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See detailMembrane type-matrix metalloproteinases and tumor progression
Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg

in Biochimie (2005), 87

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc endopeptidases that process growth factors, growth factor binding proteins, cell surface proteins, degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components and ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc endopeptidases that process growth factors, growth factor binding proteins, cell surface proteins, degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components and thereby play a central role in tissue remodeling and tumor progression. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) are a recently discovered subgroup of intrinsic plasma membrane proteins. Their functions have been extended from pericellular proteolysis and control of cell migration to cell signaling, control of cell proliferation and regulation of multiple stages of tumor progression including growth and angiogenesis. This review sheds light on the new functions of MT-MMPs and their inhibitors in tumor development and angiogenesis, and presents recent investigations that document their influence on various cell functions. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of factors important for the success of suicide gene therapy after a comparative study of Varicella zoster and Herpes simplex viral thymidine kinases efficacy on breast cancer cells
Grignet-Debrus, Christine ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Cellular and Molecular Biology (2005), 51(1), 37-48

One of the most frequently studied therapeutic strategies in the field of suicide gene therapy is based on the expression by tumor cells of the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSVtk) followed ... [more ▼]

One of the most frequently studied therapeutic strategies in the field of suicide gene therapy is based on the expression by tumor cells of the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSVtk) followed by a ganciclovir (GCV) treatment. In order to investigate the potential of other enzyme/prodrug strategies, we studied in vitro and in vivo the ability of the Varicella zoster virus thymidine kinase gene (VZVtk) to act as a suicide gene and to kill non-transduced bystander cells, and compared this activity to that of its HSV counterpart. Four different antiviral compounds were tested as prodrugs. Our comparative study demonstrates the superiority of the HSVtk/GCV system among the different combinations tested and underlines the importance of both the tumor cell type and the prodrug in the success of a prodrug/suicide gene strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailTryptophane-based biphenylsulfonamide matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as tumor imaging agents
Oltenfreiter, R.; Staelens, L.; Labied, Soraya ULg et al

in Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals (2005), 20(6), 639-47

Aim: As a part of our efforts to use small organic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors with improved characteristics for the diagnosis and treatment of different kinds of tumor tissues ... [more ▼]

Aim: As a part of our efforts to use small organic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors with improved characteristics for the diagnosis and treatment of different kinds of tumor tissues, biphenylsulfonamide analogues were synthesized. This study reports on the in vivo biodistribution of iodine-123-labeled biphenylsulfonide and analogues in A549 lung carcinoma inoculated into athymic mice and the evaluation of their suitability as imaging agents using a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera. Methods: The radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitors 2-(4′- [123I]iodobiphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid (1′) and 2-(4′-[123I]iodobiphenyl-4- sulfonylamino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionamide (2′) were synthesized by electrophilic aromatic substitution of the tributylstannyl derivatives. Planar gamma camera imaging was performed in nu/nu athymic mice bearing an A549 tumor using a Toshiba GCA-9300A/hg SPECT camera in planar mode equipped with a high-resolution, parallel-hole collimator. Results: Radiosynthesis of (1′) and (2′) resulted in radiochemical yields of 60 ± 5% (n ± 3) and 70 ± 5% (n = 6), respectively. Evaluation of tumors induced in athymic mice by the inoculation of non-small cell lung A549 carcinoma cells, showed a tumor uptake of 0.27–0.01 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) (3 hours–48 hours p.i.), a tumor-blood ratio of 0.7, a tumor-muscle ratio of 1.6, and a tumor-fat ratio of 0.5 at 24 hours (p.i.) for compound 1′. For compound 2′ a tumor uptake of 0.7–0.04 %ID/g (3 hours–48 hours p.i.), a postinjection tumor-blood ratio of 1.2, a tumor-muscle ratio of 3.2, and a tumor-fat ratio of 2.4 at 48 hours p.i. was observed. SPECT evaluation confirmed the results obtained from biodistribution. Conclusion: In vivo evaluation of these radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitor tracers revealed that they do not appear suitable as tumor-imaging agents. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalytically-inactive human cathepsin D triggers fibroblast invasive growth.
Laurent-Matha, V.; Maruani-Herrmann; Glondu, M. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2005), 168(3), 489-99

The aspartyl-protease cathepsin D (cath-D) is overexpressed and hypersecreted by epithelial breast cancer cells and stimulates their proliferation. As tumor epithelial–fibroblast cell interactions are ... [more ▼]

The aspartyl-protease cathepsin D (cath-D) is overexpressed and hypersecreted by epithelial breast cancer cells and stimulates their proliferation. As tumor epithelial–fibroblast cell interactions are important events in cancer progression, we investigated whether cath-D overexpression affects also fibroblast behavior. We demonstrate a requirement of cath-D for fibroblast invasive growth using a three-dimensional (3D) coculture assay with cancer cells secreting or not pro-cath-D. Ectopic expression of cath-D in cath-D–deficient fibroblasts stimulates 3D outgrowth that is associated with a significant increase in fibroblast proliferation, survival, motility, and invasive capacity, accompanied by activation of the ras–MAPK pathway. Interestingly, all these stimulatory effects on fibroblasts are independent of cath-D proteolytic activity. Finally, we show that pro-cath-D secreted by cancer cells is captured by fibroblasts and partially mimics effects of transfected cath-D. We conclude that cath-D is crucial for fibroblast invasive outgrowth and could act as a key paracrine communicator between cancer and stromal cells, independently of its catalytic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophoblast Invasion and Placentation: Molecular Mechanisms and Regulation
van den Brule, F.; Berndt, Sarah ULg; Simon, N. et al

in Chemical Immunology and Allergy (2005), 88

Trophoblast invasion is a key process during human placentation. This event constitutes the basis of the conversion of the uterine spiral arteries, a process which allows an adequate vascular connection ... [more ▼]

Trophoblast invasion is a key process during human placentation. This event constitutes the basis of the conversion of the uterine spiral arteries, a process which allows an adequate vascular connection between the intervillous space and the maternal blood flow. Trophoblast invasion is transient, with stringent spatial and temporal control. Preeclampsia, a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity, is associated with decreased, shallow trophoblastic invasion. In this article, we review the molecular mechanisms of trophoblast invasion, and its mechanisms of regulation. Insights into the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia will also be detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailSmooth muscle cell matrix metalloproteinases in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Lepetit, H.; Eddahibi, S.; Fadel, E. et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2005), 25(5), 834-42

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results from persistent vasoconstriction, smooth muscle growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of pulmonary arteries (PAs). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs ... [more ▼]

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results from persistent vasoconstriction, smooth muscle growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling of pulmonary arteries (PAs). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are matrix-degrading enzymes involved in ECM turnover, and in smooth muscle cell (SMC) and endothelial cell migration and proliferation. MMP expression and activity are increased in experimental PAH. Therefore, this study investigated whether similar changes occur in idiopathic PAH (IPAH; formerly known as primary pulmonary hypertension). Both in situ and in vitro studies were performed on PAs from patients undergoing lung transplantation for IPAH and from patients treated by lobectomy for localised lung cancer, who served as controls. In IPAH, MMP–tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) imbalance was found in cultured PASMCs, with increased TIMP-1 and decreased MMP-3. MMP-2 activity was markedly elevated as a result of increases in both total MMP-2 and proportion of active MMP-2. In situ zymography and immunolocalisation showed that MMP-2 was associated with SMCs and elastic fibres, and also confirmed the MMP-3–TIMP-1 imbalance. In conclusion, the findings of this study were consistent with a role for the matrix metalloproteinase–tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase system in pulmonary vascular remodelling in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. The matrix metalloproteinase–tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase imbalance may lead to matrix accumulation, and increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity may contribute to smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. Whether these abnormalities are potential therapeutic targets deserves further investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman chorionic gonadotropin and growth factors at the embryonic-endometrial interface control leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion by human endometrial epithelium
PERRIER d'HAUTERIVE, Sophie ULg; Charlet, Jeanne de Chantal ULg; Berndt, Sarah ULg et al

in Human Reproduction (2004), 19(11), 2633-2643

BACKGROUND: The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo contributes to its implantation is an area of extensive research. The main objective of this study was to investigate the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo contributes to its implantation is an area of extensive research. The main objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion by human endometrial epithelium, and their regulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and other growth factors present at the embryonic-endometrial interface. METHODS: Endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) were isolated from biopsies collected at both proliferative and secretory phases of fertile women. RESULTS: HCG (1-50 IU/ml) increased LIF secretion by EEC cultures derived from follicular phase (up to 285+/-75%) or from secretory phase (up to 212+/-16%). In contrast, hCG reduced IL-6 secretion by EEC in both phases. The hCG/LH receptor gene was transcribed by EEC as evidenced by RT-PCR. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 increased LIF secretion by EEC. Transforming growth factor beta1 stimulated LIF and reduced IL-6 secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Through hCG, the blastocyst may be involved in the control of its implantation (via an increase of proimplantatory LIF) and tolerance (via an inhibition of proinflammatory IL-6). Other growth factors present at the embryonic-endometrial interface are also involved in the control of LIF and IL-6 endometrial secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailHost-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is critical for in vivo tumoral angiogenesis and growth
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M. et al

in Oncogene (2004), 23(41), 6986-6990

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays a key role in tumor progression and is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We report here that host PAI-1 ... [more ▼]

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays a key role in tumor progression and is believed to control proteolytic activity and cell migration during angiogenesis. We report here that host PAI-1, at physiological concentration, promotes in vivo tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In sharp contrast, inhibition of tumor vascularization was observed when PAI-1 was produced at supraphysiologic levels, either by host cells (transgenic mice overexpressing PAI-1) or by tumor cells (after transfection with murine PAI-1 cDNA). This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence for a dose-dependent effect of PAI-1 on tumor angiogenesis. Of great interest is the finding that PAI-1 produced by tumor cells, even at high concentration, did not overcome the absence of PAI-1 in the host, emphasizing the importance of the cellular source of PAI-1. [less ▲]

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See detailReduction of apoptosis and proliferation in endometriosis
Beliard, Aude ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Fertility and Sterility (2004), 82(1), 80-85

Objective: To evaluate whether endometriosis could be related to an impaired balance between apoptosis and proliferation, two processes which could be modulated by hormonal status. Design ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate whether endometriosis could be related to an impaired balance between apoptosis and proliferation, two processes which could be modulated by hormonal status. Design: Immunohistochemical study. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Intervention(s): Endometriotic samples obtained from peritoneum of women aged 26-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy for pain or infertility. Main Outcome Measure(s): Apoptotic cells were detected with the use of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The production of p53 and bcl-2, estrogen and Progesterone (P) receptors, and cellular proliferation were assessed by immunohistochemistry in eutopic and ectopic endometria from 30 patients with endometriosis throughout the menstrual cycle. Results were compared with those from normal endometria from 15 fertile patients. Result(s): Endometriotic lesions were characterized by reduced TUNEL and p53 stainings and by enhanced bcl-2 staining. No correlation between apoptosis and estrogen receptor or P receptor levels was found. A lower amount of steroid receptor was found in endometriotic tissues, without cyclic modulation, compared with the eutopic endometrium. Conclusion(s): Our results suggest that when endometrial tissue is located at ectopic locations, it differs from eutopic endometrium by its proliferation rate, steroid hormone levels, and markers of apoptosis. A reduced sensitivity of endometriotic cells to apoptosis could promote the dissemination and implantation of these cells to ectopic sites. (C) 2004 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-invasive, antitumoral, and antiangiogenic efficacy of a pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione derivative, an orally active and selective matrix metalloproteinases inhibitor
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Devy, L. et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2004), 10(12, Pt 1), 4038-4047

Purpose: The implication of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the major stages of cancer progression has fueled interest in the design of synthetic MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) as a novel anticancer therapy ... [more ▼]

Purpose: The implication of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the major stages of cancer progression has fueled interest in the design of synthetic MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) as a novel anticancer therapy. Thus far, drugs used in clinical trials are broad-spectrum MMPIs the therapeutic index of which proved disappointingly low. The development of selective MMPIs for tumor progression-associated MMPs is, thus, likely to offer improved therapeutic possibilities. Experimental Design: The anti-invasive capacity of a series of pyrimidine-trione derivatives was tested in vitro in a chemoinvasion assay, and the most potent compound was further evaluated in vivo in different human tumor xenograft models. The activity of this novel selective MMPI was compared with BB-94, a broad-spectrum inhibitor. Results: Ro-28-2653, an inhibitor with high selectivity for MMP-2, MMP-9, and membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP, showed the highest anti-invasive activity in vitro. In vivo, Ro-28-2653 reduced the growth of tumors induced by the inoculation of different cell lines producing MMPs and inhibited the tumor-promoting effect of fibroblasts on breast adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, Ro-28-2653 reduced tumor vascularization and blocked angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring assay. In contrast, BB-94 up-regulated MMP-9 expression in tumor cells and promoted angiogenesis in the aortic ring assay. Conclusion: Ro-28-2653, a selective and orally bioavailable MMPI with inhibitory activity against MMPs expressed by tumor and/or stromal cells, is a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic agent. In contrast to broad-spectrum inhibitors, the administration of Ro-28-2653 was not associated with the occurrence of adverse side effects that might hamper the therapeutic potential of these drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailMembrane associated proteases and their inhibitors in tumour angiogenesis
Noël, Agnès ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Rocks, Natacha ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Pathology (2004), 57(6), 577-584

Cell surface proteolysis is an important mechanism for generating biologically active proteins that mediate a range of cellular functions and contribute to biological processes such as angiogenesis ... [more ▼]

Cell surface proteolysis is an important mechanism for generating biologically active proteins that mediate a range of cellular functions and contribute to biological processes such as angiogenesis. Although most studies have focused on the plasminogen system and matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs), recently there has been an increase in the identification of membrane associated proteases, including serine proteases, ADAMs, and membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs). Normally, protease activity is tightly controlled by tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAIs). The balance between active proteases and inhibitors is thought to determine the occurrence of proteolysis in vivo. High concentrations of proteolytic system components correlate with poor prognosis in many cancers. Paradoxically, high (not low) PAI-1 or TIMP concentrations predict poor survival in patients with various cancers. Recent observations indicate a much more complex role for protease inhibitors in tumour progression and angiogenesis than initially expected. As knowledge in the field of protease biology has improved, the unforeseen complexities of cell associated enzymes and their interaction with physiological inhibitors have emerged, often revealing unexpected mechanisms of action. [less ▲]

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See detailUp-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A by active membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase through activation of Src-tyrosine kinases
Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Roghi, C.; Chabottaux, Vincent et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004), 279(14), 13564-13574

Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) are two key molecules involved in pericellular proteolysis and cell proliferation during tumor growth and ... [more ▼]

Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) are two key molecules involved in pericellular proteolysis and cell proliferation during tumor growth and angiogenesis. Our previous data showed that MT1-MMP overexpression in human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells induced an up-regulation of VEGF expression. This effect was associated in vivo with accelerated tumor growth and angiogenesis. We now provide evidence that MT1-MMP overexpression specifically affected VEGF-A production and failed to influence that of other VEGF family members ( VEGF, B, C, D, or PlGF) or their receptors. The up-regulation of VEGF-A by MT1-MMP was related to an increased transcriptional activation rather than to a modification of mRNA stability. It was blocked by synthetic MMP inhibitors, TIMP2, but not TIMP-1 and abolished by a partial deletion of the catalytic domain or the cytoplasmic tail of MT1-MMP. Analysis of the signal transduction mechanisms demonstrated that MT1-MMP acts through a signaling pathway involving Src tyrosine kinases. Thus, our results provide new insight into the mechanisms of action of MT1-MMP during angiogenesis and suggest that the full enzymatic activity of MT1-MMP is required for a specific up-regulation of VEGF-A through an activation of Src tyrosine kinase pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailMatrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases mRNA transcripts in the bronchial secretions of asthmatics
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Guéders, Maud ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2004), 84(4), 418-424

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by profound extracellular matrix changes referred to as bronchial remodelling. In this study, we evaluated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ... [more ▼]

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by profound extracellular matrix changes referred to as bronchial remodelling. In this study, we evaluated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) mRNA expression in bronchial secretions of asthmatics and correlated MMPs modulations with the lung function as a reflection of the bronchial extracellular matrix remodelling. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on cell pellets obtained from induced sputum in order to detect the mRNAs for MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -12, -13 TIMP-1, -2, while semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the expression of MMP-7, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)). The mRNA transcripts for MMP-1, TIMP-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were increased in cell pellets of induced sputum from asthmatics when compared to controls (P<0.05), and the intensity of MMP-1 mRNA expression inversely correlated with the FEV(1) in asthmatics (r=-0.49, P<0.05). The MMP-1 mRNA/TIMP-1 mRNA ratio correlated with the levels of MCP-1 mRNA in asthmatics (r=0.47, P<0.05). There were no differences between the groups with respect to mRNA coding for MMP-2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -12, -13, -14, TIMP-2 and TGF-beta(1). We conclude that cells contained in the bronchial secretions from asthmatics express higher amounts of mRNA for MMP-1 and TIMP-1, perhaps related to an increased expression of MCP-1, which might contribute to the extracellular matrix changes observed during airway remodelling. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of the catalytic domain of MMP-16/MT3-MMP: Characterization of MT-MMP specific features
Lang, R.; Braun, M.; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2004), 336(1), 213-225

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) have attracted strong attention, because four of them can activate a key player in the tumor scenario, proMMP-2/progelatinase A. In addition to this ... [more ▼]

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) have attracted strong attention, because four of them can activate a key player in the tumor scenario, proMMP-2/progelatinase A. In addition to this indirect effect on the cellular environment, these MT-MMPs degrade extracellular matrix proteins, and their overproduction is associated with tumor growth. We have solved the structure of the catalytic domain (cd) of MT3-MMP/MMP-16 in complex with the hydroxamic acid inhibitor batimastat. CdMT3-MMP exhibits a classical MMP-fold with similarity to MT1-MMP. Nevertheless, it also shows unique properties such as a modified MT-specific loop and a closed S1' specificity pocket, which might help to design specific inhibitors. Some MT-MMP-specific features, derived from the crystal structures of MT-1-MMP determined previously and MT3-MMP, and revealed in recent mutagenesis experiments, explain the impaired interaction of the MT-MMPs with TIMP-1. Docking experiments with proMMP-2 show some exposed loops including the MT-loop of cdMT3-MMP involved in the interaction with the proMMP-2 prodomain in the activation encounter complex. This model might help to understand the experimentally proven importance of the MT-loop for the activation of proMMP-2. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDelivery of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in bioadhesive hydrogel stimulates migration of dendritic cells in models human papillomavirus-associated (pre)neoplastic epithelial lesions
Hubert, Pascale ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Maillard, Catherine ULg et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2004), 48(11), 4342-4348

Because of the central role of dendritic cells and/or Langerhans cells(DC/LC) in the induction of cellular immune responses, pharmacological agents that modulate the recruitment of these cells might have ... [more ▼]

Because of the central role of dendritic cells and/or Langerhans cells(DC/LC) in the induction of cellular immune responses, pharmacological agents that modulate the recruitment of these cells might have a clinical interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of several pharmaceutical formulations to topically deliver granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital (pre)neoplastic lesions. The formulations were evaluated for their bioactivity and for their potential to recruit DC in organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes. We found that a bioadhesive polycarbophil gel (Noveon) at pH 5.5 is able to maintain the bioactivity of GM-CSF at 4 or 37°C for at least 7 days, whereas a decreased activity of GM-CSF was observed when the molecule is included in other polymer gels. GM-CSF incorporated in the polycarbophil gel was also a potent factor in enhancing the colonization of DC into organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes since the infiltration of DC in the in vitro-formed (pre)neoplastic epithelium was very low under basal conditions and dramatically increased in the presence of GM-CSF gel. We next demonstrated that GM-CSF incorporated in polycarbophil gel induces the recruitment of human DC in a human (pre)neoplastic epithelium grafted into NOD/SCID mice. The efficacy of GM-CSF in this formulation was equivalent to that observed with liquid GM-CSF. These results suggest that GM-CSF incorporated in polycarbophil gel could play an important role in the recruitment of DC/LC in mucosal surfaces and be useful as a new immunotherapeutic approach for genital HPV-associated (pre)neoplastic lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailProteases, extracellular matrix and cancer: a workshop of the path B study section
Declerck, Y. A.; Mercurio, A. M.; Stack, M. S. et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2004), 164(4), 1131-39

The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tumor microenvironment is not limited to being a barrier against tumor invasion. The ECM is a reservoir of cell binding proteins and growth factors that ... [more ▼]

The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tumor microenvironment is not limited to being a barrier against tumor invasion. The ECM is a reservoir of cell binding proteins and growth factors that affect tumor cell behavior. It is also substantially modified by proteases produced by tumor cells or stroma cells. As a result of the activity of these proteases, cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions are altered, new biologically active ECM molecules are generated, and the bioavailability and activity of many growth factors, growth factor receptors, and cytokines are modified. ECM-degrading proteases also play a critical role in angiogenesis, where they can act as positive as well as negative regulators of endothelial cell proliferation and vascular morphogenesis. This review article summarizes some of the most relevant findings made over the recent years that were discussed at a workshop organized by the Path B Study Section of the National Institutes of Health in October 2002. [less ▲]

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See detailMultifunctional role of matrix metalloproteinases in multiple myeloma: a study in the 5T2MM mouse model
Van Valckenborgh, Els; Croucher, Peter I.; De Raeve, Hendrik et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2004), 165(3), 869-878

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play a role in cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and bone degradation, all important events in the pathogenesis of cancer. Multiple myeloma is ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to play a role in cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and bone degradation, all important events in the pathogenesis of cancer. Multiple myeloma is a B-cell cancer characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, increased angiogenesis, and the development of osteolytic bone disease. The role of MMPs in the development of multiple myeloma is poorly understood. Using SC-964, a potent inhibitor of several MMPs (MMP-2, -3, -8, -9, and -13), we investigated the role of MMPs in the 5T2MM murine model. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of mRNA for MMP-2, -8, -9, and -13 in 5T2MM-diseased bone marrow. Mice bearing 5T2MM cells were given access to food containing SC-964. The concentration of SC-964 measured in the plasma of mice after 11 days of treatment was able to inhibit MMP-9 activity in gelatin zymography. Treatment of 5T2MM-bearing mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden, a significant decrease in angiogenesis, and partially protective effect against the development of osteolytic bone disease. The direct role of MMPs in these different processes was confirmed by in vitro experiments. All these results support the multifunctional role of MMPs in the development of multiple myeloma. [less ▲]

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See detailDiet-induced obesity and reduced skin cancer susceptibility in matrix metalloproteinase-19 deficient mice
Pendas, A. M.; Folgueras, A. R.; LLano, E. et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2004), 24(12), 5304-13

Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19) is a member of the MMP family of endopeptidases that, in contrast to most MMPs, is widely expressed in human tissues under normal quiescent conditions. MMP-19 has been ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19) is a member of the MMP family of endopeptidases that, in contrast to most MMPs, is widely expressed in human tissues under normal quiescent conditions. MMP-19 has been found to be associated with ovulation and angiogenic processes and is deregulated in diverse pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. To gain further insights into the in vivo functions of this protease, we have generated mutant mice deficient in Mmp19. These mice are viable and fertile and do not display any obvious abnormalities. However, Mmp19-null mice develop a diet-induced obesity due to adipocyte hypertrophy and exhibit decreased susceptibility to skin tumors induced by chemical carcinogens. Based on these results, we suggest that this enzyme plays an in vivo role in some of the tissue remodeling events associated with adipogenesis, as well as in pathological processes such as tumor progression [less ▲]

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See detailPlasmin-activated doxorubicin prodrugs containing a spacer reduce tumor growth and angiogenesis without systemic toxicity
Devy, L.; de Groot, F. M.; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

in FASEB Journal (2004), 18(3), 565-567

To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced ... [more ▼]

To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced in many cancers. ST-9905, which contains an elongated self-elimination spacer, is activated more rapidly in vitro by plasmin than is ST-9802. Prodrug activation in vitro depended on the level of urokinase produced by tumor cells and was inhibited by aprotinin, a plasmin inhibitor. Comparison of equimolar concentrations of ST-9905, ST-9802, and Dox in EF43.fgf-4 and MCF7 models revealed that both prodrugs, in sharp contrast to Dox, displayed antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities without discernible toxicity. Although MCF7 cells are poor urokinase producers in vitro, prodrug efficacy in this model may be explained by production of plasmin by tumor-infiltrating host cells. Mice treated with equitoxic concentrations (maximum tolerated doses) of prodrugs showed 100% survival and negligible body weight loss, in contrast to results after Dox treatment. ST-9905 was substantially more effective than ST9802 and induced similar tumor growth inhibition as Dox but without apparent toxicity. This finding may be explained by the elongated spacer, which facilitates enzymatic prodrug activation. These data validate both the use of elongated spacers in vivo and the concept of targeting anticancer prodrugs to tumor-associated plasmin. [less ▲]

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