References of "Nicolas, Jacques"
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See detailProduct policy in the context of the indoor environmental quality
Spruyt, Maarten; Kuske, Martyna; Goelen, Eddy et al

Report (2006)

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials ... [more ▼]

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials. Construction products could emit or contain dangerous substances that have been defined as dangerous substances under Commission directives and national regulations. In the future construction products may only be placed on the market in the European Union if they accord with the (second generation) harmonized technical specifications including health aspects and bear the CE mark. B. Objectives The goal of this research project is to improve the flow of knowledge and information vis-à-vis normalisation activities in the domain of indoor air measurements, indoor product emission testing, labeling and certification by proposing an evaluation method and standardized assessment methods for a harmonized approach relating to emissions from building materials into indoor air for implementation in Belgium. This approach will comply with current European harmonizing efforts ongoing on European level. C. Conclusions  International tendencies as well as national developments indicate the growing importance of building material emission testing  Harmonisation of governmental schemes to assess volatile organic emissions in the context of the CPD is necessary to obtain transparency  The topic of different limit values in different countries is a difficult problem to solve  It was demonstrated that it is possible with alternative methods (µ-chamber and FLEC) to achieve a qualitative and quantitative correlation with the reference method. However there is a need to extend this comparative study to more materials  The important influence of the quantification procedure on the emission results was demonstrated  The possiblity to investigate microbial resistance of building materials with the so called µ-chamber technique was demonstrated  A twofold methodology for the odour determination of building materials was developed: a quantitative method based on intensity and a qualitative method based on hedonic scale. Furthermore the basis for the development of an electronic nose specific for evaluation of building materials was laid down  A possible evaluation scheme for Belgium on the basis of AFSSET/AgBB/prEN15052 was proposed with two modifications: - Time path modification (7 or 10 days) - Prescreening with alternative method (< 20 L) D. Contribution of the project in a context of scientific support to transfer of knowledge and innovation This research project for implementation of the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and the environment” of the Construction Products Directive has besides its informative and sensitizing role also performed a supporting role in the development of new innovative low emission construction products. The research project has also ensured a Belgian input in the validation work of the draft standard "Emissions into indoor air" - WI 351009 - Construction products - Assessment of emissions of regulated dangerous substances from construction products - Determination of emissions into indoor air” in development in working group 2 of CEN/TC 351. Furthermore this research project has lead to the development of new innovative test methods tailored to the specific needs of construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'effet des produits neutralisants de l'odeur dans une porcherie.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Cobut, Pierre

Report (2006)

La Filière Porcine Wallonne a commandé à l'unité "Surveillance de l'Environnement" de l'Université de Liège une étude visant à analyser l'effet des produits "neutralisants" des odeurs en porcherie. La ... [more ▼]

La Filière Porcine Wallonne a commandé à l'unité "Surveillance de l'Environnement" de l'Université de Liège une étude visant à analyser l'effet des produits "neutralisants" des odeurs en porcherie. La proposition visait plusieurs objectifs : • Une petite revue bibliographique sur le sujet, de manière à tenter de répondre à des questions du type : "les produits neutralisants ont-ils réellement une action destructrice sur les odeurs ou leur effet est-il un simple masquage ?", "d'autres études scientifiques sur ce sujet ont-elles montré une amélioration du problème de la nuisance olfactive ?" • Des analyses physico-chimiques par chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse sur base d'un prélèvement en cartouche adsorbante o de l'effluent d'élevage seul o du produit ECOLAIR seul o de l'effluent d'élevage en mélange avec le produit. Cette partie de l'étude vise à l'identification des composés et à une analyse semi-quantitative de ceux-ci. • La détermination de la concentration de l'odeur dans le local de la porcherie par olfactométrie dynamique, sans injection du produit, avec injection d'eau et avec injection du produit. Les échantillons prélevés peuvent aussi servir à apprécier le caractère hédonique (tonalité affective) de l'odeur. Cette dernière partie de l'étude est destinée à apprécier la différence qualitative et quantitative entre l'effluent d'élevage seul et le même effluent traité par le produit [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic de la pollution intérieure
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

Report (2006)

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See detailThe electronic nose as a warning device of the odour emergence in a compost hall
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Ledent, Catherine

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2006), 116(1-2), 95-99

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as ... [more ▼]

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as discriminant analysis, are able to recognize, in real time, the odour of compost with respect to other possible sources in the hall. The paper shows that with unsupervised methods, such as principal component analysis, it is not essential to identify all the possible odour sources during the learning phase. The closeness to the compost group centroid could be used as an indicator of the compost odour level. Alternatively, by a suitable calibration from olfactory measurements, the signals generated by the sensor array can be used to estimate the odour emission rate from the compost hall. Such real time monitoring should allow to assess and to anticipate the annoyance in the surrounding. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of odor emission rate from landfill areas using the sniffing team method
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Craffe, Flavien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

in Waste Management (2006), 26(11), 1259-1269

The monitoring of the odor annoyance generated by a landfill area is difficult, since it is a multi-area-sources problem, with a discontinuous odor emission. This paper proposes an adaptation of the ... [more ▼]

The monitoring of the odor annoyance generated by a landfill area is difficult, since it is a multi-area-sources problem, with a discontinuous odor emission. This paper proposes an adaptation of the method of sniffing team campaigns to the particular case of fresh waste odors. The method is based on the field determination of odor perception points, followed by data processing with a bi-Gaussian-type model, adapted to handle the odors. In a first step, field observers delineate the region in which odor impact is experienced and then the emission rate is manipulated in a dispersion model until the predicted size of the impact zone matches that observed in the field. In a second step the adjusted emission rate is entered into the model to calculate the percentiles corresponding to the average annoyance zone. The originality of the proposed method is the introduction of all observation points and of all recorded meteorological data into the model. The paper discusses the method limitations and the errors induced on the results, i.e. the odor emission rate and the percentile lines (or iso-concentration lines) which are used to describe the odor concentrations on a map of the surroundings of the plant.The proposed method proves to be reliable for diffuse sources, such as landfill areas. The obtained results are coherent with other results found in the literature with other techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of diverse mould species growing on building materials by gas sensor arrays and pattern recognition
Kuske, Martyna; Padilla, M.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2006), 119(1), 33-40

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array. Four moulds species have been considered. Pattern classification provides detection ... [more ▼]

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array. Four moulds species have been considered. Pattern classification provides detection rates on the order of 80-85% for different species. Drift degrades only slightly these values subsequent test 4 months later. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET et la zone de compostage de Habay Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Denne, Pierre; Cobut, Pierre

Report (2005)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly the landfill and ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly the landfill and composting site of Habay. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has used GC-MS to estimate the chemical composition of the atmosphere over the composting area. [less ▲]

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See detailSeconde campagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET de Mont-Saint- Guibert Estimation des nuisances olfactives.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Otte, Benoît; Denne, Pierre

Report (2005)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns more particularly a second campaign on the site of Mont-Saint-Guibert. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group has used GC-MS to estimate the chemical composition of the atmosphere over the tipping area. The influence of meteorological conditions on the extend of the odour plume is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the exhaust air of a compost pile as a process variable with an e-nose
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Godefroid, D.; Kuske, M. et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2005), 106(1), 29-35

In this paper, the monitoring of the composting process with an e-nose is presented. An emission chamber is developed for this purpose and put on a household waste compost pile. A lab-made e-nose with ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the monitoring of the composting process with an e-nose is presented. An emission chamber is developed for this purpose and put on a household waste compost pile. A lab-made e-nose with metal oxide sensors is located at the exit of this chamber. Simultaneously to the e-nose measurements, air sampling on sorbent tubes as well as physico-chemical analysis are realised. The adsorbed air samples are analysed in the lab by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, some parameters of the composting process are collected (compost temperature, age of the pile, date of the aeration). Correlation between the sensors and 14 chemical families is determined by principal component analysis (PCA). By canonical analysis, two models are developed and calibrated by the proportion of each chemical family and in function of the compost process events. Thanks to these models, monitoring of various kinds of compost process events is possible with only one measurement device. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe electronic nose as a warning device of the odour emergence in a compost hall
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Ledent, C.

in Marco, S.; Montoliu, I. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on olfaction and electronic nose (ISOEN 2005) (2005, April)

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as ... [more ▼]

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as discriminant analysis, are able to recognize, in real time, the odour of compost with respect to other possible sources in the hall. The paper shows that with unsupervised methods, such as principal component analysis, it is not essential to identify all the possible odour sources during the learning phase. The closeness to the compost group centroid could be used as an indicator of the compost odour level. Alternatively, by a suitable calibration from olfactory measurements, the signals generated by the sensor array can be used to estimate the odour emission rate from the compost hall. Such real time monitoring should allow to assess and to anticipate the annoyance in the surrounding. [less ▲]

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See detailLes odeurs dans l'environnement: Sources d'odeur en Région Wallonne
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Otte, Benoît

Report (2005)

The report was written in the frame of the project "Plan of air in Wallonia" aiming at inventory the policies, standards and measurement methods relative to air quality. The present report concerns more ... [more ▼]

The report was written in the frame of the project "Plan of air in Wallonia" aiming at inventory the policies, standards and measurement methods relative to air quality. The present report concerns more particularly the identification of possible sources of odour in Wallonia. Both the industrial and the agricultural sectors are investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLes odeurs dans l'environnement: Résumé des législations européennes et nord-américaines
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Otte, Benoît

Report (2005)

This short report synthesizes the policies concerning odour emissions applicable in Europe and North America. It was written in the frame of the project "Plan of air in Wallonia" aiming at inventory the ... [more ▼]

This short report synthesizes the policies concerning odour emissions applicable in Europe and North America. It was written in the frame of the project "Plan of air in Wallonia" aiming at inventory the policies, standards and measurement methods relative to air quality. [less ▲]

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See detailMesure des odeurs dans l'environnement: Synthèse des méthodes et conditions d'usage
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Otte, Benoît

Report (2005)

In the frame of the project "plan of air in Wallonia", aiming at inventory regulations, standards and measurement methods of air pollutants, this particular report concerns more particularly the ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the project "plan of air in Wallonia", aiming at inventory regulations, standards and measurement methods of air pollutants, this particular report concerns more particularly the measurement of environmental odours. The conditions of the use of each method is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCampagne de mesure des odeurs sur le CET et la zone de compostage de Tenneville Estimation des nuisances olfactives
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Denne, Pierre; Otte, Benoît

Report (2005)

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns the site of Tenneville which includes ... [more ▼]

The study is conducted in the frame of a programme of monitoring of all landfill sites in Wallonia. The "odour" part is assigned to ULg. The present report concerns the site of Tenneville which includes also a composting area. Besides the usual field inspection technique, the research group used also GC-MS analyses aiming at estimating the composition of the atmosphere over the tipping area. A study of the influence of the particular relief of the site is also provided. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en évidence de la résilience de la végétation sahélienne par télédétection basse résolution au Niger à la suite d’épisodes de sécheresse.
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Sokpon, Nestor et al

in Belgeo (2005), 2005(4), 499-516

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are ... [more ▼]

In order to identify areas where desertification may have occurred over the last two decades, 109 stations located in three bioclimatic zones of Niger are analyzed. Time series of remote sensing data are well suited to this task. Here, we use time series of NOAA AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and rainfall data. In this study, trend analysis is used to identify areas within the biomes from 1981 to 1999 in Niger with apparent land degradation in semi-arid areas. It appears that most of Niger (82,5%) recorded increasing rainfall while only 78,9 % experienced increasing in integrated vegetation index (iNDVI). However, the combination of the two variables through the ratio iNDVI/RR shows a widespread reduction of the rain-use efficiency with highly significant trend for the stations grouped by bioclimatic area (p<10-6) during the studied period (1981-1999). These negative trends suggest a progressive diminution of the vegetation productivity as highlighted by the lowering of the iNDVI/RR ratio. This situation suggested a consistently environmental degradation and that desertification processes continued during the last two decades over most of the Sahelian belt of Niger. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial volatile organic compounds as indicators of fungi. Can an electronic nose detect fungi in indoor environments?
Kuske, Martyna; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Building and Environment (2005), 40(6), 824-831

The paper presents a review of several studies on the detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) considered as indicators of fungal contamination. As fungi produce specific profiles, or ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a review of several studies on the detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) considered as indicators of fungal contamination. As fungi produce specific profiles, or fingerprints of volatile compounds, the electronic nose technology is a very promising opportunity for rapid and non costly detection of fungi in buildings. E-noses are able to distinguish between mouldy and non-mouldy samples, and also to recognise certain species of fungi. However, two limiting factors may appear decisive for employment of electronic noses in indoor fungi detection: low concentrations of MVOCs and presence of interfering substances in indoor environments. [less ▲]

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See detailFuzzy k-NN applied to moulds detection
Kuske, Martyna; Rubio, R.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2005), 106(1), 52-60

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be ... [more ▼]

The possibility to detect Aspergillus versicolor growing on different building materials by a metal oxide sensor array is studied. Results show that an accurate classification rate of 89 +/- 3% can be obtained combining an extended linear discriminant analysis plus a fuzzy k-NN classifier. The classification ability of the classifier is assessed within the dataset by crossvalidation and also in a second dataset collected 5 months later. There is a slight decrease in the classification performance for all the algorithms, being the most sensitive the most accurate one. [less ▲]

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See detailInterest of the use of electronic nose for field monitoring of odours in the environment
Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Lehr Jay H.; Keeley Jack (Eds.) Water encyclopedia. Volume 2 : Water quality control. (2005)

Electronic nose is a promising technique for field monitoring of malodours in the environment. It is based on an array of non-specific gas sensors coupled with some form of mathematical data processing ... [more ▼]

Electronic nose is a promising technique for field monitoring of malodours in the environment. It is based on an array of non-specific gas sensors coupled with some form of mathematical data processing method to analyse the global response patterns. Some applications concerning the control of water quality are reported in the literature. They often impliy the generation of a headspace gas above liquid samples, but they also concern the odour emitted in the air from wastewater. The typical needs of the final user require both qualitative and quantitative approaches, i.e. both discriminating between slight variations in complex gas mixtures and monitoring a global odour signal which can be correlated with classical characterisation variables of water or air quality. Although potential applications in odour assessment by electronic noses are numerous, a number of challenges still need to be overcome: understanding and controlling the impact of environmental parameters (such as temperature and humidity), improving sensor sensitivity and noise reduction or developing calibration procedures to account for sensor drift. The present limitations of electronic nose technology restrict its use in the environment to the odour monitoring in the surroundings of the emission with instruments specifically designed for the application. [less ▲]

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