References of "Nicks, Baudouin"
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See detailResting and feeding behaviors of Holstein cows around calving: effects of parity
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain; Canart, Bernard et al

in Proceedings 35th International Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (2001)

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See detailMother-Young Relationships in Belgian Blue Cattle after a Caesarean Section: Characterisation and Effects of Parity
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, A. et al

in Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2001), 72(3), 281-292

The systematic use of Caesarean section in "double muscled" Belgian Blue cattle can induce ethical concerns. The aims of the following study was to characterise mother-young relationships in such a ... [more ▼]

The systematic use of Caesarean section in "double muscled" Belgian Blue cattle can induce ethical concerns. The aims of the following study was to characterise mother-young relationships in such a situation and to assess the effect of parity. Fifteen heifers and 15 cows of the Belgian Blue breed were observed using video recording when isolated with their calf during the 3 days following Caesarean, a rapid surgery with rare occurrence of aggressive behaviour and no sign of cows' discomfort or weakness. All calves were bottle-fed mother's colostrum once before first suckling occurred. Heifers' calves received a supplementary number of three such artificial meals, while cows' calves needed only one. The overall median time to first licking of the calf by the mother was 3.3min without any effect of parity. The mean licking frequency was 29.2+/-15.8 per 24h: heifers licked their calf less frequently than cows, respectively 23.4+/-15.3 per 24h versus 35.1+/-14.5 per 24h (P<0.05). The mean total licking duration was 42.2+/-25.9min per 24h: there was no significant difference between heifers and cows. The overall median time to first suckling was 6.1h, without any effect of parity. The mean suckling frequency was 8.4+/-4.8 per 24h: for half of these suckling bouts, the calf was situated on the left side of the mother, i.e. the side of the scar. The suckling frequency was negatively correlated with the number of artificial meals (r(s)=-0.45,P<0.05). Heifers suckled their calf less often than cows, respectively 6.1+/-3.1 per 24h versus 10.7+/-5.2 per 24h (P<0.01), but the left side proportion was not significantly different. The mean suckling total duration was 35.3+/-21.0min per 24h. The calf was on the left side of the mother during half of this time. Heifers suckled their calf during a shorter time than cows, respectively 26.9+/-20.0min per 24h versus 43.8+/-19.1min per 24h (P<0.05), and the left side proportion was not significantly different. Licking frequency and suckling duration were positively correlated (r=0.43,P<0.05). Only 10% of the mothers (one heifer and two cows) butted their calf and kicking was never observed. Despite the difficult comparison with results of the literature according to various methodologies, mother-young relationships were considered as similar to those reported after natural calving. In our study, cows can be considered as better mothers than heifers. [less ▲]

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See detailEmissions d'ammoniac, de protoxyde d'azote, de méthane, de gaz carbonique et de vapeur d'eau lors de l'élevage de porcs charcutiers sur litière accumulée de sciure: quantification et corrélations avec le niveau d'activités des animaux
Delcourt, M.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, A. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145(6), 357-364

During a 4-month fattening period, emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O from a pig house with fattening pigs on deep litter was measured once a month during four days (one measurement every 30 min ... [more ▼]

During a 4-month fattening period, emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O from a pig house with fattening pigs on deep litter was measured once a month during four days (one measurement every 30 min). The activity rate of the animals was also measured hourly as the mean proportion of standing animals observed each two minutes. The mean daily emissions of gas, calculated per pig, were 9,5 g NH3, 3,2 g N2O, 4,8 g CH4, 1,3 kg CO2 and 3,3 kg water vapour. Emissions increased during the fattening period, the values observed at the end being 50%, 50%, 680% and 1000% higher than those at the beginning, for CO2, H2O, CH4 and NH3 respectively. Emissions of N2O were however higher at the beginning than at the end of the fattening period. The activity rate of the pigs followed a circadian rhythm, pigs being observed in a standing position much more frequently during the day than during the night, especially in the morning, at the end of the afternoon and at the beginning of the evening. The activity rate decreased continuously during the fattening period, from 22,6 +/- 4,1% to 8,8 +/- 0,5%. Within each monthly observation period, the hourly emissions of NH3, CO2 and H2O were positively correlated with the pigs' activity rate, the mean correlation coefficients being 0,61 for NH3, 0,71 for CO2 and 0,75 for water vapour. The correlation coefficients were not significant for N2O and CH4 in periods 2 et 3 but significant in periods 1 and 4 with mean values of -0,55 for N2O and +0,26 for CH4. [less ▲]

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See detailIonic adsorption of ammonium and nitrate on some animal litters and their role in ammonia volatilization
Nimenya, H.; Delaunois, A.; Bloden, Serge ULg et al

in Annals of Zootechnology (2000), 49

Two experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption of ammonium and nitrate on litters (Exp. 1) and the volatilization of ammonia in their presence (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, glass tubes containing 15 ... [more ▼]

Two experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption of ammonium and nitrate on litters (Exp. 1) and the volatilization of ammonia in their presence (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, glass tubes containing 15 mi of a buffered solution enriched with NH4Clcalculated as 10.59 mg.l(-1) of NH4+ or KNO3 calculated as 50 mg.l(-1) of NO3- were used. Graded amounts (0 [control], 25, 50, 100 mg) of litters (wheat straw, nax straw (Equi-lin(R)), zeolite (Zeolite Stall Fresh(R)), spruce sawdust and beech sawdust) were added to the tubes which were incubated for 24 h. Ammonium and nitrate concentrations, and pH, were checked on the supernatant. A preliminary experiment was carried out with zeolite to come to an ammonium balance. After adsorption of ammoniumby graded amounts of zeolite, [0 (control), 0.25, 1, 2, 4 g], ammonium balance was assessed after two elutions with 1 N HCl. In Exp. 2, Woulff flasks were used and ammonia was trapped in a solution of 0.1 N HCl. The preliminary experiment showed that the ammonium added and adsorbed by different amounts of zeolite was completely recovered after 2 elutions. All litters, except beech sawdust, were effective in ammonium adsorption. Especially, the straws were required in very small amounts to immobilize the added ammonium or nitrate. Furthermore, with straws the pH value decreased from pH 7.5-7.60 to pH 6.90, and this effect was related to the amounts of material added. For each pH group, ammonia volatilization was significantly decreased (P <0.05) with straw (wheat straw, Equi-lino) as compared with their blank pH group. However, no significant decrease was observed with sawdust (spruce, beech) and zeolite [less ▲]

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See detailWater vapour emission and nitrogen balance from a sawdust deep litter system for weaned pigs
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Xth International Congress for Animal Hygiene (2000)

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See detailGranulés ou farine en post-sevrage : le choix des porcelets
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in 32èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France (2000)

During 47 days, 80 weaned pigs, allotted to 2 groups of 30 and 50 animals, were given choice simultaneously between pellets or meal distributed ad libitum in feeders equipped with an integrated watering ... [more ▼]

During 47 days, 80 weaned pigs, allotted to 2 groups of 30 and 50 animals, were given choice simultaneously between pellets or meal distributed ad libitum in feeders equipped with an integrated watering system. The average daily weight gain was 0.4250.058 kg, without significant difference between groups, and the mean feed conversion ratio was 1.72. The mean feed intake with pellets was double that with meal (0.49 vs. 0.24 kg/head daily). However, the pellet feeders and meal feeders were occupied for the same proportion of time: the mean occupation times were 45.5 and 42.8% (30 pigs) and 62.4 and 67.3% (50 pigs), respectively. Eating pellets seems thus to take less time than eating meal. Furthermore, we have observed that animals from the larger group were eating more quickly than members of the smaller one. Even if the feed intake of pigs with pellets was twice that with meal, pigs drank more water (60% of the total water intake) using the meal feeder. Thus, with pellets, pigs don't seem to choose a close association between feed and water consumption. In conclusion, pigs prefer pellets to meal, this choice being probably partially explained by a faster ingestion. This eating speed depending also on the group size, the number of eating places should thus take into account these two parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailEmissions de vapeur d’eau et bilan azoté lors de l’élevage de porcelets sevrés sur litière accumulée de sciure
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Zootechnie (2000), 49

Five batches of a total of 180 weaned pigs were reared successively in an experimental room on 30 cm deep litter without cleaning between the batches. The litter was a mixture of sawdust from coniferous ... [more ▼]

Five batches of a total of 180 weaned pigs were reared successively in an experimental room on 30 cm deep litter without cleaning between the batches. The litter was a mixture of sawdust from coniferous and beech trees. Water was added to the Litter every 10 days to lower the dust concentration in the room. The total amounts of sawdust and water used were respectively 21.3 kg per pig and 10.21 per pig. The mean temperature of the litter at 20 cm depth recorded during each of the 5 periods varied from 32.5 degrees C to 41.8 degrees C. The average liveweight of the pigs at the beginning and at the end of the post-weaning period was respectively 7.9 +/- 1.2 kg and 24.5 +/- 4.2 kg. The average daily gain was 392 +/- 87 g. The temperature and the relative humidity of the air inside and outside the experimental room and the ventilation rate were continuously recorded in order to calculate the water vapour emission for each batch. The amount of water vapour produced was significantly correlated to the water consumption of the pigs and reached an average of 1 732 g per pig per day. This amount is 36% greater than the reference used for pigs on slatted floors. This value may be used as a reference to calculate the minimum ventilation rate for piggeries with pigs on sawdust deep litters. The amount of compost produced was 19.9 kg per pig with a dry matter content of 44.7%. The amount of nitrogen in the compost was 231 g per pig which is about 50% lower than the reference used for the slurry. The volatile nitrogen emissions are thus much higher from composts than from slurries [less ▲]

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See detailEcobilan azoté et émission de vapeur d'eau lors d'élevage de porcelets sevrés sur litière accumulée de sciure
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in compte rendu du cinquième carrefour des productions animales "quels systèmes de productions animales pour le 21è siècle?" (2000)

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See detailComparison of performance, water intake and feeding behaviour of weaned pigs fed either pellets or meal
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Animal Science (1999), 69

Performance, water intake and feeding behaviour of two groups of 30 (trial 1), 40 (trial 2) or 50 (trial 3) weaned pigs offered either pellets ol meal of the same formulation were compared. Average daily ... [more ▼]

Performance, water intake and feeding behaviour of two groups of 30 (trial 1), 40 (trial 2) or 50 (trial 3) weaned pigs offered either pellets ol meal of the same formulation were compared. Average daily weight gains (ADG) were higher for pigs given pellets rather than meal in trials 2 (413 v. 363 g/day P < 0.001) and 3 (356 v. 324 g/day, P < 0.05). Mean daily water intake (DWI) was higher with meal than with pellets but only during trial 1 (2.31 y. 1.65 l/day, P < 0.01). The occupation time (OT) and the number of animals using the feeder simultaneously (N) were higher when pigs were given meal rather than pellets, whatever the animal density: trial 1: 82.6 v. 69.9% (P = 0.05) and 3.8 v. 2.3 (P < 0.01); trial 2: 90.9 v. 77.9% (P > 0.05) and 5.2 v. 3.1 (P < 0.01); trial 3: 96.2 v. 83.6% (P < 0.05) and 5.9 v. 3.8 (P < 0.01). When using pellets, OT and N were always significantly lower during the night than during the day but when using meal in groups of 40 and 50, OT during the night was almost as high as during the day. The greater the group size, the lower were ADG (both diets) and DWI (only with meal) and the higher were OT and N (both diets). Furthermore, significant linens and curvilinear regressions of DWI, OT and N according to time were calculated. In conclusion, pigs need more time to eat meal than to eat pellets. Thus the number of pigs per feeder has to be adapted to the food presentation. Too high number of pigs per feeder impairs feeding behaviour and eventually welfare, by preventing preferential diurnal feeding activity and this may affect productivity [less ▲]

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See detailFeeding weaned pigs pellets or meal? Effects on performance, water intake and eating behaviour
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, A. et al

in Proceedings of the 50th EAAP (1999)

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See detailEffet de la paille de froment et de la sciure d’épicéa sur la dégradation de l’azote urinaire en présence d’uréase
Nimenya, H.; Delaunois, Annie; Bloden, Serge ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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See detailShort-term toxicity of various pharmacological agents on the in vitro nitrification process in a simple closed aquatic system
Nimenya, H.; Delaunois, Annie; La Duong, Duc ULg et al

in Alternatives to Laboratory Animals [= ATLA] (1999), 27

During the treatment of fish diseases, drugs which inhibit the nitrification process can cause acute ammonia toxicity. The same phenomenon can occur when fish are put into a tank without active cultures ... [more ▼]

During the treatment of fish diseases, drugs which inhibit the nitrification process can cause acute ammonia toxicity. The same phenomenon can occur when fish are put into a tank without active cultures of nitrifying bacteria. The purpose of this study was to quantify the inhibitory effects of 15 pharmacological agents, which are often used as therapeutic agents in ichthyopathology, on ammonia removal and nitrate production in a simple closed aquatic system. The experiments were conducted in polyethylene bags containing activated biofilters and synthetic water solutions, held in a water bath. Ammonia was added to initiate the nitrification process, and graded concentrations of various pharmacological agents were added. The effects of the pharmacological agents on in vitro nitrification were assessed by monitoring ammonia and nitrate concentrations compared to controls with no added agents, for 24 hours. Graded concentrations of ampicillin (Albipen(R)), chloramine T, enrofloxacin (Baytril(R)), erythromycin, levamisole, methylene blue and polymyxin B induced dose-dependent inhibitions of ammonia removal and nitrate production. The corresponding linear regression curves showed high correlation coefficients and were highly significant (p < 0.05). The addition of chloramphenicol, copper (II) sulphate, kanamycin disulphate, malachite green, neomycin sulphate, potassium penicillin G, tetracycline and a mixture of trimethoprim and sulphadoxin (Duoprim(TM)) had no significant effects on the nitrification process. A significant dose-related inhibition of nitrate production, but not of ammonia oxidation, was observed with enrofloxacin. The significant correlation (r = 0.940; p < 0.001) between the degrees of inhibition of ammonia oxidation and nitrate production for the various inhibitory pharmacological agents has also been calculated, with a view to validating this method. The data presented suggest that separate tank facilities for hospitalisation or quarantine are necessary when treating diseased fish with ampicillin, enrofloxacin, chloramine T, erythromycin, levamisole, methylene blue or polymyxin B, in order to avoid ammonia poisoning. [less ▲]

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See detailMother-young relationships in cattle after a Caesarean section
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Proceedings of the International Symposium on "Suckling: behavioural and physiological aspects-problems and possibilities in ruminants" (1999)

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See detailEffects of Caesarean section on behaviour of Belgian Blue cows and their calves.
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, Alain; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

Article for general public (1999)

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See detailFacteurs influençant les émissions d'ammoniac provenant des bâtiments d'élevage
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

Article for general public (1999)

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See detailIncidences de la césarienne sur le comportement des vaches et de leur veau en race Blanc Bleu belge
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, A.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

Article for general public (1999)

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See detailBilan environnemental de l'hébergement de porcelets sevrés sur litière accumulée de sciure
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in 31èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France (1999)

Six batches of weaner pigs (N=440) were reared successively on a deep litter with sawdust without cleaning between the batches. The average liveweight of the pigs at the beginning and at the end of the ... [more ▼]

Six batches of weaner pigs (N=440) were reared successively on a deep litter with sawdust without cleaning between the batches. The average liveweight of the pigs at the beginning and at the end of the post-weaning period was 8.42.4 and 26.04.6 kg. The average daily gain was 42298 g. Each piglet needed 12 kg of sawdust and produced 15 kg of manure. The average temperature of the litter at 20 cm depth was 33.8C. At the end of the experimental period, the dry matter (DM) content of the litter was 49% and the N content 19 g/kg DM. The C/N ratio decreased progressively from 82 to 25. The water evaporation rate was 92% and the N gas-emission rate 75%. The amount of N in the compost was 139 g/piglet. The average NH3 concentration in the experimental rooms was 8.75.2 ppm and the dust concentration 270136 particles/ml. 90% of particles were in the size range of 0.3-0.5 m. To decrease the dust concentration water was regularly added to the litter at a rate of 0.94 l/kg sawdust. [less ▲]

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See detailLes garanties offertes en terme de bien-être animal
Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Compte-rendu de la journée d'études de la BAMST (1999)

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