPA, or plasminogen genes are resistant to experimental choroidal neovascularization
Rakic, Jean-Marie ULg; Lambert, Vincent ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2003), 44(4), 1732-1739

PURPOSE. To evaluate the presence and potential involvement of members of the plasminogen/plasminogen activator (Plg/PA) system in the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE. To evaluate the presence and potential involvement of members of the plasminogen/plasminogen activator (Plg/PA) system in the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS. The expression of PA members mRNA was evaluated in human and experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by RT-PCR. The presence and activity of PA was studied by immunofluorescence and in situ zymography. The influence of endogenous plasminogen (Plg), urokinase (uPA), tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA), and uPA receptor (uPAR) was explored in single-gene-deficient mice in a model of laser-induced CNV. RESULTS. Members of the Plg/PA system were present both in human and murine CNV. The absence of Pig, uPA, or tPA significantly decreased the development of experimental CNV compared with wild-type or uPAR-deficient mice. This effect could be attributable, partly to a modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity, but also to an accumulation of fibrinogen-fibrin in the laser-induced wounds. CONCLUSIONS. Together with previous work done by the authors, this study indicates that choroidal neovascularization is extremely sensitive to the modulation of Plg/PA system activity. This may provide a new strategy for the treatment of exudative AMD. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of plasminogen activator-plasmin system in tumor angiogenesis
Rakic, Jean-Marie ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M. et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2003), 60(3), 463-473

New blood formation or angiogenesis has become a key target in therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting tumor growth and other diseases associated with neovascularization. Angiogenesis is associated ... [more ▼]

New blood formation or angiogenesis has become a key target in therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting tumor growth and other diseases associated with neovascularization. Angiogenesis is associated with important extracellular remodeling involving different proteolytic systems among which the plasminogen system plays an essential role. It belongs to the large serine proteinase family and can act directly or indirectly by activating matrix metalloproteinases or by liberating growth factors and cytokines sequestered within the extracellular matrix. Migration of endothelial cells is associated with significant upregulation of proteolysis and, conversely, immunoneutralization or chemical inhibition of the system reduces angiogenesis in vitro. On the other hand, genetically altered mice developed normally without overt vascular anomalies indicating the possibility of compensation by other proteases in vivo. Nevertheless, they have in some experimental settings revealed unanticipated roles for previously characterized proteinases or their inhibitors. In this review, the complex mechanisms of action of the serine proteases in pathological angiogenesis are summarized alongside possible therapeutic applications. [less ▲]

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See detailAdhesion of endometrial cells labeled with 111 Indium-tropolonate to peritoneum: a novel in vitro model to study endometriosis
Beliard, Aude ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Goffin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Fertility and Sterility (2003), 79(Suppl. 1), 724-729

Objective: To evaluate, in a new original in vitro assay, putative factors that could modulate the adhesion of endometrial cells to peritoneum. Design: Prospective, controlled in vitro study. Setting ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate, in a new original in vitro assay, putative factors that could modulate the adhesion of endometrial cells to peritoneum. Design: Prospective, controlled in vitro study. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Patient(s): Fourteen nonmenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy or laparoscopy for benign gynecologic indication. Intervention(s): Endometrial cells obtained from women with regular cycles without endometriosis were labeled with (111)Indium and confronted in vitro with mouse peritoneum in the presence of various cytokines and/or antiadhesive compounds. Main Outcome Measure(s): Radioactivity in (111)Indium-labeled endometrial cells. Result(s): The adhesion of human endometrial cells to mouse peritoneum was increased by treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF alpha, TGF-beta1). Whereas heparan sulfate had no effect on cell adhesion, a gel of ferric hyaluronate (Intergel) was able to counteract the pro-adhesive effect of cytokines. Interestingly, the pretreatment of peritoneum with cytokines, 24 hours before cell seeding in the presence of the ferric hyaluronate gel, restored the cytokine-promoting effect on cell adhesion. Conclusion(s): Proinflammatory cytokines promote the in vitro peritoneal adhesion of endometrial cells. An antiadhesive hyaluronate gel used in clinics decreases the adhesion in a dose-dependent manner and reduces cytokine bioavailability. (Fertil Steril((R)) 2003;79(Suppl 1):724-9. (C) 2003 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.). [less ▲]

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See detailMembrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and TIMP-2 in tumor angiogenesis
Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Janssen, M.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Matrix Biology (2003), 22(1), 55-61

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 23 secreted and cell-surface associated enzymes that cleave or degrade various pericellular substrates. In addition to virtually ... [more ▼]

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 23 secreted and cell-surface associated enzymes that cleave or degrade various pericellular substrates. In addition to virtually all extracellular matrix (ECM) compounds, their targets include other proteinases, chemotactic molecules, latent growth factors, growth factor-binding proteins and cell surface molecules. The MMP activity is controlled by the physiological tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). There is much evidence that MMPs and their inhibitors play a key role during extracellular remodeling in physiological situations and in cancer progression. They have other functions that promoting tumor invasion. Indeed, they regulate early stages of tumor progression such as tumor growth and angiogenesis. Membrane type MMPs (MT-MMPs) constitute a new subset of cell surface-associated MMPs. The present review will focus on MT1-MMP which plays a major role at least, in the ECM remodeling, directly by degrading several of its components, and indirectly by activating pro-MMP2. As our knowledge on the field of MT1-MMP biology has grown, the unforeseen complexities of this enzyme and its interaction with its inhibitor TIMP-2 have emerged, often revealing unexpected mechanisms of action. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V/Intemational Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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