References of "Nicolas, Jacques"
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See detailMise en place d'un système de management environnemental
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Bauraing, Eddy; Von Frenckell, Marianne ULg

Report (2000)

The project aimed at providing synthetic and operational guidelines to the managers of companies willing to begin a procedure of environmental management system (EMS). After an introduction, summarizing ... [more ▼]

The project aimed at providing synthetic and operational guidelines to the managers of companies willing to begin a procedure of environmental management system (EMS). After an introduction, summarizing the EMS principle, the document presents the different steps of the protocol and the useful recommendations at each step. The different possibilities of assistance are also presented (on-line web sites, teaching or administrative resources). Two annexes are provided : a first one devoted to environmental performance indicators and a second one to the management review writing. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a mobile compound composition tester. Phase II : Segregation of tires at retreading stage / Functional specification for a handheld prototype
Maternova, Jindriska; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Report (2000)

The object of the second phase of the study is a technical support/advise to the construction of a portable prototype equipment for on site segregation of tires at the retreading stage. The final ... [more ▼]

The object of the second phase of the study is a technical support/advise to the construction of a portable prototype equipment for on site segregation of tires at the retreading stage. The final equipment aims at identifying the composition type of the rubber of the treads : either high natural rubber content (>60%) or high synthetic rubber content. An additional goal of the study is to elaborate the functional specifications for a handheld compound analyser to be coupled to the Goodyear viscoelasticity tester. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal heating control in a passive solar commercial building
Kummert, M.; Andre, Philippe ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Proceedings EuroSun'2000 Congress (2000, June)

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building ... [more ▼]

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building response, it has to anticipate internal and external disturbances. In the case of a passive solar commercial building, the need for anticipation is reinforced by important solar and internal gains. Indeed, large solar gains increase the energy savings potential but also the overheating risk. Optimal control theory presents an ideal formalism to solve this problem : its principle is to anticipate the building behaviour using a model and a forecasting of the disturbances in order to compute the control sequence that minimises a given cost function over the optimisation horizon. This cost function can combine comfort level and energy consumption. This paper presents the application of optimal control to auxiliary heating of a passive solar commercial building. Simulation-based and experimental results show that it can lead to significant energy savings while maintaining or improving the comfort level in this type of building. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement requirements for environmental monitoring : application of the electronic nose principle.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg

Conference (2000)

As regards environment, the information to be provided to the decision maker or to the manager must be clear, accurate, unambiguous, and ideally it should be the result of the aggregation of a great ... [more ▼]

As regards environment, the information to be provided to the decision maker or to the manager must be clear, accurate, unambiguous, and ideally it should be the result of the aggregation of a great number of data or parameters. For example, the person in charge of the security of a municipality must have at his disposal an information of the type "all or nothing" to be able to decide if the population must be evacuated in the event of a severe pollution. However, that very simple information should be the result of a calculation based on several time series of pollutant concentration values and of meteorological data. Even the farmer who wants to know if it is the right time to spread manure without affecting too much the environment must have a single information which should be the aggregation of some complex variables. The lecture presents the concept of some "integrated index", already used to assess the quality of the environment. For example, Organic Pollution Index combines 4 laboratory measurement values of pollutants in water to make a single index characterising the global pollution in a river. Some apparatus are able to compute the integrated index "on line" and to supply directly to the user the value of the medium quality. For example, the PMV index estimates globally the thermal comfort in a building from the on line measurement of 5 parameters. FUL has designed some "smart sensors" or "smart instrument" aiming at supplying such index. Two applications are presented. The first one concerns the measurement of soil quality by means of a porous sensor combining in a single index the measurement of temperature, salinity and water contents. But the lecture develops particularly a second application which exploits the principle of the "electronic nose" to assess, in a single "signature", the quality or the intensity of an environmental odour. Such instrument, equipped with an array of "non specific" gas sensors, should be able, after a suitable learning phase, to recognise the odour source and to monitor it continuously in the field. The instrument response is thus a "pattern", similar to an integrated index, directly related to the annoyance, as felt by neighbouring people. It gives thus an information which can be handled by a manager, and which is more rich than individual pollutant concentration values. FUL has tested such instrument in the environment. The results are promising : a first design of electronic nose was able to recognise 5 odorous sources in the environment, and a portable instrument has been used to monitor the odour around a landfill site. The same concept is now tested to appraise as a whole the indoor air quality in different buildings. [less ▲]

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See detailContrôle/commande de la réduction d'odeur générée par un Centre d'Enfouissement Technique
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; wiertz, Véronique; Monticelli, David et al

Report (2000)

An instrument based on the "electronic nose" concept was developed with the aim of controlling an odour abatement technique, as the spraying of masking or neutralising agent, on a landfill area in Belgium ... [more ▼]

An instrument based on the "electronic nose" concept was developed with the aim of controlling an odour abatement technique, as the spraying of masking or neutralising agent, on a landfill area in Belgium. Models of odour recognition and of odour level prediction were developed and successfully validated in the field. Additionally to e-nose response, the influence of meteorological data was particularly studied. The project was conducted on a real size facility and in close collaboration with the manager of the facility. [less ▲]

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See detailChoice of a suitable E-nose output variable for the continuous monitoring of an odour in the environment
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Monticelli, D. et al

in Gardner, J.; Persaud, K. (Eds.) Electronic noses and olfaction 2000. Proceedings of abstracts ISOEN 2000. (2000)

An array of tin-oxide sensors is used to continuously monitor different odour emissions in the environment. The paper presents some issues aiming at improving the portability and the user-friendliness of ... [more ▼]

An array of tin-oxide sensors is used to continuously monitor different odour emissions in the environment. The paper presents some issues aiming at improving the portability and the user-friendliness of the instrument as well as testing what kind of signal may be used to monitor the odour "intensity". Main results are the following. The test of various pre-processing data algorithms pointed out that the use of pure reference air could be avoided, as long as the sensors are allowed to periodically regenerate in the presence of ambient air. Sensor array in static contact with ambient air could be sufficient for the on-line monitoring, but the use of a controlled gas flow system to transfer the odour from the source is better to avoid the influence of air movement on the heated sensors. The control of the temperature and the humidity of the gas and the thermo-regulation of the sensor chamber don't seem essential, even for outdoor operation. When trying to build a regression model linking the odour intensity to the sensor signals, Partial Least Square (PLS) model gives better results with respect to Multi Linear Regression or Principal Component regression models. For an application around a landfill area, where sensor signals are compared to the personal feeling of the operator in the field, PLS gives a percentage of 71% correct intensity prediction. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a simple tin oxide sensor array to identify five malodours collected in the field
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Wiertz, Véronique et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2000), 62(1), 73-79

A laboratory-made malodour sensing system including 12 commercial tin oxide gas sensors (Figaro Engineering) is used to identify five typical sources of olfactive annoyance: printing houses, paint shop in ... [more ▼]

A laboratory-made malodour sensing system including 12 commercial tin oxide gas sensors (Figaro Engineering) is used to identify five typical sources of olfactive annoyance: printing houses, paint shop in a coachbuilding, wastewater treatment plant, urban waste composting facilities and rendering plant. In this work, all the samples are collected in the field from real malodours in uncontrollable conditions. The ability of the system to predict the origin of unknowns odoriferous samples is investigated. The test of various pre-processing data algorithms shows that the best classification results are obtained with a parameter free of the sensor base-line. The differences in sensor responses among the five odours are shown by icon plots and confirmed by principal component analysis, which highlights four representative clusters. Classification models calibrated by discriminant analysis and artificial neural network are validated on unknowns samples. Chemical relationships between the sensors and the classification results proves that the recognition is not fortuitous. In spite of the influence of environmental parameters, results demonstrate the ability of a simple system to detect and identify typical olfactive annoyances. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the classification model of an electronic nose to assign unknown malodours to environmental sources and to monitor them continuously
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Wiertz, Véronique et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2000), 69(3), 366-371

The paper provides some considerations resulting from measurements with electronic noses around real sources of malodour in the environment: compost facilities, printing houses, paint shops, waste water ... [more ▼]

The paper provides some considerations resulting from measurements with electronic noses around real sources of malodour in the environment: compost facilities, printing houses, paint shops, waste water treatment plants, rendering plants, settling ponds of sugar factories. The study aims at supplying the concrete information requested by the final user in the field: either a warning signal when the malodour level exceeds some given threshold value, the identification of the source of an odour detected on site, or on-line identification and monitoring of an odour in the field. Very simple instruments are used, either in the laboratory or directly in the field, with a home-made portable e-nose, based on tin oxide sensors. Even with such simple operating conditions, the classification results with DA and PCA are fairly good. The classification functions calibrated with the statistical procedure, on the basis of the learning phase, are used to recognise and to monitor a given malodour. This odour is sometimes mixed with other odorous interferences in the field. The observations reveal some features useful in the frame of the development of a field detector. [less ▲]

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See detailLes pollutions dans l'air intérieur des bâtiments - Diagnostic - Incidences sur la santé.
Kuske, Martyna; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Book published by FUL et Observatoire de la santé (2000)

Ce n’est qu’au cours des années 70 que certains problèmes de santé ont pu être directement associés à l’environnement intérieur des maisons. Les crises pétrolières ont stimulé une réduction de la ... [more ▼]

Ce n’est qu’au cours des années 70 que certains problèmes de santé ont pu être directement associés à l’environnement intérieur des maisons. Les crises pétrolières ont stimulé une réduction de la consommation d’énergie, entraînant le renforcement de l'isolation thermique des maisons et une réduction de leur ventilation. Si l'objectif énergétique est atteint, il faut constater à présent que la plupart de ces actions ont provoqué l'augmentation des concentrations de certains polluants à l’intérieur des maisons. Cette problématique, généralement connue sous l'appellation "Indoor Pollution", a fait l'objet de nombreuses études et publications. Mais pour améliorer la situation, il ne suffit pas d'inventorier, voire d'étudier les effets possibles des polluants sur la santé, encore faut-il prendre les mesures nécessaires pour remédier au problème. Le présent ouvrage tente de couvrir l'ensemble de la question. Il constitue le résultat d'une recherche bibliographique de publications européennes et mondiales traitant du sujet, de travaux de chercheurs et d’étudiants de la F.U.L., de contacts avec les institutions et organisations s'occupant de la pollution intérieure ainsi que d’expériences personnelles dans ce domaine. Il est le fruit d'une réflexion commune entre la Province de Luxembourg et la F.U.L., dans l'esprit de la mise en place de services d'intervention en matière de pollution intérieure. Il s'adresse donc essentiellement à tous les professionnels qui, de près ou de loin, sont concernés par la question. En une bonne centaine de pages, le livre reprend synthétiquement chacun des principaux polluants communément rencontrés dans les maisons, et plus particulièrement en Belgique. Il en identifie les sources et les effets sur la santé, ainsi que la réglementation les concernant et un certain nombre de conseils pratiques. Par rapport à l'information généralement disponible dans d'autres ouvrages, celui-ci ajoute les méthodes d’analyses de référence ainsi que les techniques alternatives de détection de chaque polluant. Un accent tout particulier à été mis sur les méthodes optimales de terrain à mettre en place par un service de conseil d’analyse de l’air dans les bâtiments. Cette publication, originale par son caractère pratique et complet, doit intéresser un grand nombre de personnes concernées par la problématique de la pollution intérieure : les scientifiques, les médecins, les laboratoires, les pouvoirs publics, et en particulier les responsables et les travailleurs des services d’intervention en matière de pollutions intérieures, les services de sécurité et d’hygiène, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation élémentaire d'un réseau de capteurs "SnO2" pour la reconnaissance d'odeurs environnementales
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Wiertz, Véronique et al

(1999, June)

Pouvoir identifier les mauvaises odeurs et les suivre en continu directement sur le terrain constituerait sans conteste un atout non négligeable pour un bon nombre d'études environnementales. Sur le ... [more ▼]

Pouvoir identifier les mauvaises odeurs et les suivre en continu directement sur le terrain constituerait sans conteste un atout non négligeable pour un bon nombre d'études environnementales. Sur le principe, un tel objectif semble correspondre parfaitement aux possibilités et à la souplesse d'un nez électronique. Cependant, si l'environnement est fréquemment cité parmi les applications possibles des nez électroniques, il faut reconnaître que les études visant la mesure des mauvaises odeurs sur le terrain restent très rares. La généralisation du concept du nez électronique au monitoring d'odeurs environnementales doit passer par la résolution d'un certain nombre de problèmes. La communication propose de mettre en évidence ces différentes limitations et problèmes. L'étude présentée pour illustrer ce propos est relative aux odeurs provenant de 5 sources typiques de l'environnement. Elle montre qu'un appareillage simple, utilisé sans grande précaution et sans trop se soucier de la reproductibilité des conditions d'échantillonnage parvient à identifier correctement l'origine des odeurs qu'on lui propose. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation d'une pompe à chaleur
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Martin, Fabrice

Report (1999)

A Fortran program was developed to simulate the operation of a heat pump. The internal report presents the used equations and the Fortran code. This is a version of 1999 and the code is not applicable to ... [more ▼]

A Fortran program was developed to simulate the operation of a heat pump. The internal report presents the used equations and the Fortran code. This is a version of 1999 and the code is not applicable to new computer yet. But, the main principles are still valid and could help future developers. [less ▲]

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See detailParticipation à l'Etat de l'Environnement Wallon - Fascicule consacré aux industries - Chapitre II : Pressions
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Roussel, Laurence

Report (1999)

The report results of a study asked by Walloon Government to summarize the principal environmental pressures generated by industries in Wallonia (Belgium). Different aspects are considered : air, water ... [more ▼]

The report results of a study asked by Walloon Government to summarize the principal environmental pressures generated by industries in Wallonia (Belgium). Different aspects are considered : air, water, waste, soil, noise, odour, GMO and accidents. Available data are inventoried and analysed. However, the report was not officially published by the Walloon region. This reference is the internal report. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst trends towards a field odour detector for environmental applications
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Wiertz, V. et al

in Weimar, Udo (Ed.) Proceedings of ISOEN 99 (1999)

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See detailIdentification of pollutant gases with a multisensorial arrange.
Negri, Martin; Reich, S.; Fernandez, D. et al

in Weimar, Udo (Ed.) proceedings of ISOEN 99 (1999)

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See detailModelling the propagation pathway of street-traffic noise : practical comparison of German guidelines and real-world measurements
Wetzel, Edgar; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg et al

in Applied Acoustics (1999), 57(2), 97-107

In Germany, several guidelines were developed to model the noise propagation pathway. The study compares the guidelines DIN 18005, RLS-90 and VDI 2714, all of which provide some kind of sound object line ... [more ▼]

In Germany, several guidelines were developed to model the noise propagation pathway. The study compares the guidelines DIN 18005, RLS-90 and VDI 2714, all of which provide some kind of sound object line source suited to model street traffic noise. Differences between those guidelines are explained, and their effect on practical calculations is shown in a real-world situation, National Road N4, in Arlon, Belgium. Calculated results are compared to measurements made on critical points along the road. The paper emphasises the understanding of the inner workings of models. In order to avoid differences in calculated results due to software design methods applied, all calculations are made using one single commercially available simulation program. Additionally, this allows for a test of guideline sensitivity to changes in input parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailBuilding and HVAC optimal control simulation. Application to an office building.
Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the Third International symposium on HVAC (1999)

This paper describes the methodology to apply discrete-time optimal control to a building and its HVAC installation. Simulation-based results concerning a passive solar commercial building are presented ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the methodology to apply discrete-time optimal control to a building and its HVAC installation. Simulation-based results concerning a passive solar commercial building are presented and discussed. The simulation environment includes the TRNSYS TYPE 56 as reference building model and HVAC detailed models to test the controller with realistic control signals. The optimal controller's sensitivity to meteorological forecasting quality and to other factors is analysed. Its performance is compared to results obtained with a conventional control system to assess the relevancy of optimal control for this application. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversités et systèmes de management environnemental des entreprises. Relais pour l'administration, fenêtres pour les entreprises wallonnes et savoir-faire des bureaux d'études
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Hecq, Walter

in Nicolas, Jacques; Hecq, Walter (Eds.) Actes du Colloque AUE - Arlon - Novembre 1997 (1999)

Cet ouvrage reprend le texte des contributions des différents intervenants à un séminaire organisé par l'Association Universitaire pour l'Environnement et la Fondation universitaire Luxembourgeoise en ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage reprend le texte des contributions des différents intervenants à un séminaire organisé par l'Association Universitaire pour l'Environnement et la Fondation universitaire Luxembourgeoise en 1997. Les auteurs décrivent et comparent les procédures d'enregistrement EMAS et de certification ISO 14001. Ils fournissent des informations sur les différents types d'aides de la Région wallonne, mettent en évidence les bénéfices pour les entreprises et proposent des témoignages basés sur les cas concrets. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling thermal simulation and airflow calculation for a better evaluation of natural ventilation strategies
Andre, Philippe ULg; Kummert, M.; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Proceedings SSB'98 (1998, December)

A lot of building simulation tools are available today on the market. Most of them rely on very simplified hypotheses concerning the appraisal of airflows: very often, a constant (userdefined) airflow is ... [more ▼]

A lot of building simulation tools are available today on the market. Most of them rely on very simplified hypotheses concerning the appraisal of airflows: very often, a constant (userdefined) airflow is supposed, either to quantify the infiltration rate of a building or to estimate the coupling coefficients between zones. On the other hand, some recent tools become available to calculate air flow couplings between the different zones of a building or between a building and its environment. Those tools rely on simplified hypotheses concerning the temperatures distribution in a building. From that observation, it is obvious that a strong complementarity exists between both categories of tools. Several methods are available to perform this coupling and they are briefly described in the paper. Then, one of these methods is considered in details and successly engineered for the global simulation of two Case Studies of the IEA Annex 30 project: an office building in Germany and an appartment building in Poland. Both applications show the relevancy of the coupling process and the impressive impact on some simulation results. A parametric analysis of some key variables is also performed. As a conclusion, the paper identifies the limitations of the coupling method which is used in this case and proposes some improvements based upon an increase of the automization and integration process. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement de techniques d'identification d'odeurs dans l'environnement
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Wiertz, Véronique et al

Report (1998)

Different techniques of evaluation of environmental odours were analysed and tested. More particularly, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and electronic nose were investigated on 5 environmental ... [more ▼]

Different techniques of evaluation of environmental odours were analysed and tested. More particularly, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and electronic nose were investigated on 5 environmental sources : printing house, compost area, waste water treatment plant, coach building and slaughter house. It is shown that electronic nose is a promising instrument able to identify qualitatively the odour type and to provide a global indicator of the odour level. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (9 ULg)